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\ , A- \ 


I 1EX 


Mining Journal, 



1911 .A 

i3 l 

505 Pearl Street, NEW YORK 





Illustrated Articles arc Designated by an Asterisk (*). Names of Books are indicated by a Dagger (\). 


Abaugarez annual report 755 

Abbontiakoon Mines, Ltd. 1207 

Abosso No. 2 1027 

Acacia mine, Colo. 289 

Accident. See also general coal uiin 
ing statistics under "Coal" and 
State names; "Rescue," "Breath- 
ing," "Coal dust," "Explosion," 
etc., and proper names. 
Accident compensation Mg. Congress G48 
Accidents, American coal mines 452 

Accidents, British mines 726, 1167 

Accidents, Coalmining, and preven- 
tion in 1910 94, 96 
Accidents, Coal-mining, Tenn. 1170 
Accidents in mines 993 
Accidents, Mine, Prevention of Mg. 
Congress report discussed ; Aus- 
tralian laws 1045 
San Francisco discussion 1141 
Accidents, Ohio coal-mining 1021 
Accidents due to careless use of explo- 
sives 133 
Accidents, Fatal, from falls of roof 

and sides *227 

—Notes 331, *381 

Accidents, Fatal, in mining 306 

Accidents, Idaho mining 952 

Accidents, 111. coal mines 575 

Accidents, Live- wire, Preventing 111 

Accidents, Mine, Education reduces 132 

Accidents, Penn. coal mines . 277, 623 

Accidents, Tenn. coal mining 073 

Account, Profit and loss 673 

Accounts, Mine, Standardizing 750 

Adami, C. J. 1025 

Adams, J. C. 875 

Adams, John II. 185 

Addy, G. E. Fuse-cutting device *897 

Adobe bricks, Making 899 

Adobe furnaces, Sonora valley *418 

Aetna mine, Colo. 140, 586 

Africa. See also "Transvaal," "Hand." 
"Rhodesia," "South," "West," "Na 
tal," "German," "Madagascar." 
"Nigeria," "Congo," "Gold," "Tin," 
Africa, Copper production 9. 750 

Africa, Silver 3 

Afterthought Cop. Co. 682 

Agitation, Continuous 45 

Agitation, Pneumatic *1018 

Agnew mine, Minn. *422 

Agua Prieta, Battle of 795 

Aguascalientes, Mining in 69, 906 

Ahmeek, Mich. 14. 105, 117, 118, 190, 
363, 435, 559, 629, 634, 943, 980, 

1145, 1194 
Air, Compressed, explosions 713 

Air, Compressed, Hoisting engine 977 

Air, Compressed, Reheating, under- 
ground 260 
Air compressor ; locomotives, Marianna 

♦280, *380 
Air-compressor plant, Underground *]15(> 

Air compressors, Small heavy-duty, 

Sullivan *315 

Air compressors, Turbine driven 622 

Air currents and shaft plumb lines *318 

Air door, Mine *1147 

Air in mines, Friction of 822 

Air-jet agitator *1018 

Air lift for transporting sand *700 

Air mains, Converter, Water in, a 

source of danger 1 61 

Air-pipe lines, Freezing of 359 

Air sampler, Mine, Automatic *847 

Ajax mine, Colo. 186, 342, 437, 734 

— Clancy process at mill *904 

Alabama, Coal and coke 98, 101, 131, 

436. 490, 542, 624, 726. 1120 
—Electricity at mines *1118. *1168 

Alabama Consol. 138, 732, 1027 

Alabama iron market 29 

Alabama, Iron, Pig, production 265 

Alabama mining bill 287 

Alamos dist, Sonora 777, 1251 

Alaska, Coal 101 

— Opening of lands 317, 1145 

— Cunningham claims 955 

f. Guggenheim's views 956 

Alaska, Copper 7, 63, 506, 891 

Alaska dredging 41, 64 

Alaska, Gold and silver 3, 63 

Alaska in 1910 63, 506 

Alaska Industrial mine 388 

Alaska Iron Co. 1191 

Alaska-Mexican 237, 436 

-Report 1056 

"Alaska, Mineral Resources of" t384 

Alaska Pioneers Oil Co. 827 

Alaska-Treadwell 36, 47, 188, 237, 472, 537 
Alaska United report 1006 

Alaska — Valdez creek dist. 461, 804 


Alaska's oilfields, Opening 1098 

Alberger, L. R., Death of 385 

Alberta, Coal and coke 513, 677 

Alberta, Burns anthracite mine 1220 

Alberta, Northern, Petroleum 1150 

Aides colliery, Hot water tank * 

Alderley Edge mine, England 877 

Alderson, Fred, sacrifices lite 331, 460 

Aldridge, '\V. II. 136, 534, 582 

Alford, L. P. 923 

Alice G. & S. Mg. Co. :i.",8, 928 

Alkaline earths, Separation of 667 

Allen, A. \V. 337 

Allen & Garcia 630 

Allen, R., drill-steel tests *849 

Allen, R. C. Lake Sup. Cop. mines 957 

Allen, W. R. 1150 

Allen's drill-sharpening furnace 802 

Alliance Coal Co. — Walsh mines. 877, 

884, 1067, 107!S, 1226 
Allis-Chalmers crusher, Large 367 

Richards Jannev classifier 1198 

Allouez, Mich. 14, 105, 117, 118, 559, 943 

Report 770 

Alloys, Aluminum, Various 209 559, 857 

Alloys, Resistance Therlo ; Yankee- 
silver 326 
•Alloying, Practical" t580 
Almoloya y Anexas, Mex. 73, 243 
Aloha Iron Mg. Co. 1030 
Alsdorf, F. C. 953 
Alta, Proposed merger at 488, 540 
Altenau smeltery, Germany 1165 
A 11 bans on air friction 822 
Altitudes, High, Operating at 61.". 
Alto mine, Ariz. . 569, 878 
Altofts colliery, Recovery of t580 
Altofts Station Dust Experiments 1384, 

1219, 1221 
Altoona Quicksilver Mg. Co. 85 

Alumina, Determination of 1105 

Alumina, iron, chromium separation 914 

Aluminum alloys. Various 2()9, 559, 857 

Aluminum Co. of America 21 

Aluminum discoveries, Hall's 206 

Aluminum exports, Rules concerning 1251 
Aluminum Nitrate absorption, etc. 647 

Aluminum nitride. Preparing 118 

Aluminum ore, Spanish, New 261, 1241 

Aluminum, Soldering 155, 157 

Aluminum telluride, selenide, etc. 276 

Aluminum, U. S., in 1910 1, 21, *212 

Aluminum, U. S. foreign trade 350 

Alvarado M. & M. Co. 393 

Amador county. Calif., production 436 

Amajac Mines Co., Mex. 72, 243 

Amalgam. Grinding, with sodium 

peroxide 359 

Amalgamated Asbestos Asso. 25. 589 

Amalgamated Con. Co. 36, 265, 290, 528, 

*577, 594, 683, 709. 827, 1269 
— Report 1145 

Amalgamated Development Co. 781, 1098 

Amalgamated Pioche M. & S. Corp. 291, 683 
Amalgamating barrels. Explosions of 606 
Amalgamation — Building arrastre *1053 

Amalgamation, Florence Goldfield 313, 761 
Amalgamation, Homestake mill *661 

Amalgamation, Inside 260 

Amalgamation plates, Area of 1148 

Amalgamation — Removing silver coat- 
ing from copper plates *704 
Amalgamation, Table or battery 44 
Amber deposits on Baltic 728 
American Arctic Coal Co. 973, "111 2 
American Cement Co. 37 
American Chemical Soc. 337, 1268 
American Detinning Co. 370 
American Electrochemical Soc. 746, 952 
American Exploration Co. 241 
American Flag mine. Utah 241, 1128 
American Gold Fields. Ont. 685, 983, 1275 
American Grondal Kjellin Co. 204 
American Inst., Consulting Engineers 

337, 482 
American Inst. Mg. Engineers 482, 1122 

Hundredth meeting 254. 903, 1200 

— Iron and steel classification 330, 375, 454 

Japanese trip plans, etc. 363 

— Paper on Canadian law 646, 658 

— Old and new secretary 697 

— Lecture by J. S. Cox, Jr. 955 

— Why not visit Peru'.' 994 

— Plans for S. F. meeting . 995 

— Change of name recommended 1044 

American Iron & Steel Asso. 196, 265, 
402, 411, 443, 493, 598, 640, 655, 

820, 976 
American Iron & Steel Inst. 1173 

American lap-welded pipe 367 

American Lithla & Chem. Co. 781 

American mines. Selling, in London 519 

American Mg. Congress — Salt Lake 

Cv. meeting 265 

American Mg. Congress. 

Next meeting; activities, etc <;ts, ST.". 

Meeting on Alaska 630 

Accident prevention report discussed 

1 01."., 114 1 
American Oilfields Co. *:',72 

"American Bed <> Textbook" 1922 

American Smelters Securities Co. 116, 2:0 
Report for hall' year 158 

American Sing & Ref. Co. 9, 40, 53, 59, 

60, 149, 171, 280, 1007, 1024 
In Mexico 68, 69, 489, 508, •799, 1129 
Stock increase 116, 150, 254 

Report for half year 158 

I'nited Metals ligitation 158 

Lead-tariff matters: smelting in 

bond 164, 844, 1044, 1193, 1241 

-Cokedale coai-mine explosion 389, 434, 454 
American Vanadium Co. 574, 1007 

American Zinc, Lead & Smg. Co. 273. 

357, 735, 852, 977 
Ami, II. M. 136 

Ammonia and am. sulp. in 1910 87, lO.'i!) 
Ammonia production, New patent 868 

Ammonia sulphate, Foreign trade 351 

Ammonia sulphate. Great Brit. 299, 

702, 10:;'. 1 
Ammonia sulphate, Various countries 1089 
Ammonia dynamites, The 268 

Ammonium sulphate, U. S. 1 

Amusement hall, Marianna mine *.'!.::: 

Amparo Mg. Co. 72 

Anaconda Cop. Mg. Co. 7, 11, 54, 138, 
190, 235, 23.9, 290, 338, 386, -LSI. 
r..",9. 5.S7, 683, 783, 827, 831, 928. 
981, 997, 1030, 1123, 1150, 1178, 

1223, 1227, 1269, 1273 
Smoke decision, etc. 533, 583, 587, 

683, 892 
— Geology applied to mining *664, 700, 

845, 1144 
— Timber-treating plant 755 

Reports 991, 1003. 1145, 1 17 1 

Cop. blast-furnace development *1057 

Anchor, II. C. 53 1 

Anchor mine, Tas. 716, 717 

Anderson. G. Mine surveying 256 

— Mine sampling notes *466, 111.". 

Anderson, J. M.. Death of 284 

Andrews. W, S. Triboliiminescenl com 

pound 319 

Angle's, Device for measuring *!>oo 

Anglo American plant. An. 601 

Anglo-Maikop Oil Corp. *42i 

Angustias Co., Mex. 3.74 

Ansted's firedamp table 1171 

Anthony. W. B. Old Mex. law still in 




See also "Coal." 

R. R.'s ; commodities 

007. 7o:> 
Antimony convention, Foreign 494, 690 

Antimony in 1910 0, *212 

Antimony, Lead, ores, Smelting 211 

Antimony smelting affairs, Mex. 484 

Antimony syndicate, European 248 

Antimony, Tin determination in pres- 
ence of 1103 
Antimonv. etc., U. S. foreign trade 350 
Aporoma Goldfields. Ltd. 76, 463 
Appalachian Coal Op. Asso. 534 
Appalachian oilfield. 89, 90, 595 
Appelbaum. M. E. 284, 385 
Appreciation. Gentle art of 325 
Archibald, R. S. Magnetic surveys, 

iron deposits *11 57 

Arctic Coal Co. 973, *1112 

■ — Affairs in Colo. 

53, 483, 583, 924 

Ardourell & Smith mill, Colo. 
Arevalo mine, Mex. 
Argall, Philip 

Cyanidation in 1910 
— -Reducing costs, increasing profits 
Argentina, Mine in, Cost data 
Argentina San Juan province 
Argentina mining in 1910 
Argentina, Petroleum 
Argentina, Zinc exports to 
Argentina y Anexas, Mex. 
Argentine tunnel, Colo. 
Argonaut mine, Calif. 

Sinking and driving 
Arizona Commercial 

Arizona Consol. Smg. & Mg. Co 

Ariz., Constitution, New 

Ariz., Copper 

Ariz. Cop. Belt Mg. Co. 

Ariz. Cop. Co., Ltd. 

— Reports 

Ariz., Gold and silver 

Ariz.. Gold placers iu 

Ariz Hercules 

Ariz, "porphyries," The 




4'-', 506 


75, 750 
237, 340. 388. 

926. 1125 
514, 502 
732, 878, 1077, 

1125. 1271 

436, 1225 


7, 12, 891 


:. 139. 188, 

340. 449 

454. 732 


• ,.;i 

I J 70 


7. P. 


is. Coal i''i 

Arkansas diamond field In 1910 ,; . 

Arondo mine. Calif. 


an. 79, 512, 

1910 i 

n and lncond< - 


Diamonds, German 

• 78, 
any, Mex. 


atlon of. Huu- 
' lanual" 

. jtm.ud drill sai. 
suienl work, OnU 

- l; N< w Lake ore dock 
Ailam Mich. 190, 

. Wks., Russia 

\V. l. . i upper extraction 
Lhod »459, 601, 649, 


. 542 
. Hi4 

. 21 

91 t 


65 2 





11 T.N 







8 1 2 




:, | 8 




1 1 10 



per ■' 

:;. 193, 4m: 


nil iv in 


- in 
South, milling area 
South, production, 1910 

st and health 154, 
Yilgarn field ■'•'- 

report on pulmonary 


!:r..kell Hill 637 

d Italy, Spelter 205 

i ):; 

ran la, mercury 206 

Lead 1 7 

y. Silver 3 

• nation Co 129 

and respirator. 

•952. 387 

il„. »603 

i nod, mine purvej Ing * 112 



in,, i in i 1033 

i.iri. alma mtns. 663 

1 1 TO 

i. vc. 

* 1 196 

,. i ion 165 

Out 189 

de la 930 



1 1 8 
124, 140, 

- - 

1029, II T I 

I, .,f 133 




I 28 


Batan coal mini's. Philippines 393 

Batavia, Coal 872 

Bates, M 1122 

Bath house, Marianna *1TS. »281, »381 

Baths, Compulsory, for colliers 992, 1211 
Batopilas Mj 505, 550 

Battery screen fi ame *754 

Baugh, I'. B.. Death of 678 

Bauxite deposits, Southern Ga. *1050 

Ba\ less, George C. 1025 

Bayliss, K. i. !>44 

Bayonne Casting Co. -2:; 

Bear Creek sylvanite camp, Colo. 712 

Beaver mine, Ont. 340, 392, 4 40, 489, 

i;:;t. Tin, 785, 833, 1081 
Beck. E. A. 72'.) 

Beck Tunnel, Utah 392, 439, 484, 588, 

784, 882, L031, 1274 
Keeker, John 582 

Beeken, L. l.. Bigging crane. *1097 

Beeler, Henry C. 1025 

Beer, Sondhelmer ft Co. 734. 852 

A c. Marianna mine *1TT, *228, 
•278, »332, ;;t'.), *380, *428 

w. s. 393 

Minos Syndicate, Nev. 635, 928, 1179 

ii. Ammonia sulphate 1039 

Belgium, Coal 191, 639 

Belgium, Iron 2'.>7, i i I 

Belgium, Lead 17 

Belgium, Spelter 20.") 

Bell for detaching block H>7 

Bell island, Newfoundland Map »1008 

Bell, James Mackintosh 1025 

Bell, Ralston " 1025 

Belle of Granite mine, Colo. 830 

Bellevue mine explosion 331, 4t;o 

Bellinger's blast roasting 49 

Bellows, Primitive furnace *1057 

Belmont. See "Tonopah Belmont." 
Belnap Aluminum ft Power Co. 
Belt Conveyer. See "Conveyer." 
Belt dressings 
Belt drives. Reverse 
Belt tightener, Bucket elevator 


r, i . 


I I 1-J. 







I I J I 

Benahadux, < ia. Minna de 261, 

Bend A: Bruce Coal Co. 
Benefication »>r speisses 
Benguet Consol. 
Benjamin, Erich 

Benner, It. C. Platinum-triangle sub- 
Cooperation in research work 748, 

Seeking employment 
Bennett, William J. 
Benonl mill. New 

Bents, Designs for, etc. *528, 

Berlin. Smoke prevention in 
Berlins Bay region, Alaska 
Bertha Mineral Co. *456, 

Berwind-Whlte Coal Co. 
Beryl, Rose-colored Morganite 
Beshear camp, Colo. 

Bethlehem Steel <'o. 71, 

Settles, A. J. 
Bewick, Moreing ft Co. 293, 385 

393, 424, i::::. 184, 533, 541, 5 
C.'iT, 828, 930 
Beyschlag, I "Lagerstaetten der Nutz 

baren Minerallen" 
Bickley. Walter S. 
oil \ Gas Co. 

Big Bend Co., 
Big. Rh Coal, 
Big Three \\>a 
Blgnam, i ■ U 

< ikla 
Bin, ' on i Be on 
Bin, Loading, 
Bin. Storage, i 
Bin, Storage, 
Bins, i 'ircula r 
Bins. Ore, llin 
Blngha m A ma Igauia led 

Blnghan «ol. umelte 

Bingham « • * i • Co. 
Bingham Mines Co. I 12, 588, 

Bingham report, Ueol. Survey 
Bingham Sanltarj conditions at 
Btrchenvt nod i • .1 1 i.ri.'s.. Elect ricity 










34 I 
I. :,I7 

55 l , 

. ISO 

1 17:: 

i . ,.i ami zinc mining, 

Boston Consol. 

or skips 

T pali Belmont 


re gate 'or 

•v, old. Costs 





o., Tas. 

in 1910 

oal "■ 

if Mil 

Bird, -i 

i in- 
n Extended < 
Bishop mine. Ont. 
Bismuth, Course of, 
Bituminous. See 

Blai i.i" ard Has board 
i:i.n i. IIIIIh, Mining In 

Smelting wks 

i'olaonlng by cyanldi 

■ explosives Australia 

opah Belmont 

B K /in' ore. Joplin 202 

i it < Dm entrator 

i Una In 191 


I > v ii i in i i .-. In ill. " 



I 1!».". 




' 1252 



•67 I 



■J. I -1 





708, 893, 1241 

7i is 

♦Ms. 1 ISO 

700, so,; 

i •_•.■:!! 

s ,C, 


I l ah 

Electric, Ala. mines 
Fuse cut t Ing device 
II. is. Jones on 
111.. Criticism of 
in sulphide ores 
laws discusesd 
Liability to sbotfirers 
Loading bore boles <S(l4 

pract u i Marianna mine * — 
regulations recommended, 








I'.iasi ing 



Blasting rules, Brit Col. 

Blasting Tests with explosives 

Blatchley, R. S. Petroleum, 111. 

B lay lock. S. G. 

Blick, .lames, Keai h of 

Bliss, J. \V. North Dak. lignites 

Block signal system for mines 

Blowing apparatus, Primitive form 

Blowing in silver lead furnaces 

Blowpipe for Hat hole drilling 

Blue Bird mine, Colo. 

Blue Bird, Mont. 

Blue Gravel mine, Calif. 

Bucking. V. \Y. Handling smelting 

Body, J. Reducing mining costs 

Boericke, W. P. Azimuth method, mine 

— Thawing frozen concentrates 

—Harness for lowering mule 

Bogoslovsk Mg. Co. 

Boiler corrosion, Electrolysis to pre- 

Boilers, Waste heat. Economizers for 

BolafiOS mines. Mex. 

Boleo, Mex. 

Bolivar Mg. Co. 

Bolivia, .Mining in 1910 

Bolivia, Tin 

Bolivia. Transport conditions 

Bonanza, Kennicott, Alaska 





t;. 508 


I -nw; 








289, L272 

1 10 


*r> .-..-» 

1 1 or. 






75, 750 

248, 410. Till) 


04. 188, 

287, 709 


74, 599 




5 1 ."> 


1 22 






Bonanza lead group, Nye CO., Nev. 

Bonanza mine, .Nicaragua 

Bone. Albert J. 

Bonus and contract work 503, 

Bonus system at Argonaut 

Book notices l's:;. ::s4. 480, 580, !>2:i 

Boom method of timbering 

Booth, William Miller 

Borax, extraction process 

Borax in 1910 

Borax, Calif., in 1910 

Borax, Oregon, discovery 

Borcherdt, \v. 0. Automatic sampler 

— Belt conveyer' brush 

Convenient wheel barrow scales 

Bordeaux on I'r. Guiana dredging 
Borehole deflections, Cause of 
Boring through sand and gravel 
Bosqui's zinc dust feeder 

Boston coal receipts 

Boston collierj lire 1023, 1263 

Boston Consul. i See also I'lah Cop.) 47 
The mill *816, ♦8(52 

Boston ft Corbln, Mont. 55, 391, 571, 783 

Boston ft Mont. (See also "Anaconda") 

ii, :::.. 4n, i:ss, is::, 535, 683, 

<)!)7, 1003 

Boston stork listing rules 7!)."> 

Botsford, ll L. Timber headframe *U4S 
Bourdolre, 1. Reinforcing timbers 

with i ope *:u:: 

B well. ,i M 109, 284, 1041, 112'J 

Bowen, II M . Heath of 1222 

Bowles, ii lal.les tor Determination 

Of I 'ouilnoii Roi ks " 
Boj it mine, \,\ 
Bracket!, V . Ernes I 

I'riet ion of air in mines 
Relation of development lo output 
Braden Cop. Co 77. I 14, 598, 685, 7 
Bradt, Eugene l\ *565 

Brady, A. s. Jalisco in nun 72 

i luana [uato in 1910 73 

Brakes set bj weights »854 

Brakpan mines. Transvaal 226, 1151 

1 »7" 

1 „ 1 . * 




1 26 1 



■treatment proci 

Brandea w ;i t , 
Branner, J. C. 
Brass chills 
Brilunlng on 
Bray. T. .1. 
Brazil. Cost 

ore in, I r,.n ore deposits 
Brazil, mining In 1910 
Brazil, steel plant for. 
Breaker. Gyratory, The largest 
Breakers. Coal, i'ire escapes on 
Breathing apparatus. Types of 
Breathing apparatus, Aymard, 

and Mitchells 

Brejcha thod diamond drilling 

Bretherton, s :: 

Breyre, A. Repairing shafi lining with 

( e Ill 

Kdobe, Making 
r.i i, i.v i [omemade 
i 1 1 I'r h coal du^l expert 

in. n is- 

I'.i i • 1 1 1 . ■ I I n< I us I iy. I nileil |\ in:', I. mi 

i '.i Iqnel in 1 1 in i lolland 
Briquets used in Berlin 

liar/ metallurgy 
oi i ranspot i ing manganese 



I I 19 


l Hie. 


IS! I 

•72 1 


1 222 


i .-.<; 





Briquettei cperimentsi Harz 1109 

Briquetting iron ores llo, 204 

Brill, P. K-, Heath of 680 

Briseis mines, Tas. *71t; 

Bristol mines, Nev. *238, 981, 1274 

British. See also "United Kingdom, - ' 

British-Canadian Power Co. 780, 1121, 1229 
Brit. Col., Coal and coke 101. 513 

— Certified coal miners 379 

.Mining Institute papers 460 

Brit. Col. Cop. Co. 7. 79, 80, 193, 242, 

254, 7 no 
— Rules as to explosives 427 

Mine legislation 554 

— Report 462 

Greenwood smelting works *10ll 

Brit. Col. & Dawson Ry. Co. 339 

Brit. Col., Diamonds 632, 797 

Brit. Col. in 1910; statistics 79, 300, r>12 
Brit. Col. School of Mines 582 

Brit. Col. — Sheep Creek gold dist. 1250 

Brit. Col. Steel Corp. 589 

British Iron & Steel Inst. 110, 204, 875, 904 
British mining investments, Mexico 411. 452 
Broad Top coal traffic 394 

Brock, R. W. 797 

Brodie, W. M. Peculiar Mex. laws 505, 550 
Brodrick, C. T. Topographic mine map- 
ping 1191 
— Geology applied to mining 1144 
Broken Hill Trop. Co. 461 
— Report 861 
Broken Hill, Separation processes 745. 

946, 1121, 1198 
Broken Hill smeltery, Port Pirie 50 

Broken Hill South S50, 899, 1121 

— Report 796 

Broken Hill zinc production 637 

Bromine, U. S. 1, 50 

— Alaska in 1910 ; Ketchikan 63, 506 

- "Mineral Resources of Alaska" f384 

Broomassie mine. Gold Coast 877, 1207 

Bronghton, Urban H. 582 

Broughton, W. W. 337 

Drown, A. E., Death of 976 

Brown, A. H. 678 

Brown, Harvey H. 1222 

Brown. H. L. Shaping chuck bolts *801 

Brown, L. T., Death of 630 

Brown, W. S. Rainy Hollow dist. 1191 

Browne, D. .7. Underground leveling 652 
Browne, Frederick E. 1173 

Bruceton mines, Experiments at *870 

B runner, Mond & Co. 1248 

Brunton on mining gealogy 664 

Brush, Belt-conveyer *556 

Bryant, J. W. 534 

Bryant, Thos., safety erosshead *7.>1 

Brydge mine, Porcupine, Ont. 983 

Buchanan, .7. F. "Practical Alloying" f580 
Buchanan, J. R. 923 

Bucket dump. Automatic, Pascoe's *703 

Bucket trolley for shaft sinking *998 

Buckley, J. C, Death of 1222 

Buffalo coal shipments 145 

Buffalo Gold Placer Mg. Co. 1177, 1272 

Buffalo mine, Ont. 393, 589, 718, 9^3 

Buffalo & Susquehanna mine 422, *423 

Buffet. C. H. 778 

Buildings, Concrete. Tonopah-Belmont *853 
Bull Mountain coalfield 
Dull. Ralph W. 

Bull, R. M. Brit, investments, Mex. 
Bullfinch mine, Australia 

*221, 241, 1080 

Bullion Coalition, Utah 

Bullion refinery, Goldfield Consol. 

Bully Hill Cop. Mg. & Smg. Co. 124, 205, 

583 733 
Bunker coal. Rates on 1034 

Bunker Hill mine, Calif. *208, 237, 340, 

436, 681, 829 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan 19, 390, 4S1 

Burbank, Maj. Geo. B. 126 

Burbanks Main Lode mine 706 

Bureau of Mines appropriations 453 

— Circular on using explosives 459 

— Coal-mine experiments *870, 975, 1217 

— Staff positions open 648 

— Fuse-burning investigation 677 

- Cooperative mine rescue work 896 

— Danger of mine fires 971 

— Tests "with explosives discussed 1022 

Burgess, Charles W. 729 

Burgess, J. A. 875, *967 

Burlingham, William 482 

Burlington Gold Mines 340, 388. 585 

Burmie. C. J. K., Death of 1074 

Burns anthracite mine, Alberta 1220 

Burro Mountain Cop. Co. 600 

Burt, E. Slime filter. El Oro *169 

Bushing for stamp stems *408 

Business situation in 1910 106 

Butler Creek Coal Mg. Co. 191 

Butte Alex Scott 141, 831 

Butte & Ballaklava 54, 290, 587, 1127, 1223 
—Report 928 

Butte Central Cop. Co. 55, 391 

Butte Coalition, Mont. 1273 

Butte countv. Calif., production 436 

Butte dist. in 1910 7, 11. 54 

Butte Geol. Survey report 1191 

Rutte & London. 239, 928, 1079 

Butte mines. Sanitary conditions 386 


Butte, Phosphate beds near 158, 252, 338 
Butte and Superior 55, 186, 190, 390, 1178 
Butte, What. Heinze got from 265 

Butters filter frames, etc. 1091 

Butters properties, Salvador 74 

By the way 108, 253, 151, 551, 047, 702, 

795, 843, 945. 1043 

Caballos dist. (See also "New Mex.") 518 

Cable clamp for tramway 
Cable, Steel. The largest 
Cables, Electric, Insulation; fire 
Cables, Flat wire, Cleaning 
Cache creek placers, Colo. 
i 'admium 

Cadmium, Colo, producing 
Cage, Tandem, etc. Marianna 



470, 772 






•229, 383 




261, 1241 


42, 848 




Cages, Hoisting, Improvements in 

Cages, Safety gate for 

Cages, Testing safety devices on 

Calafatite and its treatment 

Calaveras Copper Co. 

Caldecott, W. A. 

Caldera smeltery, Chile 

Caledonia mine, Idaho 

Ca I lender Co.'s electric cables 

California. See also "Dredge." 

Calif, bill to tax Federal lands 434 

Calif., Borax in 1910 21, 122 

Calif. Calaveras Mg. Co. - 340 

Calif., Chromite in 127 

Calif. Conservation Commission 947 

Calif. Consol. Mines 681 

Calif., Copper 7, 124, 205. 891 

Calif., Dredging, in 1910 41, 56, 483. 583 

Calif., Gold and silver .'!, 56 

— Yearly production, Gold, from start 

378, 506 
— Discoveries reported 830, 879 

Calif, laws — Mineral leases under 

water ; water rights for electricity 977 
Calif., Magnesite 226 

Calif., Mining in 1910 56 

Calif. Oilfields, Ltd. 1251 

Calif., Petroleum 89, 180, 235, 386, 535, 

631, 679, 730, 756, 779, 827. 894, 

961, 1269 
— Oilfield maps 118 

oil resources of Calif. 153 

Am. Oilfield's flaming gusher *372 

— Protection against infiltration 434 

— Production in 1910 595 

— Storage company proposed 1123 

Calif., Quicksilver 85, 656, 730 

Smeltery-smoke question. 40, 124, 
583, *614, 631, 679, 781, 895. 

1029, 1174 
State Mining Bureau map 200 

stone — Discrimination charged 

285, 386 

Tungsten 86, 437 

Calif., University, mining building *962 

Calif., University situation in 452, 1239 




Call, D. \v. 
Callinan mine, Ont. 
Callow. .1. M. 
Calumet & Ariz. 

Calumet & Ilecla 


7, 12, 188, 436. 633 


9. 14, 782. 954. 1147 

- Consolidation 105, 117, 108, 239, 363. 

435, 481, 559, 709, 980, 1027 
— The decision 1145. 1194 

— Milling process *1161 

Calvin. Samuel. Death of 923 

Cambrian Combine 1020 

Cameron pump, History of 273. 370 

Camp Bird, Ltd. 70, '538, 034, 733. 906, 

1123, 1199 
Camp Bonito Co., Ariz. 781 

Canada. See also "Ontario." "British 

Col.," "Quebec," "Nova Scotia," 

Canada. Cie. Franchise d'Etudes 589 

Canada. Coal 512 

— Arbitration of dispute 1070 

Canada, Copper 7. 9, 512, 750, S91 

Canada, Geographical Soc. of 136 

Canada. Gold ->12 

Canada, Iron ore and steel 397. 493, 

— Bounties to expire 

Canada, Lead 

Canada, Mineral production of 

- Minor minerals 
Canada, Natural gas 
Canada, Nickel 
Canada, Petroleum 
Canada, Petroleum — Naval use 
Canada. Silver 
Canadian asbestos 
Canadian Coal ft Coke Co. 
Canadian Collieries 
Canadian Cop. Co. 
Canadian gold deposits. Types of 
Canadian Homestake Mr. Co. 1129. 1275 
Canadian Mining Institute 317. 405. 

513. 976 
—Western branch 460, 869. 1146. 1152. 

976. 1220. 1254 
Canadian mining law 646, 658, 747 

- Note 236 






5 1 2 


79, 512. 















Canadian peat experiments 
Canadian Peal Society 

Canadian Tin Mg 

< 'a nanea > . "Greene") 

Developments in 1910; map. 

— Notes, production, etc. 7, 12, 39 




*2io, 150 

12 10 

Report for year 1910 

Canby, I.. E. Standard Oil decision 1111 
Canby, R. <'., mill design 

Hunt ft Douglas cop. process 1150 

Candelaria Mg. Co., chihuahua 72 

Pumping plant 1261 

Candles, Method of suspending 

Cantua Panoche region, Calif. 180 

Cape and Namaqua production 750 

Capital mines, Colo. 437, 6.",::. B79. 

1078, NTT 

Car distribution cases 869 

Car, Filter, for concentrates *:;il 

Car, Gravity tram, and switch *705 

Car, Marianna mine *382 

Car, Mine, tally. Automatic *507 

(ar recording, Automatic *259 
Carbon C. & C. Co. Cokedale explo- 
sion 389, 434, 15 1 
Carbon determination, iron and steel 

414, »560 

Carbondale, Penn., mine fire 1111 
Cardiff mine. Utah *220, 241, 488. 920 

Cam Brea & Tincroft 1073 

Carnev, Frank D. 582 

Carpenter, A. II. 234 

Carpenter iron mine, Mich. 390 

(arson, Ellard W. 1268 

Carter. George L. 433 

Carter. T. L. Nicaragua mining 74 

Cold placers in Ariz. *561 
Sampling placer ground 603, 754. 845 

Cary, W. I'. Montana mining 54 

Casados mine, Mex. 72 
Casapalca smeltery. Teru *40l. 516 

Cascade dist.. Minn. 1126 

Casimir colliery explosion 251 

Castle Creek Ilyd. G. M. Co. 1241 

Castle Gate coal properties 1171 

Castle Valley Coal Co. 1071 

Catawba mine, N. C. 270 
Caton. C. S. Cost of ore broken in 

Transvaal drill competition 602 

Cavanaugh, N. J., Death of s,2>; 

Cavers. T. W. Alumina determination 1105 
Caving. Surface, at Scranton 609. 774 

Caylloma mines, Peru 
Cedar Talisman, Utah 

192, »220, 291. 

488, 982 
Celtium — A new element 21 2 

Cement. Canada 512, 552, 559- 

Cement industry in 1910 37 

Cement Mfrs.. Asso. of Licensed 254 

Cement, Portland, Alkali-proof 1102 

Cement, Repairing shaft lining with 753 

Cement sacks. Cleaning, pays 222 

Cement — Thermal properties, concrete 118 
Cement, Utah 61 

Cement. White Portland. Making 253 

Cementing — Breicha drilling method *763 
Centennial, Mich. 14, 117, 118, 559, 943 

Report 629 

Centennial-Eureka. Utah. 60. 292, 1179, 1274 





361. *362 

♦210, *311. 

464, 510. 554 





1 r,r. 



Ilolden tunnel : power plant 
Centerville M. & M. Co. 
Central American laborers 
Central Eureka mine. Calif. 
Central mill. Calif. 
Cerro de Pasco. Peru 76. 

*359. *463. 
Certified coal' miners, B. C. 
Ceylon, Graphite exports 
Chadbourne. T. L.. Death of 
Chains. Safety Hoisting cages 
Chairs. Landing .' 
Chaleopyrite. Separation of 
Chambers Ferland, Ont. 685, 785, 

Champion, Mich. See "Copper Range.' 
Champion mines. Calif. 338. 341 

Chandler. C. F. Presentation speech 200 

Chandler mine, Minn. 768, 9SO 

Change house. Rose Deep 257 

Change room, Tononah-Belmont 856 

Channeling, Cost of 11 1 I 

Channeling-machlne mining method 

557, 650 
Cbanning's Cal. & Hec. report 481 

('banning. J. Parke 1268 

Miami mine and mill 11, 1055 

— Extracting copper from ore In place 601. 

649. 700 

Porphyry copper mines 95:: 

Chapala itvdroelec. & Ir. Co. 72 

Chapman. R. H. 1268 

Chapman, T. Decline of sheet ore min- 
ing at Joplin 91 1 
Charcoal in copper furnace 110 
Charcoal. Pitch pine for 551 
Charleston Mg. & Mfg. Co. 123 
Charlton. A. F. L. Colliery gas-power 

station 1167 

charts. Hoisting. Mitten's *2<>x. *260. 

*314. *360, *410, *15S. »510 
Chauvenet. S. II. Tex. tin 309 

Checking system. Marianna mine *281 


Analysis . . . from 


and Mass Action" 


\ \ . 

S M. 344, 


441. 54- 
. >u disappointing 212. 1124 
■ market in 97 

I u 
market in 

* 1 1 50 

684, 1229 
Chihuahua minir.- 71 

- - ash 1044 

market iu 
per 0. 70. 77. 750 

:i^' industi . 
S 7. 956 

nitrate. Iodine from 
::iills. I'tah 553 

ng chamber. Mederer 

1 29 

.. output 427 

« hina. 3 

201, 21! 
• hina. Tin 572, 867 

S, 598 709, 

3 1274 

Samuel B. 




alumina separation 

Chronology of mining 33. _"t. 4". t. 709, 





M 4:::; 


•Iling »1206 






■alt mine, I I 242 

••?ep, Transvaal 42 

22 581, 1151 
Claim pine 


■ 748 

ax mill. Colo. *904 



* riz. 879 

■ madian mining law 646, 

• ', , 7 

material 160 

bus »207 


Ition 948 

. ay *1 1 03 


■ 111".! 



! 120 

•1 • 




Anthracite, shipments, 90 years 
Anthracite, Taxing 
Anthracite Trust suits 697, 

Anthracite, U. S. 

_ 1 1 ina 

Atlantic coastwise shipments 
Australia 195, 

Coal, Austria 

_:uui 491, 

Bituminous, mines labor 
Bituminous, shipments, R. R.'s 
Bituminous, trade in 1910 95 

Bituminous, trade situation 540. 575 
Bituminous, U. S. I, 101 

Coal breakers. Fire escapes on 106-1 

1, 101 


101, 542 




70. mi. 513 











470. 77"i. 
975, 1071 

I olo and coke 09, 101. 1114 

Disasters from foreign workmen 1 •">•"> 

— Labor affairs, laws. etc. 137. 288, 338, 

386, 435, 183, 1026, 122:; 

.mission to study mining 181 

Building railroads into fields 3.".*, 435, 437 

Coal, Brit. Col. 
Certified coal miners 
Rules a- to explosives 
Mine legislation 

Mining Institute pa 
Coal business dull 
Coal, Bunker, Kates on 
Pound west of Bdmundton 
ir distribution cases 
• bile 
Coal, China 

Colliery notes 135, 431, 

Coal combination, Proposed 
Coal cost, Pacific ports 

lispute arbitration. Canada 
Coal dust and elec. a 
Coal dusl Evidence for wetting 
Cal dust, experiments. British 

lust, experiments. French 
dust, Exhaust steam for 625, 72.",. 1092 









1219, 1221 

156, 182 

Coal dust exploded by gas testing 

Dust, ExplOBibility" 
Coal-dust explosion. Prevention 
Coal-dust explosions and intake airways 727 
Coal-dust explosions, Prevention 
Govt, experiments 
dusl problem. The 1092 

"'oaldust production tests Note 727 

Coal dust, Rendering it inexplosive 

1219, 1221 

Coal-dust spraying with soap and water 531 

sprinkling. Ala. mines *1118 

tsl sprinkling and mixture with 

shale dust 95 

Coal dust. - for 182, L092, 

1219, 1221 
1 263 
Coal — Fatalities per million tons 96 

Coal, France 277. 401. 676, 738, 985 

— Labor cos :UT 

39 "'. 027. 1015 
Briquet - Smoke pr< \ enl Ion 335 

111. 94, 98, 101 

.",:il. 490, r,77 
li 1 -in hi 1 he iii' 130 

Remedy for overproduction; better 
v laws needed : accidents : 
machine mining: eombinati 

Indiana 98 99, 101, 821 

Law - 138, ill. 286, 184, 

771. 827, 880, 924, 1082, l 17s. L263 


101, 133 




tisements 627 

ind fraud da magi 876 

Ions 730, l067 

:.d withdrs 656, s ''.o 

ands, Ala., entry 135 



7o. 1071 

anton 609, 77) 

Model, M 1 5 l. * 1 77. 

12 379 »380, »428 


•528, *577 

1 5 2 

li ity *i;7 I 

1 ', 7 7 

* '. 1 7 1 
In 1020 


Coal mining. Advance iu 154 

Coal mining. Fatal accidents in 306 

Coal Mining Inst, of Am. *181 

Coal mining— Relation of development 

to output *1264 

Coal. Montana. 100, 101, 134, 72.". Missouri 101, 042. 7:17 

Coal, Natal 738 

Coal, New Mex. 101, 132 

Coal, North I»ak.. Lignite 101, [•384 

Coal. Nova Scotia 245, 513 

— Kelief societies 1070 

Coal, Ohio, and coke 101, 131, 834, 

1071. 1217 

(' Okla. 101, 542, 1071 Penn. 101, 336, 023 

Shenandoah district discovery 135 

Options in Armstrong couutv 104 

Accidents 277, 623 

-Increased use of machines :',.",1 

■Bituminous mine employees .,2 7 

-Proportion of washed coal 128 

Crowth of industry— Chart *1120 

Coal. Peru 404 

Coal, Philippines 393 

Coal production and consumption, 

Equality of 
Coal-production cost. Diff, countries 
Coal puncher, Mining salt with 
Coal quality, Gas influence on 
Coal rate complaints. West Va. 
Coal rates. Comparative 
Coal rates, Freight 
Coal rates Hocking Val. case 
Coal rates, Southern 
Coal rates to Chicago 
Coal rates to lakes 





4 00 
244, 347, 542. 931, 

1130. 1277 
Coal rates. Western .".70 

Coal. Rebate of duties on 017 

Coal, Restricted rates on 017 

t'oal. Rhodesia, discovery 857 

Coal. Russia 985, 1231 

Coal shipments, Reweighing 071 

Coal - South American trade 775 

Coal. Special rates on 686 

- .it zbergen 07:! 

— Mining *1112 

Coal Spontaneous-combustion research 705 
Coal strikes, Petty, Departure in 

Cal. Tenn. 100, 101, 000. 

Coal, Ti x. 

Analysis of coals 
Mining coal in Texas 
Texas coal industry 
Coal tracts. Vast, hold in reserve 
Coal traffic notes 1 year 1910) 145. 
2 14. 204. 346, 394, i 11, 542. 


673, 1l7o 

101, 335 


10 1. 
686, 737 

Coal. United Kingdom Production 1050 

—Exports, Welsh, etc. 195, 245, 775 

Briquet industry ..70 

ess use of explo! 133 

— Timb *227. 335 

Altofts Dusl Experiments ;:M 

- British colliery wage disputes. 8 

hours act, etc. 598, 623, 720 

Accidents, colliery and other 720. 1107 
Labor in mines Statistics 917 

—Fortunes lost, Welsh collieries 1n2n 

Compulsory baths 002. 1217 

Gas power slat ion 1 107 

Explosives, Permitted, flameles 1219 

Cal dust : Altofts trials 1210. 1 221 

Prize for electric lamp 1263 

i:.s,i;,. brigades 1263 

Firedamp tests; handling lamps 1 J07 

Welsh miner- to Stop work 12:',s 

Coal, D. s. 1. 94 

By States mi 

Foreign trade ;;i7. 771 

Lignite deposits 1023 

cal. Utah, and coke 100, mi. 1114. 1171 

Coal value Household 

\ s. oil fop t ransport 
Coal waste. Utilization of 

West Va. 
level- and Coal Anal] 
Longwall method 625 

Western, combination, Proposed 

< '1 a ling Btea m Bh 
Cobalt, Nickel detection in presence of 

< 'oti.-iit Price : uses 
Coi, a it Cent 1 1 ( 536 

Cobalt I ake \l' 1 541 <;s 

Cobalt, Ont., dlst. In 1910 
I >evelopments, • etc. 

; \ es 

c.l, n't mill es. Sam; 

• Rei ' 
Coieiit silver Queen 

in.' iini Stamped 

c,eiir ,r Uene In 1910 



C.imollsvllle 07. 101. I 131, 
Coke, failure iu II re en; 

1 iciL'bi rati 


Han ting 



5' 1 7 
4 02 

• 900 





1 1 I I 

1 7:. 


1 120 

:, 1 3 

51 :: 

101, lilt 

1182, 1231 



395, 027 





Coke industry in 1910 !)l 

Coke, Nova Scotia 513 

Coke, Ohio 101, 1217 

Coke oven, Small, India *1000 

Coke plant, Gary, started 918, 1032 

Coke ovens, Retort and beehive 251 

Coke rates, Equalizing 1112, 1276 

Coke, l . s. l, 94, mi 

Foreign trade ;;i7, 771 

Coke, Utah 100, 101, 1111 

Coke, Wesl Va. mi 

Cokedale mine explosion, Colo. 389, 4:!t. 154 
Coking plant, Marianna mine *178, *280, 379 
Cold-storage chamber, Mederer 210 

Cole, Thos. F. 265 

Collars, Concrete *949 

Colics, <;. \v. Effects of explosions mi 

Colliery notes 135, 431, 470, 775, 975, L07I 
Colliery wage disputes, British 598, 623, 726 
Collieries, Birchenwood, Electricity at *074 
( oiiins, Edgar A. 185, 77s 

Collins, G. 10. Colo, mining *51 

colloidal copper t;i;!t 

Colombia law, platinum mining 420 

mbia, mining in 1910 75 

Colombia, Platinum 130 

Colonial Coke Co. 1131, 1182, 1231 

Colorado, Cadmium produced in L007 

Colo., Coal and coke 99, 101, 1114 

— Disasters from foreign workmen I ."."1 

— Commission to study mining 181 

—Building railroads into fields 338, 435. 137 
Colo., Copper 7, *51, 702. 891 

Colo., Gold and silver 3, 51 

Colo. Gold Dredging Co. 029, 679 

Colo, labor affairs, legislation, etc. 137, 

288, 338, 386, 435, 483, 583, 1026. 1223 
Colo. Gold M. & S. Co. 137, 189, 927 

Colo., Lead *51, 750. 1056 

Colo. Metals Extraction Co. .",15 

Colo, minerals, Utilization of 171 

Colo., Mining around Telluride and Ou- 
ray 906 
Colo, mining in 1910; map 51, *52 
Colo., Petroleum 89, 483, 595 
Colo. Portland Cement Co. 1162 
Colo, property for lease or sale, To 

keep record of !)24 

Colo, prospecting fund 1123, 1174, 1223. 1269 
San Juan mines 629, s7 (. 

Colo. School of Mines, Rescue work 4(Mi 

—Trustees 994 

Colo. Springs Mg. Stock Asso. 750 

Colo.. Vanadium 574. 634. 1272 

Colo.. Zinc 22, *51, 171, 253, 535, 

851, 1075 
Colo, mine, Utah •222, 392, 439. 540, 

684, 735, 127 1 
Colpitis. F. IT. Lode-location laws 308 

Columbus Consol., Utah *220, 241. 439, 

784, 882, 1080 
Columbus Extension, Utah *220, 241, 392, 

832, 1080 
Combination Fraction, Nev. 62. 119. 

*121, 122 
Commercial movement of gold and silver 4, 

197. 201, 213, 247, 297. 837 
4 2:: 


Connelleville coke 97, L94, L131, 1182, 1231 

d'Etudes au 


Commodore mine, Minn 
Commutator troubles 
Como Lignite Mg. Co. 
Compagnle Franchise 

Compania. See also proper names. 
Compafiia Metalnrgica de la Baja Calif 
Compass, Sun-dial, Burt's 
Compressed air. See "Air." 
Comstock Driving in loose ground 
Comstock, Revival on the 

—Notes 63, 735, 831 

lock Securities Co. 635, 7S4 

Concentrates, Cyanide treatment, Gold 

Concentrates, Filter car for 
Concentrates, Frozen, Thawing 
Concentrating Mesabi iron ores 
Concent rat ing-plant waste, Kans. 
Concentration at Morenci 
Concent rat ion. Boston Consol. mill 
Concentration, I foes it pay'.' 
Concentration— Hindered settling 
Concentration, Joplin dist. 
Concentrator, Dry, for placer gold 
Concentrator. Utah Cop. Co. 
Concordia mine. Colombia 
Concrete buildings. Healing 
Concrete buildings. Tonopah-Belmont 
Concrete containing sawdust 
Concrete floors — Dusting prevention 
Concrete, Heating water for 
Concrete hot water tank 
Concrete in inclined shafts 
Concrete pipe carrier 
Concrete, Lusting of steel in 
Concrete shafts 
Concrete storage bin 
Concrete, Thermal properties of 
Concrete timbers. Reinforced 
Concrete work. Shovel for 
Concreting Detroit Salt shaft 
Conejo Blanco, Mex. 
Congo, Copper 10, 405, 599, 708, 857 

Congress oi Technology 582, 794 

Coniagas mine. Ont. 
- Report for 1910 




























Ml 3 

193, 243 

18, 7S5 

1142, 1276 
228, * 177 
609, 77 1 



l 1 89 







— Equalizing rates 
Connellsville Lepley fan 
( !onnor, Eli T. 
Conrey Placer Mg. i 

Conservation. See also "Land, 

trolcitm," "Coal," etc. 
Conservation Commission, Calif. 

Conservation, Two years of 

Conservative Prospecting & D. Co. 

Consolidated Ariz. L39, 1 125 

Consol. ( 'op. .Mine, Ariz. 1 III 

Consol. Goldnelds of So. Af. 84, 286, 

437, 689 

Consol. Kan. I'v. S. & K. Co. 803, 841, 1156 
Consol. Mercur 61, 292, 361, 684, L027 

( 'onsol. .Mines Of El. ' Mo 637 

Consol. .M. & S. CO., Can. 80, 1275 

(onsol. Mg. Co. Casados mine 72 

l onsol. Moose mini's, Colo. 586 

Consol. Virginia, Nev. 63, 120, 735, 929 

Consolidation Coal Co. of Mil. 30 

Consolidation Coal Co., W. Va. 625 

Continental Coal Corp., Tenn. 1128 

( 'ont inenlal Copper, S. D. 1 1 28 

Continental Zinc ( !o. 928 

Contrail and bonus work 503, 517, 994 

Contract vs. company drilling 155 

Contract work, cost diagrams *174, *218 
Contracts, Mexican labor 1104. 1143 

Converter air mains, Water in, a source 

of danger 
Converter, Blowing tine concentrates 

Converter, topper, Flame stages in 
Converter fume. Analyses of 
Converter hood, Cerro de Pasco 
Converter tilting, Mammoth smeltery 
Converter, Thomas, bottoms 
Converting, Copper, l'.asic, Data on: 

Peirce Smith converter 707, 943, 964 

-Tilling device »1099 

Removable tuyeres 1143 

Conveyer, Belt, Brush *556 

Conveyer belts, Abuse of 458 

Conveyer. Ore, of unusual length *867 

Cooling samples quickly 052 

Cook. J. 15. Ignition of sulphide ores 508 
Cookson & Co. 484 

Coon creek ore strike, Nev. 291 

Cooperation in research work 748, 993 

Cooperative mine rescue work 896 

Copper, Africa 9, F50 

Copper, Alaska 7, 63, 506, 891 

Copper, Ariz. 7, 12, 891 

Vekol deposits 
Copper, Australasia 
Copper Belle mine, Ariz. 
Copper blast furnace. Charcoal in 
Copper blast furnace development 

Mathewson furnace 
Copper blast-furnace tops 
Copper, Brit. Col. 
Copper. C. W. Fielding on 
Copper, Calif. Production; mining 

124, 205. 891 
Copper, Canada 7. 9, 512, 750, 891 

Copper, Cathode, melting processs 309 

Copper, Cerro de Pasco — Matte ladle; 

converter hood *210, *311 

Copper, Chile 9, 76, 77. f50 

Copper Cliff smeltery. Ont. 286 

Copper, Colloidal 669 

Copper, Colo. 7. *51, 702, s:n 

Copper-converter air mains. Water in 101 
Copper-converter fume analyses 
Copper-converter, Successive flame 

Copper-converter tilting. Mammoth 
Copper converting. Basic, Data on : 

Peirce Smith converter 707. 943, 964 

— Tilting device »1099 

—Removable tuyeres 114.'! 

Copper Creek basin, Ariz. *270 

Copper, Cuba 7. 9. 74, 750, 891 

Copper, Determining, in crude and 

spent pyrites 1194 

Copper, Electrolytic, refining capacity 9 

Copper exports, etc 350, 550, 552 

Copper, Extracting, from ore in place 

♦459, 601, 019, 7(H) 
Copper, Finland Orijarvl mine *759 

Copper-furnace charge, Mt. Morgan isi 

Copper, Germany 9, 211. i50, im 

9, 750 


* 1H57 






Copper, Hamburg and Rotterdam 

2 is 


Copper, Idaho 7, 491, 77 

Copper in water. Alto mine 

Copper industry, lot ii Production by 

States, companies, etc. 7 

Copper, .Tapan 9. 750 

Copper, Katanga 10, 405. 599. 70S. 857 

Copper. Lake. Price in 1910 943 

Copper market and prices 9, *115. 151, *212 
Copper market. situation. statistics. 

prices, monthly 107, 353, 549. 746. 

703. 1142, 1237 
Copper Metallizing processes 1090 

Copper metallurgy, 1910 39 

Copper, Mexico 7. 9. 731, 750, 891 

Copper, Mich. 7, 14, 891 

Production at a loss 451 

Copper milling. Boston Consol. *816, *862 
Copper mines. Lake Sup. 957 

Copper mines of Mian. *1055 

Copper. Mont. 7, 11, 5 1 

Copper, Nev. 7, 62 

copper, New Mex. 

Copper, Ont. 

Copper, Peru 9, 76, *463, 511 

i 'opper, Phelps Dodge 

Copper plates, Removing silver coating 

from 704 

Copper precipitation by aluminum 451 

Copper, Princi Win. sound 
Copper process, Hunt & I >ouglas 1156 

Copper Producers' Asso. 7, 107. 353, 549, 

550, 552 
Copper production, The new 102 

Copper production, 1910, North Am . 

Copper Queen 

— Reports- 

Ariz. 7, 

Labor ; flue dust 

— Power costs 
Copper Queen, Mont 
Copper Range, Mich. 

Copper recovery process. Prize for 
Copper refinery statistics, 1910 

(.opper River R. R. 

12. 10, ono. 

645, 1147 
slag 714. 

943, 980, i 178 

188, 287, 340. 681, 
709, l: 

Copper, Id 9, 154, 750 

"Copper-selling trust. The" 017 

Copper shot. Making 847 

Copper gases, Handling (See 

also "Smeltery") *61L 895 

Copper smelting, Harz *1106, *1163 

Copper-smelting improvements 150 

Copper smelting. Oil in 224, 317 

•Copper Smelting. Practice of* tl093 

Copper smelting works. Greenwood "loll 

Copper, Spain and Portugal 9. 494. 750 

Copper statistics — Export discrepamv 

550, 552 
Copper sulphate. U. S. 1, 1(1 

"Copper talk" 202 

Copper, Tenn. 609 

Copper. United Kingdom 248, 750, 1050 

— Alderlev Edge mine S77 

Copper. U. S. 1.7. 9, 150, 750 

550, 552 

9. 55 1. 

598, 750 
305, 149 



55. 391 



136, 1 17 



811, 107.", 





Revised production statistics 
Foreign trade 350. 

Copper, Utah 7 

Copper wire 

Copper, World's production 7. 

Coppers. The porphyry 
— Review of the mines 
Copperhill, Tenn., Fire at 
Corbin Cop. Co. 
Corbiu Wickes (list.. Mont, 
('ore drills, Joplin dist. 

Corey, W. E. 107. 

Corinthian mine. Australia 

Cornwall mining notes 

Cornwall Tailings Co. 

Corporation-tax law at tacked 

1 lorrigan, McKinney & ' !o. 

Corrigan, J., Death of 

Cortez Association 

Corundum. Canada 512. 513. 

"Cosletl izing" to prevent rust 

Coal production, diff. countries 
Cost of melting pig iron 
Cost of mining, increases -Penn. pro- 
posed code 
Cost sheets. Standard 
Costs. Boston Consol. mill 
Costs, Deep shafts. Transvaal 
Costs, Development-work, Graphic cal- 
culations of *174, *218 
Costs, Mining. Reducing, and increas- 
ing profits i in 
Costs. Old Bingham smeltery *1252 
Costs, Land mine equiprai 322 
Casts Standards of work 

Costs. Transvaal mines 81, 804 

Costs. Tube mills, on Land \? 

Collages. Miners', Cleveland Cliffs *114 

Cornell process, etc. (See also "Bala 

klala." "Smeltery") *oi I 

Coulson, R. H. Handy wooden sleeper *457 
Counal, J. Sam. ggn 

Cowles, Edward II. 1268 

(ox. .L S.. .Tr. Iron mining, Cuba 955 

Cram- books. Safety *997, *1049 

Crane. Rigging *1097 

Crane runway, Shoring up *359 

Crane. \V. R. Filling methods. Sud- 
bury *1204 
Croat) Hill filling method *1204 
Creighton filling method. Sudbury *1206 
Creplet, L. "Applications Industrlelles 

de I'Electricite"' 
Creston Colorado mine 75 1 

Cripple Creek drainage tunnels 236. 679, 

750, 1075. 1121: 
Cripple Creek mines. Report on 750 

Cripple ('reek milling practice 45 

Cripple Creek ore treatment 172 

('roll. Harry V. 582 

Crosshead, Bryant safety *751 
Crown Mines. Ltd. 46, 322. 153. 1151 

Crown Point mine. Nev. 391, 981 

Crown Point mine. Ft ah .*222 



- ve. Ont. 37 786. 

- . 1224, 1273 

- . aipling devi 150 

418 T17, 718, 1251 

626, 723 


Am. 410. 442, 613 

n, Yukon 930 

j ratory, The la - 367 

Crusher. Bank in •1110 

:and 044 

■ in 1910 42. 

Mex. 88 

Cuba 7. 

Cuba. Gold mining 

mining. 19 74 

. of 
J II I. 

Plus for 114 

Cunningham c-<>al-land claims 955 

Cunni: - 923 

Cunningham. William J. 647 

\ - 364, 643, 742 

Cnrrai ge question 505 

Curran. T. 1" V Vanadium in L910 .".74 

Curtailment of production. Economics 

h of 1222 
hole defk 

Cutter mil 438 

Cuttle. Frai 047 

a iron range >766. 797, 


mide. Manufacture of 77:: 

Cyanide ind *902 

' ax mill, i • »904 

Cyanide plant. Nevada I 1002 


American plant 

ints. Homes 

g : antid"'. 






Adding lime to 
tions, II. ating 


ont. concentrates, 
::ield *368 


auto, sampler *45fi 

ing filter ' 259 

mples *407 

. manganifi-' 601, 994 

-linn- o>< anter *.",l '_' 

r mill •520 

Slime filters. El *169 


ail >o 


Trinity mine. Calif. 


in farm 




• 1242 

ron mines. Cuba 
, J. ( 
ng uf< 




1 35 





Iwood Lead & Zinc I 1080, 1241 

Dean, G. W. Transport conditions, 

Bolivia *365 

Dean, S. (oaldust problem 1092 

Deane, C. T. Deatb of 534 

Debris question. See "Dredge." 
Deeper-deep mines. Band 320 

Deetrick, J. \\". 778 

Del Mar, A. Calif, gold production 500 

& Hudson mine Are 1023, 1263 

Del., Lack. & West, report 825, 771 

Del., Lack. & West. Coal Co. 579, 60S. 825 
Delvaux, L. Gold dredging, Fr. Guiana *323 
Dredge-bucket emptying device *S47 

Denison, F. X. Earthquakes and ex- 

I Vim Ariz. Top. Co. 878. 979 

Dennis, 8. J., Heath of 1025 

Denny, G. A. Mine sampling 1143 

Derby. Charles C. 130 

Desert mill, Nev. *1212 

: Co. 20, 130 

Detaching block, Cage safety *107 

Detroit Cop. M- r Co. 7, 12, GOO. 645 

■ otral ion data 998 

Detroit Salt Co.'s shaft *565 

pment, Belation of, to output- *12G4 
pment-work rusts. Graphic cal- 
culations of *174, *218 
Development of mines 043 
Diamond drilling. See "Drill." 
Diamond Regie mine. Transvaal 958 
Diamond Salt Co. 682 
Diamonds. Ark. field. 1010 0. 104 
Diamonds, British Columbia 632, 707 
Diamonds, British Guiana 393 
Diamonds, Calif. 340 
Diamonds — De Beers report 317 
Diamonds, German S. W. Af. 335. 014 
Diamonds. Quebec 1224 
Diamonds. Transvaal 83, 220, 581. 958, 

1140, 1242 
Diamonds, Tulameen, B. C. 731 

Diamonds. Wis., near Janesville 400 

Dickinson, E. S. Underground ore 

pocket *900 

Dickson, William B. G30, 640. 820 

Diehn, Peter 1122 

Dietz, .1. II. Concentration, .Toplin 

dist. *808 

Dignowity, E. I... Death of 136 

Dike. C. P., Jr. 1208 

Dilworth, Lawrence. Death of 1208 

Id-asters attributed to foreign work- 
men 135 
Disasters. Mine. Preventing 845, 1091 
Diseases of metals. Contagions 273 
Dividends. Mining 35 310, 454, 700. 

058. 1100 
Divining rod. etc. 253, 451 

Dock. Lake ore. New 004 

Dock, Lake ore. statistics 770 

Dodge rope sheave. Large *121fi 

Doe Run Lead Co. 130. 20 

Cage-safety *165 

Dolbear. S. II. Tungsten. Calif. 80 

Dolcoath mine. Cornwall 811 

Dome mines. Ont. 78. *217, 387. 533. 

883, 955, 000. HI05 

— Report 020 

1 ire occurrence *757 

Dome Extension, Ont. 203. 030. 1005, 1220 

Dominion Coal Co.- Relief societies 1070 

Dominion Graphitl 203 

Dominion Iron & Steel Co. 38 

Wabana iron m *1008 

Dominion Nickel-Copper Co. 7s 

Dominion Steel for]). 203. 345, 1073 

ge elec. steel plant •915 

Domnarfvet, Electric furnaces 168 

• on mine, Colo. 238 

Mine air * 1 1 47 

Levden mine *1218 

( ■ W E., Dentil of 1222 

I 'os 1 Mex. 66 

erty, John W. 482 

1173. 1268 

\ri/.. in 1010 12 

nines 152 


• B. 135 

W. R. Area of amalgamation 

plat 1 1 is 

reathlng apparati *72i 

-Mom *11 (0 

I □ mine, 1 tab *222, 392, 588. 

632, 1170 
E • " Tunnel" and 


1 V", 

lonal *10'.' 

raullc minii 

117 1 
H |241 

Ice *^ 17 

* 1 2 1 o 

1 llig [910 II 

Ing, In Bi :'.c.7 

01 t lelllt lire .",7 

11. 01 
illf., In 1910 41, 58, 18 



Dredging, Gold. French Guiana *323 

Dredging, Gold, near Kubv, Mont. *S12 

Dredging, Gold, North Car. 276 

1 Hedging, South Dak. 58 

Dredging tin, Cornwall 811 

Dredging. Yukon 41, 42, 483. 511 

Dresser, .1. A. 976 

Drier. Sample, Steam *799 

Drifting with stope drills *052, *su;J 

Drill bits. Large, Cutting hitches with *1197 
Drill, Churn, rods, Raising *555 

Drill deflections by magnetism 802 

Drill, Diamond, samples, Assaying — 
Device for calculating proportions 
of core and cuttings *013 

Drill-dust arresters. Rand *951 

Drill dust. Australia 15 1. 10 

Drill holes. Ejecting sludge from *700 

Drill holes. Squirt gun for cleaning *008 
Drill forges. Fuel cost for 850 

Drill, Holman, 81. 101. 204. 153, 103. 356 
Drill. Ingersoll. historically considered 370 
Drill repairs. Strawberry tunnel 1043 

Drill steed and bits, Hand *840 

Drill, Stope, competition. Transvaal 81. 

101. 204, 350 
Official report 153, 103 

Cost of ore broken 002 

Drill, Stope, Ragle 1242 

Drilling. Contract vs. company 155 

Drilling costs. Mexico. Argentina 308 

Drilling. Deep. Mineville, N. Y. Mil 

Drilling. Diamond. Method, Sanjoy *703 

Drilling in Michigan 050 

Drilling practice at Argonaut 514, 502 

Drilling with double screw columns 1049 

Drills, Air-hammer, Boring flat holes 

with 557 

Drills, Core. Joplin dist. *0(is 

Drills, Furnace for sharpening 802 

Drills. Hammer Chip ejector 220 

Drills. Notes on 84:: 

"Drills, Rock. Design. Const.. Use'" f283 

Drills — Shaping chuck bolts *801 

Drills. Stope. Drifting with *052, *802 

Drinking fountain, Sanitary 1007 

Driver-Harris resistance alloys 320 

Driving and sinking at Argonaut 514. 502 
Driving in loose ground *101 

Driving — Spad work, coal mines *07 1 

Driving speed in coal mining *1204 

Drums. Winding, Determining face *30o 

— Amount of rope wound *410 

Dry concentrator for placer gold 849 

Dry-placer mining. Calif. 535 

Drying pulp and slime samples 1000 

Du Pont de Nemours Powder Co. 268. 

604, *751 
Ducktown Sulph., Cop. & Iron Co.. 1100 

Duggan, T. R. Feed-water treatment 401 
Dump, Bucket, Automatic, Pascoe's *703 

Dumps. Skip. Types of 114 

Duncan. C. E. 185 

Dunham. W. I". 144 

Dunkin mine. Colo. 137. 437 

Dunshee. B. II. 875 

Implex steel processes 38 

Dupuis, Nathan F. 1025 

"Duralumin" Aluminum alloy 559, 857 

Durant, II. T. Upward leaching of 

sand 417 

Durham Coal & Iron Co. 191 

Dust. See also "Coal," "Flue." 
Dust and gases in mine air: drill dust. 

West Australia 154. 946 

Dust. Mine, prevention on Band 

Pursers' and Aymard's dust ar- 
resters: new respirator *0.~l 
Dust-proof housing for dry-crushing 

plants *160 

See "Tariff." 
Dwight Lloyd roasting machines 50 

Dwighl Lloyd sintering system 1208 

Dwight. Theodore 534 

Dynamite. See also "Explosives," 


Dynamite. Thawing 111. 162, 558 

By electricity »704 

Scholl's th'awer 1245 

Dvnamites, The ammonia 268 

241, 882, 1128 
124 2 


Kagh .v nine Bell *222, 

i !agle si ope drill 
Earths, Prices, in 1910 

Earthing devices, Alt. current U75 

earthquakes and mine explosions SCO 

Easl Butte, Mont. 7. 54, 190, 635, 7.".:.. 1273 

Cast ( 'anada Sum 1 730 

Rasl Coast nil Co, •960, 001 

Easl J. II.. Jr. Sunlight dist 1155 
Easl Hand Prop 81, 226, 153 944 

1151. 1242 

Eastern l tah R, II. Co 777 

1 ecles, S. w . 1 85 

Economizers foi ti boilers *752 

in 1010 7.-, 

Eddj 1.. II calif, mining 56 

calif quicksilver B5 

oras |22 

Calif magneslte 220 

Calif copper tji 




Edison on gold extraction 154 

Education reduces mine accidents 132 

Edwards, F. Handling ore in narrow 

square-set stopes *949 

Edwards Young Syndicate, Out. 541 

Ehrlich Coal Mg. Co. 239 

Eight hours act, British, Effects 726 

El I'.ordo mine, Mex. 70 

El Favor Mg. Co. 72 

El Monte gold mine, Mex. 74 

El Oro, Mex. Mines of 193, !HI 

El Oro mine. Mex. 46, 193 

El Oro, New slime filter at *l(i!( 

El Paso Consol., Colo. 180, 238, 342, 389, 

G31, 830, 1272 
El Paso Tin M. & S. Co. 35, 53, *io,s 

El Rayo, Mex. 758, 983, 1270 

El Tigre; Lucky Tiger 193, 243. 293. 

393, 685, 956, L203 
Elder. Venezuelan mining code 563 

Eldorado mine. Rhodesia 84, 187 

Electric arcs and coal dust 1217 

Electric automatic transportation line 4 29 
Electric cables. Insulation; fires 47C, 772 

"Electric Circuit Problems" t580 

Electric furnace, Girod, installations 374 
Electric furnaces at Domnarfvet 1(58 

Electric furnaces. 1910 39 

Electric generators, Rating 1096 

Electric hoists, Underground, Rand 302 

Electric insulation, Deteriorated — 

Elect iic iron-ore smelting, Heroult 188, 545 
Electric lamp, Miners', Prize for 1263 

Electric lamps — Miners': tail 917, *1114 

Electric motors. Inverted, Raising *113 

Electric plant, Marianna *278 

Electric power to melt metals 765 

Electric smelting 1089 

Electric smelting in Norway 262 

Electric smelting process, Reid 564 

Elect ric steel furnace bottom, Magnesia 952 
Electric steel furnaces, Russia 129 

Electric steel plant, Dommeldange *915 

Electric wire accidents, Preventing 111 

Electrical mine machinery troubles 274 

"Electrical Practice in Mines, Stand- 
ardization of" t580 
"Electricity, Applications Industrielles 

de T " t580 

Electricity, Ala. coal mines *1118, *1108 

Electricity, Birchenwood collieries *674 

Electricity in Calif, mines 1223 

Electricitv in sinking operations — 

Traveling winch *872 

Electrolysis to prevent boiler corrosion 268 
Electrolyte for lead refining 902, 1091 

Electrolytic cop. refining capacity 9 

Electrolytic cyanide regeneration 1064 

Electrostatic process. Huff 273, 357, 1024 

Element, New — Celtium 212 

Elevator, Bucket, belt tightener *159 

Elevator, Wheel, for short lifts *1243 

Elk Garden, W. Va.— Ott mine explo- 
sion 874, 1052, 1111 
Elktou Consol., Colo. 535, 927 
Ells. R. W.. Death of 1122 
Ellensburg Silica Land Co. 541 
Elliott, A. F. Electricity, Ala. coal 

mines *1118, *1168 

Elliott's, S. R., angle-measuring device *900 
Elm Orlu, Mont., report 1273 

Elmore flotation process 541, 745, 1198 

Ely Central, Nev. 1274 

Ely Consol. Mg Co. 982, 1031 

Ehsee placer, French Guiana 324 

Emerv, A. B. 729 

Emma Cop. Co., Utah 929 

Emma Gordon Mg. Co. 25 

Emma mine, Colo. 629, 1272 

Emmons. N. EI. Tenn. Cop. Co. 15 

Copper blast-furnace tops *573 

Emmons, S. P., and Bingham report 109 

— His death 678, *7oi 

Empire Iron & Steel Co. 622, 683 

Empire mine. Calif. 388 

Employers' liability law, Ind. 677. 771 

Employment, Seeking 356, 554. 602. 650. 

748, 798, 846 
Engines, First motion hoisting, Chart 
for vertical unbalanced loads 
lifted by *208 

— Other hoisting and hauling data *20o. 

*314, *360, *410, *458, *510 
"Engines, Internal Combustion, De- 
sign and Const, of" t580 
Engines, Marianna mines *179, *228, 

*231, *27S 
Engineer, Are you an'.- 700 

Engineers' Soc. of Penn. 2S4 

Engineering and Mining Journal — 

Fraudulent correspondent 1142 

England. See "United Kingdom." 
English Land Co.. Ont. 1129 

Epperson, Herbert 582 

Epperson, J. P. 394, in? I 

Erdmann, II. Potash sources 1044 

Ericsson Mem. Soc, Swedish Eng. 778 

Escanaba Development Co! 390 

Esmeralda county bullion tax 783 

Espada Mines Co. 833 

Esperanza, Mex. 45, 243, 489 

— Report 1099 

Est a brook, Edward L. 385 


Euclid Mg. Co. 290 

Eureka to., Calif., quicksilver 730 

Eureka mine, Tenn. 601, 649, 700 

Eureka Swansea, Utah 2 i i 

Eureka Windfall Mg. I o 451 

European lead convention 17 

European markets tor American coal ■ :;.';i 
European spelter convention 206 

Everett blast-furnace plant 646 

Everson flotation process, etc. 7 15. 946 

Excavated material, Classification of L60 
Expansion joint, 8-ft. flume *263 

Exploration Co., Eng. and .Mex. 72, 412, 833 
Explosion, See also names of mines, 

"Coal dust," "Gases." etc. 
Explosion, Anthracite mine, Hughes- 

town :;:;] 

Explosion, Banner mine, Ala. 750, 821, *919 
Explosion caused by hot gn 255 

Explosion, Granite mine, Curious ef- 
fect 310, 40 1 
Explosion indicator, Teclu *4us 
Explosion, Kans.— M., K. & T. 709, -^25, 

•1115, 122H 

Explosions and barometric pressure 1171 
Explosions, Mine, and earthquakes 86A 
Explosions, Recovering Mines after t580 
Explosions attributed to foreign work- 
men 1 35 
Explosions, Compressed air 713 
Explosions, Explanation of effects 404 

160 Explosions — Gas ignition ; dust 

Explosions Government experiments 

Explosions, Matte 

Explosions, Mine, prevention, Kans. 

Explosive. See also "Dynamite," 

Explosive, Blasting, New French 
Explosive, English "Nationalite" 
Explosives, Accidents due to careless 

use of 
Explosives, Coal mines, B. C. rules 
Explosives — Disposing of fumes 
Explosives, Flameless, permitted? 
Explosives, Handling, underground 
Explosives, High, Handling of 
Explosives, High, Storage of 
Explosives, How they should not be 

Explosives, Permissible, Australia 
Explosives — Shortage of glycerin 
Explosives, Tests with 
Explosives, Use and storage of ; Aus- 
tralian rules 
Exports. See "Foreign trade," "United 

States," names, etc. 
Eye, Removing foreign bodies from 

624, 727 












1 239 




Fairbanks dist., Alaska 64 

Fakes, Mining. Cleaning up 1190 

Falls of roof and sides. Fatal acci- 
dents from *227 
— Notes 331, *381 
Famatina Development Co. 785 
Fan, Electric, troubles 274 
Fan, Lepley, Marianna mine *22S, *177 
Fanning, J. T., Death of 3S5 
Fanti Mines. West Af. 1207 
Farncomb Hill, Colo., tungsten 1177 
Farrell, James A. (Pres.) 107, 147, 875 
Farrell, J. A. (in Mex.) 550 
Farrell. J. H. Topographic mine 

mapping *618, 1191 

Fatalities, Cause of, Idaho 952 

Faulting of Butte veins *GGG 

Fav. A. II. Steam shovel work, Mesabi *42o 
Shaft of Detroit Salt Co. *565 

Fayal mine. Minn. 422, 423 

Federal Lead Co. 20. 130 

Federal Mines Co. dredge *12lo 

Federal Mg. & Smg. Co.. Morning mine. 

etc. 19, 111, 481, 187, 560. 703. 

795. sso 
Feed. Mill. Screen for *314 

Feeder, Zinc dust. Improved *3G1 

Feldspar as fertilizer 71 S 

Ferreira Deep, Transvaal 187, 321. 1151 

Ferrobamba, Ltd.. Peru 76, 463 

Ferromanganese. I'. S. 1 

Ferro uranium analysis 1155 

Ferrosilicon Syndicate 196 

Fertig, John, Death of 630 

Fertilizer industry in 1910 128, 123 

Fichtel, C. L. C. Lake Sup. cop dist. 14 

Fielding, C. W., on copper 796 

Filling, Sand. Transvaal 83, 321 

Filling stores, Guanajuato 358 

Filter car for concentrates *311 

Filter frame, New. Australia *999. 1091 
Filter frames, Construction of 418 

Filter leaves, Cleaning 259 

Filter press for slime samples *4i>7 

Filter-press tail solutions. Testing 102 

Filter presses, Merrill. Ilomestake's *72o 

1 ilter, Slime, at El Oro *169 

Filters— Cyanldation in 1910 45 

Filters for ellluent solutions 603 

Filtering tank. Rothwell *G67 

Finland, Orijarvi mine *759 

Finlay, J. R. 201, 234, 923, 1150, 1227, L268 
Finucane, Roy 2S4 

Fine. See also proper names. 
Fire at Porcupine 1073. 1099 

Fire, Fatal, Boston mine L023 120:; 

Fire, Carbondale, cost of overcoming 

engines. Coke failure in 
Foe equipment, Goldfleld 1 

I'iie Q coa ] | )t .,.., um- 
pire, Hutchinson coal mine, W. Ya. 1114 
Fire loss, The 107 
lire, .Mine, at Butte L90, 239 
Fire. Oil well, Mex. 206 
Fires due to elec. cables 772. 170 
Fires, Mine, Danger of 071 

Fires Mine disasters 845 

Fires, .Mine, Treatment of 1:17 

Firedamp. See also "liases," "Lamp." 

1 n edamp, Barometer and 1 171 

Firedamp cutout, Holmes-Alderson *475 

Firedamp, Safely lamps and 

Firedamp test instructions, British 

l irsi aid contest, Roslyn, Wash. 021 

First aid contest, Ind. 071 

First Aid Text b 

First Nail. Cop. (see also Balaklala) id. 288 

Report 481 

Fishback, M. Tex. laws aud prospect- 
ing 371 
Fisher, F. L. Shaft plumbing !i97 
Fisher, W. B. 1074 
Flsk, W. w. Jarbidge developments 

225. Hi5 
1 iiiine. Hungary, lead smeltery 
Flagstaff Consol., Flab 2 I ! 

Flame stages. Copper converters 2o7 

Fleming, A. Brooks, Jr. Iu74 

Fleming, .1. B. Nevada Hills surface 

equipment lool 

Fleming, w. K., Death of 482 

Fleming, w. L. 1,23 

Fletcher, Frank, Death of 875 

Fletcher, R. II. Coal, Mich., in. 1910 
Floors, Concrete Dusting prevention 510 

Florence Goldfleld, Nev. 62, 35!), 138, 7s:; 
— Development *119 

Aid treatment of mercury 

Laboratory for employees 

.Milling at Florence Goldfleld 
Florida phosphate in 1910 
Flotation, Broken Hill oil 
Flotation-process mill. Orijarvi 
Flotation processes, The 
Flow sheets, Simplicity in 

7! 16 

745, 946, 1198 



Foreign trade, U. S. 

Flower, Mrs. F. 1".. 108 

Flue dust collection, Cop. smelting 3!), 7.".2 
Flue dust settling velocity 108 

Flues, Determining gas velocity in 1147 

Flume for surface water *202 

Flumes, Construction of *710 

Fluorspar, Rosiclare, 111. 289 

Flux for cupel bottoms 114 

Flux for melting retort metal 451 

Foaming in launders, Prevention *1095 

Fogg Woodhousc. Ont. 983 

Fob!. W. E. Shaft-bottom layout * 1 si 

Colev. Capt. .Tas. F. 1074 

Foreign labor — Immigration Comm. 273. 

526. 669, 82] 
347, 350, 351. 397, 

550, 552, 771 
Foreign workmen, Disasters attributed to 135 
Forell, J. H. Cleaning drill holes 
Forest eliminations. Western States 138 

Forests and Anaconda smoke 892 

Forges. Cost of fuels for 850 

Forget, L. J., Death of S26 

Foristell, Mo., marble deposit 343 

Forrester, R., Death of 136 

Fort Sage Mtn„ Nev.. strike 635. 680 

Fortunes lost in Welsh collieries 1020 

Foster, Porcupine, Ont. *217. 345, 637 

Foundation Co. 32, "997 

Foundations, etc.. colliery trestles *52S. *577 
Four States Coal & Coke Co. li:i. 636, 982 
Fownes, W. C, Jr. 4s2 

Framing, Corner, shaft timbers *HU7 

Framing limber sets. Strength in *2n.s 

France, Ammonia sulphate 1039 

France, Coal. 277, 491, 676, 73S. 985 

Labor cost 917 

France, Gold and silver 3 

France, Iron and steel 805, 1279 

France, Lead 1 7 

Frame and Spain. Spelter 205 

(■'ranee. Profll sharing law 

Franklin mine. Mich. 15, 390, SSO, 943 

Franz, W. C. 185 

Fraser, L. Sectional drawing board *162 

Automatic car recording *259 

Fraser-Campbell, E. Management of 

Mex. labor 1104, 1 1 13 

Fraser, Norman 11 73 

Frauds, Stock, Alleged 551. 779. 795, 

827, 843, 104.",. 1 cm 



1 56 




Freezing of air-pipe lines 
Freiberg anniversary 
Freight. See "Coal," "Coke," "Rail- 
way." etc. 
Freight rates on coal 

French coal-dust experiments 182, 

French Guiana. See "Guiana." 
French Hill group. Calif. 
Freudenberger, w. R, 
Frick Co.. Thermit welding for 
Friction of air in mines 
Friedman, I.. W. Ala. iron mar 



an. I- w. 

a ignition and incandes- 
■ ores of a' - des 

74 0. 

Dynamite" I 

mond field 6, 

- II. 

g of 
Manual. Practical 


: .. Hi . ' R 





irpening drills 












and arm for 

.;. Laying 


ion through 





>65, 310 

ratory. Breaking up 


Furnaces. Silver -'.• og in *806 

g • 111 in 224, 31 7 

luanajuato 73 


Rate of burning of 61 i 

lein. Paul W. 

•lami - B 
- and Canadian 

tnre in mining camp — 
Garfield S 


lines after Ex 

milling, New Hampshire 

II P., I i.ath of 630. 

stimony of 1141, 

Diamond Drill Co. 
M.. azi 

nigh altitudes 
i se of 
da in 

- Blllfl affecting 216, 
Satnral, Canada 512, 

Natural, in Hamburg 
Natural. Mid-continental field 

al. <>nt. 79, 

\ a. 
British colliery 

Gas velocity in flues. Determining 
Hand amalgamation 

Gaaes an<i d • air 946, 


• itz 

21 -. 

i 122, 


5 T 5 





:;i t 

41 1 












•4 7.'. 


52 i 














••_■:. 7 




- applied to mining 

ge, H C. 
Appalachian oilfield in 1910 
Lima oilfield 

ge Hill Mg 

ge mine, Mont. 

ge, R. D. rungsten, Colo. 


►664, 700, 

845, 1144 
783, SSI 
town dist., N. M. — Vanadium 1248 
Georgia slide mine, Calif. 285, 633, 732 

Southern, bauxite deposits *1050 
German American Stoi 634 

German bar] tes 129 

an Development Co. 978 

German potash affairs 249, 299, 316, 791, 

936, 1087, 1135 
German potash reserves 656, 1240 

German potash salts exports 390 

German S. W. At'.. Diamonds 335, 93 i 

( rermania mine, w ash. 488 

Germany, Amber deposits 728 

Germany, Ammonium sulphate 1039 

Germany, Coal and coke 395, 627, 1015 

-Briquets— Smoke prevention 335, 309 

Germany, Copper 9, 211, 750, 1015 

Germany, Gold and silver 3, 93, 1015 

Germany- Harz ore reduction *1106, *1163 
Germany, iron, si eel and ore L24, 251, 

349, 740, 750, 1015, 1233, 1237 
Germany, Lead 17, 1015 

Germany, Mineral production 1015 

205, 446, 

Germany, Spelter and zinc 

494, 1015 


. 63 







1 250 


, 56, 







i >eep, Transvaal 
Gibson, T. w. dm. in 1910 78 

Giffen, Chas. A. 4::;:. 126S 

Gill Edge Maid. S. D. 708, 893 

Gillie. J. Butte sanitary conditions 386 

Girard Estate 135 

Girod elec. furnace installations 374 

Giroux, Nev. 02. 142, 343, 588, 784 

Rep 363, 698 

Glassware, Chemical. Zinc oxide in 1098 

Globe & Phoenix 84, 226 

Gloryholes, Trinity mine. Calif. *907 

Glove mine. Ariz. 878 

dc iron range 1027 

cid For milling practice see 

■Stamp,'' ' Cyanidation." proper 

names, etc. 

Cold. Alaska 

Cold. Ariz., placers 

Cold. Australasia 3, 

The Yilgarn field 
Cold, Bolivia 
Gold, Brit. Col. 

Sheep Creek dist. 
Gold, British Guiana 

l tiscovery 
Gold Bug mine. Colo. 
Gold, Calif. 

Yearly production from start 

Discoveries reported 
Gold, Canada 

Gold. Canadian. Types of deposits 470 

Cold chain mine. Utah *222, 202. 392. 

684, 784 
Gold, Chile 76 

Gold Coast. See "West Africa." 
Gold, Collecting, from pannings (151 

Cold. Colo. 3, 51 

Gold, Commercial movement 4, 197. 247. 

207. 837 
Gold, Cuba, mining 1117.". 

Gold dredging. See also "Dredge." 
Cold dredging, French Guiana *323, *847 
Cold Explo. & Tunnel Co. 186 

straction from low-grade ores 154 

lelds of Mysore 1027 

Gold, German; .",. 93, 1015 

Cold. Germany, Eifel mountains t"0 

Gold, Iceland 68" 

Cold. Idaho 3, 481, 777 

Cold. India 3. 193, 600, 746, 1063 

Cold. Indian demand for 844 

Cold King mine. Colo. 874, 1 126 

Cold. Large shlpmenl of , *903 

Gold, Madagascar 3, 1033 

Gold, Mexico 3 

coid Mines .v Tower Co 712 

Cold mines. Rand. Notes on 820 

Cold Mountain Consol. 143, 735 

Cold. ' 3 

l'i Sage mountain discovery 635, 680 

Gold, Nev z.aiand 193 

7 1 
mining 276 

"nt 78. 552. 1260 

isolations, etc 484, 780, 

896, 1124, 1220 

Gold, Qaeb i 236, 780, 833, 946 

Gold, Shod 8, 84, 845 

926, 1271 

and platinum In 1910 8, 218 

tab 906 

■ L42, •-.'" I 

18 184 I! 

- 1 2 1 2 

11 ., 1 

Gold, U. s. 

Production by States 
Gold, U. S. Treasury, Jan. 
Gold, Uses of 
Cold. Utah- 
Gold, West Africa 3, 
Gold, World prod, in 1910, 

tries, and for 20 years 
Gold, World's output, and 

process Diagram 
Cold. Yukon, royalty 
Golden Cycle. Colo. 
Golden Eorseshoe estates report 
Golden Reward, S. D. 58, 


by coun- 

1, 3 

.",. 247 
3, 137 

77. 1207 




1 224 

286, 437 


1S7. 5SS. 

708, 893 

Goldfield in 1910 62 

Goldfield mines. Development of *no 

Goldfield Consol. 36, 17, 62, 125. 191, 

200. 291, 361, 683, 783, 831. 02s 

- Bullion refinery 
l development 
Decline in shares 
Annual report 

— -Monthly reports 






158, 201 


1121, 1170 


List of shareholders 

Fire equipment *311 

Cyanide treatment of concentrates *368 

Inspection dept. 408 

Sanitary underground latrine '556 

I. a rue shipment of gold *oo:> 

Goldfield ores. Structure of * 71 4 

Colds, hmidt Thermit Co. 1110 

GoldSChmidt zinc recovery process 1211 

Good Hope mine. Colo. 712 

Good Luck mine. Nev. 225 

Goodale, S. L. Snatch blocks *258 

Goodland, Gillmore 505. 550 

G ryear, C. W., Heath of 826 

Gordon, M. R. B. 185 

Gordon, Peter 778 

Gordon, W. D. Transvaal drill com- 
petition 356 
Gordon hammer drill 164 
Gore range, Colo., discoveries 286 
Gorow, B. Taxco dist. 128 
Gould, C. V. 385 
Gould Mining & Milling Co. 186 
Govt, coalmine experiments *870 
Gowganda, List of mines at 1194 
Gowganda, etc., production 717 
Gowganda, Proposed railroad to 435. 680 
Gradenwitz, A. Metallizing process *532 

— 1 lmeldange elec. steel plant *915 

Graham, Walter 1032 

Granby Consol., B. C. 7. 302, 489, 833, 

929, 1175. *1103, 1275 
Granby M. & S. Co. 487. 539. B52 

Grand Central sta.. Channeling 1043, 1144 
Grand Central. Utah *222. 285, 391. 882 
Grangesberg, etc., Co., Sweden *12.>5 

Granite mine, Colo., explosion, etc. 310. 

404, 682 
— Drifting with stoping drill *652 

Grant, U. S. Prince Wm. sound 406 

Graphic calculations of development- 
work costs *174. *218 
"Graphical Charts, Construction of" 1*580 
Graphite, Ceylon, exports 793 
Graphite, current price 50 
Grass Valley mines production 388 
Giasselli Chem. Co. 344. 852 
Gratiot Mining Co. 14. 117. 118 
Gravel and sand. Boring through 1240 
Gravity tram car and switch *705 
Gray, A. Lignite mining. Tex. 335 
Gray, F. W. Nova Scotia relief societies 1070 
Graybill, J. M. 843 
Great Britain. See "United Kingdom." 

Croat Chaffinch mine, Australia 

Great Cobar mine. N. s. \v. 

< treat Calls Lower I !o, 

Great Fitzroy mine. Queensland 

Great Kanawha coal shipments 

Great Lakes. See also "Lake." etc, 

Great Lakes Transportation C 

Great Northern Level. Co.. 

( Jreal Nor. iron ore lands 

— Report 

Great Nor. Ry, 

11 Western Mg. Co. 

Greece, 1 <i ad 

Greece, Silver 

Greek mineral production 

Green, .lames and John L. 

( rreen Meehan, < »n t . 541, 

1 1 'ananea 1 see also 
Consol. "1 1 1 1 

1 1 reene, B\ T. < leolo 

( 1-reenvi ater El] 1 Ion 30] Cop 

Greenway, John c. 

cicenu 1 copper smelting works 

I' M Miner at home 
Taxing anthracite 1 oal 

W T Gold mining, Cuba 

Grey's Siding Level. Co 

• Irlet helm Elekl nm Co and 

Griffiths, William 
aw, Robert 
1 irindlng arrai tri Building 
Grommon, Phllo D. 

brlquetting process 

. 877 


















i : .". 1 ; 




1 lanov 

650, 748 
609, 774 




32, 158 


930, 1033, 
589, S33, 



1 1 


Qroo, B. w. Ariz. Cop. Belt Mg. Co. 846 

Grouting in quicksand 705 
Grub Stake fund, Colo. 112::. 117 1. 

1223, 1269 
Guadalupe mine, Calif. 8."), 238 

Guadalupe mill, Mex. 71 

Guadalupe Fresnillo, Mex. 70 

Gualacala .Mines Co. 883 

Guanajuato Amal. Co. _ 73 

Guanajuato Consol. 7 1, 589, 1275 

Guanajuato Devel. Co. 74 

Guanajuato operations in 1910 7.". 

Guanajuato Power & Elec. Co. 73 

Guanajuato Reduc. & Mints Co. 74 

Report 358 

Guaranty Oil Co. 733 

Guatemala M. .Sc D. Co. 1 1 s " 

Guernsey, F. W. 534 

Guerrero mining in 1910 128 

Guess, «i. A. Small blast furnace *557 

Guggenheim, I., on Alaska coal 956 

i nheim Expl. Co. report 363 

genheim purchases, Yukon 930 

"Guia Minera," etc. f922 

Guiana, British, Gold, diamonds ,393 

Guiana, British, gold discovery 037 

Guiana, French, gold dredging *323. *847 
Guillemain, C. Speisses and their 

benefication 50, 858 

Manganese ore in Uruguay 916 

Guiterman, Franklin P. 994 

— Utilization of Colo, minerals 171 

Guldner, II. "Int. Comb. Engines." t580 
Gulf field, Petroleum 89, 595 

Gulf Oil & Pipe Line Co. 91 

Guthrie. T. W. 678 

Gypsy Grove breaker burned 894, 1067 

Haas, F., on coal dust wetting 95, 379, 

625, 723, 1092 
— Coal mining. W. Va. 625, 597 

Haas, II. Tonopah dist. in 1910 125 

— II is blast roasting process 40 

Hackett Mining Co. 539, 868 

Haggin, Edward K. 826 

Hahn, A. C. 1074 

Hahn, A. \V. Smelting lead-antimony 

ores 211 

— Down-draft sintering experiments 120S 

Hahn, O. H. Amber on Baltic 728 

—Ore reduction in Harz *1106, *1163 

Haiditarod. See "Iditarod." 
Haiti, Mining in 562 

Haldeman, George T. 433 

Haley, ,1. F. Elevator-belt tightener *159 
Haley, M. Block-signal system *972 

Hall, C. Tests with explosives 1022 

Hall. C. M.. Medal awarded to 206, 234 

Hall, E. Coating for iron roofing 1196 

Hall, H.," on roof falls *227 

Hall, J. J. Eight-hours act 726 

Hall. R. I). X. French experiments 

on coal dust 156 

Hall, W. J. 1222 

Halsey, F. A. 923 

Hamburg, Copper at 248, 252 

Hamburg Metal Exchange 309 

Hamburg, Natural gas in 414 

Hamilton, E. H. Oil for smelting 224, 317 
Hamilton, K. M. 433 

Hamilton, S. H. Anchoring plugs in 

tunnel roofs *159 

— Small testing jig *654 

Hamilton mine dust explosion 538 

Hamlet mine, Colo. 874 

Hammon, W. I'. 276 

Hammond, John Hays 253, 337, 482, 609, 

774, 875, 892, 976, 1268 
Hancock ore, Milling 1150, 1227 

Hankow coal mines production 428 

Hanlon, R. V. 393 

Hanna iron-mining interests 141, 390, 1146 
Hansell, N. V. Briquetting iron ore 204 

Hansen, G. T. 1222 

Ilargraves mine. Ont. 392 

Harness for lowering mule *119."> 

Harris'. II. E., blowpipe for drilling 557 

Harris. M. E. Smoke-stacks 1196 

Harrison, G. Ohio coal trade 131 

Harrison. L. II. Blowing in silver- 
lead furnaces *800 
Hait Williams wash house *t!ii4 
Hartford iron-mine fire 1075, 1120 
I la it man. \V. Gas influence on coal 

quality 570 

— Ignition of mine gas 624 

— "Prevention of coal-dust explosions 727 

Harwood Electric Co. 1267 

Harz, ore reduction in *1106, *1163 

Haskell. P. II. Ignition of sulphide 

ores 3,") 6. 508 

Hassayampa placers. Ariz. *561 

Haul cars, Power to, Various pitches *458 
Haulage, Elec, Ala. mines *1118, *1168 

Haulage in Hand mines 1245 

Haulage. Loco., vs. main- and tail- 
rope 210 
Haulage. Marianna mine *380 
Haulage. Mine, Costs of 124:; 
Haulage. Underground, Hand 321 
Hawkins mine, Minn. 1124 
Hawlev, F. G. and W. E., on assaving 652 

Haworth, E. Oil and gas, mid-con- 
tinental field 91 
Preventing explosions 12211 
Hayden shaft, Colo. 171 
Hay ward tungsten mine. N. S. 637 
Hazel coal mine, Penn. 454, 488, 677 
Hazel T. Co., Mont. 191, 487, 635 
Headframe, New, Rand *912 
Headframe, Timber, Munroe Co.'s *iiis 
Heakes, T. R. 582 
Hearst Memorial mining building *!ii;2 
Heal conduction through furnace walls 912 
Heal from ore 654 
Heating concrete buildings ills 
Hedley Dist., B. C. |384 
Hedley Gold Mg. Co. report 656 
Hedley, Robert R. 1122 
Helntz, G. W. 582 
Helnze, F. Augustus o:;7. 680 
What he got from Butte 205 
Heizer, Otto F. 778 
Helen mine, Ont. 7s> 
Helena mine. Colo. 137, 140, 289 
Helena. Mont.. Operations near 571 
Hellman, II. Holman drill 101, 204 
Hemple mine, Alaska 139, 979 
Hendrickson, W. II. Seeking employ- 
ment 74S 
Henry, D. Extracting copper from ore 

in place 649 

Hercules mine, Idaho 927, 1220 

lleiiiv. .1. A. Seeking employment 650, 

— Sampling ore in tunnels 

-Management of the inefficient 
— Garden culture 
Hewitt talc mine, X. C. 
Hibbing and vicinity. Map 
Hidalgo operations in 1910 
Hidden Creek mine, B. C. 
Hidden Fortune. S. D. 58, 

798, 846 

11 i:; 




1175, *1193 

187, 588, 

893, 1080 




*4 73 


Hidden Lake mine, Mont. 
Higgins. I». F. Prince Wm. sound 
Higgins. Edwin 

1 lopper Creek basin 
- -Vekol copper deposits 
High altitudes, Operating at 
Highland Bov. See "Utah Consol." 
Hill iron-ore lands 32, 158, 493, 808 

Hill mine. Minn. 1127 

Hill. S. II. Air-pipe line freezing 359 

Hillhouse, James 875 

— Coal mining in Ala. 131 

Ilillman, F. H. 826 

Hills, Victor G. 778 

Hillsdale Coal & Coke Co. 869 

Hinds, J. I. D. Qualitative Analysis 
Hirsch, A.. & Sohn 211, 248. 252, 554, 598 
Hirsch, Benj.. Death of 1025 

Hitches, Cutting, with large bits *1107 

Hobart, F. Gold, silver, platinum, in 

1910 3, 216 

— Commercial movement of gold and 

— Iron and steel. 1910 
Hodgson, Capt. Joseph 
Hoesch works steel process 
Hoffman, F. L. Fatal accidents 
— Pulmonary diseases among miners 
— Prevention of miners' phthisis 
Hofman. II. O. Lead metallurgy in 

Ilogan. Captain 
Hoist. Elec, Tonopah-Belmont 
Hoist, Underground 
Hoists, Underground elec. on Rand 
Hoisting cages, Improvements in 
Hoisting charts. etc. Mitten's — 
Vertical unbalanced loads of first- 
motion hoists 
— Determining rope speed 
— Number of cars per hour 
— Determining face of drums 
— Amt. of rope wound on drum 
— Power to haul cars, various pitches 
— Total output, tons per hour 
Hoisting, Double-stage, Rand 
Hoisting engine. Compressed-air 
Hoisting inverted motors 
Hoisting overwinding allowance 
Hoisting Overwinding prevention 
Hoisting plant, Marianna mine 








321, 306 
*231, *278, 383 
Hoisting plant. Nevada Hills 1001 

Hoisting Rope guard for idler *604 

Hoisting-rope sheaves, Size of 253 

Hoisting ropes and cage rules 1046 

Hoisting safety devices, Testing *207 

Hoisting Skipway for supplies 802 

Hoisting, Snatch blocks in *258 

Holbrook, H. R. 976 

Holden tunnel at Tintie *266 

Holland, Briquet manufacture 134 

Holland. Spelter 205 

Hollinger mines. Ont. *217, 242, 533, 
785, *809, 828, 833, 930, 954, 983, 
loo5. 1117:;. 1081, 1099, 1129, 1180, 

1224, 1229. 1270 
Hollinger Gold Mines, Ltd. report 629 

I loii, .wax's tellurium isolating method 820 
Holman drill 81, 101, 204, 153, 163. 350 

Holmes-Alderson fire-damp cutout *475 

Holmes. E. M.. Heath of 482 

Holm,-, .1. A. 

on mine inspectors 

1 hi mine safety 

1 'oOperal Ive mine 1 1 

On mine lircs 

Lignite deposits in ; 
Holms. John, 1 l< B 
Homestake A; Mascot. Mo. 
Homestake mine. s. D. 


M ill in . 

Cyanide p 

Honduras Ri -;. lo • 
Hood, 1>. N . tesl 
Hooks. Crane, Be 
Hoops for cyanide tanks 
Hoosier mine. Colo. 
Ilooton. A. R. 
Hoover & Mason 
l [ope Mg. Co. 

R. E. Coball in 1910 
Horn Silver, I tab 
silver. Wash. 
Hon e, T- 

892, 1025 


', '407, 







143, 636 

ty, Calif. 535, 1125 

Hospital, i: Marianna mine *'-'- s \ 

Houghton'E • eper *457 

Houses, Mineis'. Cleveland-Cliffs *114 

Houses, Mineis'. Marianna mine *333 
Houses, Miner-'. Trim. C, I. & R. R. 

Co. *1068, 1240 

Hour. Epenetus, Death of 284 
Howe. 11. M. "Iron and Steel" 

lion and steel nomenclature 327, 375, 454 

Rolling and forging manganese steel 403 

Howe, w . P., Death of 630 
Huasteca Petroleum Co. *960, 961 

Hubbard Elliott Cop. Co. 878 

Hudson, Banks 433 
Hudson Bay mine, Ont. 392, 589, 718 

Hudson. J. K. Skip dumps 114 

Heating cyanide solutions 404 

Stamp duty vs. profit per ton 553 

Hut electrostatic process 273, 357, 1024 

Hull' iron mine, X. J. 1079 

Hughes, C. J., Death of 185 

Hughes properties, Ont. 1033 
Hughestown coal-mine explosion 254, 331 

Ilitlett on standard IIC1 solutions 412 

Hull Uust mine, Mesabi 422 

Ilult on colliery explosion 726, 1167 

Humboldt Mg. Co., Mex. 74 

Humphrey system of pumping *373 

Hungary, Xew lead smeltery 358 

Hunt, C. W., Death of 678 

Hunt & Douglas cop. process 1150 

Hunt, S. F. 729 

Hunter mine, Idaho 880 

Huntingdon & Broad Top K. R. 500 

Huntoon, Louis D. 678, 1222, 1268 

Stamp milling in 1910 46 

— Faulty sampling device 159 

— Preparation of assay samples 1249 

Ilussev -Howe Mg. Co. 980 

Hutchins, .1. P. 630 

Hutchinson coal-mine fire 1114 

Hyacinths, Imperial county, Calif. 1176 

Hyder & Hyder 778 

Hydraulic cartridges. Marianna mine *335 

Hydraulic mines ditches valuable 161 

Hydraulic sluicing, Xotes on *710 

Hydrochloric acid. Standard solutions 412 

Hydroelectric plant in Oaxaca 416 
Hydrogen, Direct determination of 454. 451 

Hydrogen peroxide. Detecting 219 

Hyponga, Australia, Quicksilver 518 

Ibex, Colo. 

Iceland. Gold 

Idaho in 1910 

Idaho, Copper 

Idaho, Gold 

Idaho, Lead and zinc 

Idaho metal production 
Idaho mining fatalities 
Idaho, Silver 
Idaho. University of 
Iditarod dist.. Alaska 
Idler, Hope guard for 
Ignition of mine gas 
Illinois, Coal and coke 

Proposed merger 

Criticism of the mining 
— Remedy for overproduction 
Illinois, iron. Pig, production 265 

"Illinois, Oil Resources" 1922 

Illinois, Petroleum 89, 92, 595 

Illinois, Silver 3 

Illinois St. Geol. Surv. Year Book t022 

Illinois Univ.- -Loading demonstration 751 
Illinois, Zinc 22. 851 

Immigration Commission, U. S. 273, 526, 

669, 821 
Imperial, Ariz. 7. 237, 633 

Imports. See "Foreign tirade," 

"United States." names, etc. 
[ncahuari Gold Dredging Co. 367 

Inclined planes. Stop block for *654 

Inclined planes, Power needed on *458 

140, 733 

OS 5 

7, 481, 777. 891 
3, 481. 777 
18, 481, 777. 

851, 1056 

481. 777 


3, 18, 481. 777 


64, 537 



94, 98, 101 

394, 490, 677 




Independence mln "' 1176 

Independeu; Coal & < 
Independent Producers' Agency 

894, 1123 


- S 253 

inutce in *io.>, 

r in 



141. 924, 



of the 


drill and Cameron 

. Marianna 

I onsol. 

Iron range, Cuyuna 31, 731, *7 









_ : 340, 
878, *1055, 1125, 1 14»;. 


_ : 340, 485, 


•710. 756, 801 
M y M. 

• i. 1 'anger from 160 
ables in mines 476 

International Agricultural I 123, 

128, 264 

ational H:i 

itional Snisr. & Kef. Co. 40, 59 

124, 1097, 
I, 1270, 1274 
Iodine, Chile 76, 7. 

Iodine extraction "■ i s 

■ ;. 927. 1078 

Iron. Ala., market 

Iron, alumina, chromium, separation 

"Iron and Steel" 

.id steel. Carbon determination 

414. »560 

od steel in 
Iron and Steel Inst.. Brit 11". 204, 

Iron and steel making. Changes in 

1910 38 

• el markets and prices, 

Iron and steel nomenclature 327, 375. 45 1 
iination of 

•560 297, ill 

•ii. Utah *_-■-'. 292, 

'. 1274 
and 6teel 397, 

1 1 76 
nopany drilling 



1124, 1272 








iron ranges of Minnesota 
Iron roofing, Coatings foi 
Iron, Scandinavia, mining 
Iron Silver Mg. Co. 

Iron smelting. Atlantic coast 
Iron smelting, Elec., l»ommeldange 
Iron smelling. Primitive 
Iron. Spanish mines 

Sweden, and steel 
Sweden, Method of mining 
Iron, Tenn., and ore 

Transmuting, into gold 
Iron. I nited Kingdom, and steel — rig 
• e and pyrites 
Foreign trade 
ten pig production 
--Iron and steel production 
Iron, I". S., and steel 

—Rolled iron and steel in 1909 
Pig production; by States 
Iron making capacity 

sign trade 
Rail production 


tit!, 797, 
993, 1140 
451, 1196 

189, 927 










1 is 




93 1 
1199, 1237 

1, 20 

1, 20, 516 


251, 265 

310, 4ii4 


402, 411, 443 

598, 640, 655, 1237 

Iron. Ya., ore. Giles county 1032 

Irvine. Frederick B. 826 

Irving, Joseph 38o 
•Extracting copper from ore In place 601 

Irwin district strike 834 

Irwin. George B. 337 

Isabella Co., Colo. 389, 682 

...vale Cop. Co. 117, 118, 943 

Italy, Coal imports. 835 

Italy, Gold and silver imports 831 

Italy, Iron imports 887 

Italy, Lead 17 

Italy, Silver 3 
Ives, L. E. Contract vs. company 

drilling 155 

— Handling of High explosives 255 

Transit bar for shaft alining 897 

Bucket trolley for shaft sinking *99S 

Loading bin for skips *1195 

Iwanow, W. N. Determining copper in 

crude and spent pyrites 1194 

J. B. B. Coal Co. 9S2, 1032 

.lack creek discovery, Jarbidge 225 

Jackets, Furnace, Straightening *653 

Jackson Hill C. & C. Co. 92, 

Jacobs, E. Brit. Col. in 1910 79, 306 

—Brit. Col. coal-mine laws 554 

— Diamonds In Brit. Col. 797 

Hidden Creek cop. mine *1193 

i, Mining industry in 72 

James, A. British investments, Mex. 

411. 152 

Janin, C. Sampling placer ground 754, 845 

Janiu, Henry, Death of 284 

How he examined a mine 1056 

Japan, Copper 9, 750 

Japan, Gold and silver 3 

Japan, Lead 17 

Japan. Sulphur 009 

Japanese, Calif., Bill against 679 

Jarbidge developments 225, 405 

Jarbidge Ely M. & D. I o 201 

upment, Marianna tipple *42<S 

S. J., on \\ asi i' 309 

\!i/.. Conditions at 581 

Jerry Johnson mine, Colo. 1272 

Maria. Mex. 07 

Si tall *654 

I ei mine, Nev. 125 

Jimu Mex. 637 

.. W. 07s 

M., tungsten-ore treatment 419 

I [ . on stamp milling 13 

Johnson, .1 S . Sr., Death of 923 

\\ m. w . 265 

ton, I: \. A., diamond find 632, 797 

w Retimbering tunnel *898 

D. Spad work, coal mines *974 


i : oisoning 211 1 

11 B. Handling explosives 

underground 1019 

John-H i"ii 

Bltun trade In 

: i 1078, 1090 

Republic 11170. U94 



■ i." 

mining al 91 1 
1910 21 


la in 668 

Ore Pro 

202. 3 i 1 '1 

977, 988, 1280 

Death of 1 17:1 

netting 1106, »1108 

» 1 8 7 

•110, 122, 



Jupiter mine, Ont. 1033, 1081, 127", 

Jupiter mine. Transvaal. 958 

Juragua Iron Co. 74 

Just process Silica sponge 509 


Kaeding, C. B. and H. B. 599 

Kaeding, II. B. Mining, Nicaragua 1092 

Kane. John I. 875 

Kankakee. Bear Creek, Colo. 712 

Kami. Robert 136 

Kansas, Coal and coke 101, 542 

Kansas Mg. Co. 25 

Kansas -Natural (.as Co. 92 

Kansas, Oil and gas 89, 91, 595 

Kansas, Prevention of explosions 1221 

Kansas Univ. concentration research 269 
Kansas. Zinc 22, 851 

Katanga, Copper 10, 405, 59 

Katanga, Prospecting at 708 

Katalla oilfields, Alaska 1098 

Kay. George F. 1173 

Keane Wonder mine. Calif. 1271 

Kearsarge Silver Mg. Co. 143 

Keating Cold Mg. Co. 239, 571, 1273 

- — Explosion 315 

Keekeek mining area, Que. 780, 833, 940 

Keeley mine, Ont. 393 

Keety, T. F. Mine-sampling errors 
Keffer, James YV. 
Keiser, F. B. 
Kelly. A. H., Death of 
Kelly's Creek Colliery Co. 
Kemp, J. F. "Lagerstaetten der Nutz 

baren Mineralien'* — Review 
Kenai Alaska 
Kennedy mine, Calif. 
Kennedy Extension, Calif. 
Kennedy mine, Cuyuna range 
Kennedy, E. C., explorations 
Kennedy. J. E. Wis. zinc 
Kenner, A. R. Mine track 
Kennicott-Bonanza 04. 188, 287, 709 

Kentucky, Coal and coke 101 

Kentucky Inst, of Mines 970. 1222 

Kentucky-Panama Coal Co. 734 

Kentucky, Petroleum 89, 90, 595 

Kerr Lake miue, Ont. 242, 286, 717, 718, 

1180, 1224 
Ketchikan, Alaska. Mining in 64, 506 

Kens. William S. 1222 

Keweenaw Cop. Co. 14, 634, 1078 

Key, A. C. Rand ore reserves 1151 
Keystone mine. Ariz. *1056, 1176 

Keyways Effect on strength • 410 

Kiddie. T. Cop. smelting 40 

Klmberly Consol., Nev. 285 

King Philip mine. Mich. 539 

King Solomon mine, Calif. 1028 

Kingston Coal Co., Penn. 108 

Kirby. A. G. 778 
Kirunavaara iron mine 
Kjellin. F. A., Death of 
Klar-Piquett mine, Wis. , 
Klerksdorp, Discovery near 







114, 237, 514 

237. 340 

797, 881, 993 




Kloman mine, Mich. 
Klondike placers, etc. 
Knights Deep mine 
Knot. Plumb bob 
Knox, John, Jr. 
Koch, Waller E. 

Tin mining near EI Paso 
Koester, Frank 
Kolonlal Gesellschaft 
Koning, Paul 

Krantz* scales of refringency 

Kremmliug. Colo., gold strike 
Kim/., c F. Morganite beryl 
Kuryla, M. H. 

* 1 255 


450, 504. 

958. 1242 

141, 1076, 1194 


208. 320, 1151 










1 1 73 

La Blanca Co., Mex. 70. ill 

Laharpe Zinc Polling Mill Co. 955 

La Leonesa mine. Nicaragua 71 

La Luz \ Los Angeles 1081 

La Rose, Ont. ill. 212. 393, 717. 718, 

7s:,. 983 

Reporl 101S 

La Sa 15, 117, 118, 559 

Labor Art of appreciation .",25 

oal mining troubles, 

1. etc. 137, 288, 33s. 386, 

135, 4S3, 1026 
French coal mines 917 

Labor Departure In settling petty coal 

si rikes 134 

Labor, Foreign and other — Immigra 

tion Comm. reports 27:',. 520. 009, 821 
Labor in British I 917, 1020 

lanagement of 1104 

Of the Inefficient 1148 

Labor, steel-works, conditions 820 

labor. Transvaal 81, 135, 804 

Laboratory, Employees', Florence 

Goldfleld 053 

Lackawanna land Bt Lumber Co. 292 

1 ado \ Baker roasting furnace *55fl 

I adders. Steel mine • I 2 M 

i a, lie. Matte, i louble t runnlon *2io 

LafTertv. R '•' Sampling placer grow 



"Lagerstaetten der Nutzbaren Minera 

lien" 1 I s " 

Laiug. J. Mine explosion, Elk Garden 

1052, 11 1 1 
Laird, G. A. Candelaria pumping plant 1261 
Lake coal tonnage, all districts 95 

Lake cop. mines explosives practice 
Lake copper price in 1910 

Tallies and charts 9, * 1 1 5 . 151, 

Lake, E. F. 
Lake iron-ore prices 
Lake iron ores 

Lake Milling, Kef. & Smg. Co. 
Lake mine, .Mich. 15, 141, 

Lake of the Woods disl 
Lake ore dock. New 
Lake ore dock stal istics 
Lake ore freight, Handling 
Lake ore steamers, New 
Lake rates for past season 
Lake Sup. copper district 
Lake Snp. copper mines 
Lake Snp. Corp. 
Lake Snp. iron country 
Lake Sup. iron ore shipments 
— Distribution 
Lake Sup. & Ishp. R. R. 

896, 1124, 



8 12 



00 4 




7, 1-4 

05 7 

470, 516, KI71 




2! Ml 

Lake Sup. milling, Suggested improve- 
ment *314 
Lake traffic, Sault Ste. Marie 444 
Lake View gusher 80, 00 
Lakes, (ireai, traffic, 1910 1052 
Lakes. Iron ore under —Suit 290 
Lamb, M. R. 826 
-Crushing at cyanide plants 200 
— Gentle art of appreciation 32.5 

-Seeking employment 

356, 554, (502, 650. 

74S, 70S, 846 
778, 1268 

Lamb. It. P. 

Lamp. Cochrane's, for gas tests 

Lamp. Electric tail, Pilley 

Lamp. Miners' electric, Pilley 

Lamp. Miners' elec. Prize for 

Lamp tests and Hulton explosion 

Lamps, Safety, and firedamp 

Lamps, Safety — P>ritish instructions 

Lancaster, Henry M. 

Land. See also "Coal," "Petroleum," 

"Leases," etc. 
Land, Coal, withdrawal, etc. 656, 






Land, coal, fraud, damage recovery 870 

Land, Coal, reclassifications 730, 1067 

Land Office report, Salt Lake 230 

Land, Phosphate, legislati6u, Western *413 
Land, Phosphate, withdrawals, Mont. 235 
Land — Two years of conservation 656 

Lands, Coal, Ala., entry 135 

Lands, Coal, Classification of 1060 

Lands, Federal, Calif, bill to tax 434 

Lauds, Mineral, Bills affecting 216, 423, 504 
Lauds, Petroleum, withdrawals, etc. 90, 235 
Landers, W. II. 023 

Lane, C. D., Death of 1122, 1173 

Lanyon Zinc Co. 851, 852, 955 

Lanyon, Wm., smeltery, 111. 690 

Lapiz mine, Mex. 1081 

Lapland, Iron miniug in *1255 

Larsh. 1*. A. Vauadium in old silver 

mines, N. M. 1248 

Las Palomas, Dry concentrator 840 

Last Chance, N. M., cyaniding *1005 

Lathe, Zinc, Double-tool 1005 

Latrine. Sanitary underground *550 

Launders, Prevention of foaming *1005 

Laurium, Mich. 15, 117, 118, 559, 683, 1145 
Lauriuin Montana 438 

Lautenthal smeltery, Germany 1164 

I.avery, II. II. Steamboat mtu. 1260 

Lawn. J. G. 1151 


See also State names, special sub- 
jei is, etc. 
—Am, Mg. Congress accident preven- 
tion report discussed; Australian 
laws 1045 

San Francisco discussion 1141 

—Calif. Mineral leases under water, 

etc. 077 

— Canadian mining law 040, 05S, 747 

Note 236 

— Colo. labor laws. etc. 3SG, 435. 583, 

1020. 1223 

— Indiana 138. 141, 286, 4S4. 771. S27, 

880, 924, 1082, 1178, 1203 
—Indiana laws to be tested 677 

—Legislation, Mining. Outlook for 805 

—Location, Lode-claim, Proposed 

amendment 308 

-Mex. law, Old. still in force 203 

— Mex. laws, Peculiar — Alleged libel 

of employee 505, 550 

— Ohio mining code 131 

— Penn., Proposed laws 771, 824, 1021 

-Porcupine, Laws relevant to 1052 

Quebec mining law 946 

- Tex. laws and prospecting 371, 391, 025 
— Venezuelan mining code 503 
Lawson, Andrew C. 1208 
Lawson-Mex. Devel. Co. 73 
Lay. D. Thawing dynamite 102, »704 
Lavne. W. R. 923 
Lavng, F. S., Death of 582 
Le Fevre, S- 720 

I.e Gallais Metz & Co. 
Le Koi mine. P.. C. 
Le Koi Center Star lode 
I e Roi No. 2 mine, P.. ( '. 

Paper before Mining Institute 





Leaching copper ore in place *450, 601, 

649, 700 

Leaching of sand, Upward 417 

Leaching processes, cop. smelling 41 

Leaching vats. Gate for *951 

Lead and ore market and prices *17. 25, 

•115, 150, 151, *212 
Lead 'antimony ores, Smelting 211 

Lead, Australia 17 

Lead. Brit. Col. 70, 80 

Lead bj products, Duty on; smelting 

in bond L64, 844, 1044, 110.!. 124 1 

Lead, Canada 17, 512 

Lead. Colo. *51, 750. 1050 

Lead con vent inn. European 17 

Lead determination in zinc ores 500 

Lead (list., S. E. Mo. 10, 129 

Lead Down-draft sintering 1208 

Lead, Germany 17, 10L> 
Lead. Idaho 18, 481, 777, 1050 

Lead metallurgy in 1010 48 

Lead. Mexico 17 

Lead. Missouri 17, 24, 130, 1050 

--S. E. (list. 17, 19, 120, 1050 

Lead. Okla. 25, 1050 

Lead ore. .Nye CO., Nev. 1274 

Lead production, world. 1910 17 

Lead refining electrolyte 902, 1091 

Lead silicates, Composition of 48 

Lead. Silver, furnaces. Plowing in *806 

Lead smeltery. Flume, Hungary 358 

Lead smelting, Ilarz, Germany *1 loo. * I 1 03 
Lead. Spain 17, 40 1 

Lead Speiss benefication 50, 858 

Lead. United Kingdom 17. 248 

Lead. U. S. 1. 17, 1050 

-Foreign trade 350 

Lead, Utah mines" *220 

Lead, Utah, production 1056 

Lead, White, in 1910 18 

Lead-zinc ores. Tariff on 803, 841 

I.eadville. Zinc at *52, 171, 253, 535, 1075 
Leases, Oil-land 90, 235, 070, 1200 

Leases, Transvaal Govt 83 

Leases under water. Calif. 977 

Leasehold system, Canada 660, 747 

Leatherbee, B. Vanadium, N. M. 420 

— Caballos dist., N. M. • 516 

Leavitt steam stamp 1101 

Leavitt table, high-speed steels 412 

Ledoux report on Wyo. platinum 460 

Lees, J. II. Coal, la., in 1910 133 

Leggat. A. Geol. Surv. reports 1191 

Legislation. See also "Laws." etc. 
Legislation. Mining, Outlook for 805 

Lehigh Coal & Nav. Co. 30. 700, 1200 

— Report 1022 

Lehigh & N. F. R. R. 104 

Lehigh & Susquehanna 080 

Lehigh Vallev decision 007, 700 

Leibert. Owen. Death of 078 

Lena Gold Mg. Co. 3 

Leonard. Franklin, Jr. 120 

Leplev fan. Marianna mine *228, *177 

Lest we forget 106 

Leveling. Underground 052 

Levensaler. L. A. 720 

Levy, D. M. Converter flame stages 207 

Levy, F. Le Koi No. 2 1254 

Lewis, J. B. Tin mining, Tas. 715 

Lewis, T. L. 1074 

Lewisohn. Albert. Death of 630 

Levden, Colo., mine explosion, etc. 35, 

338, 730 
Plumb-line deflection *318 

Ventilation; steel door *121S 

Libel. Alleged, in Mex. 505. 550 

Liberty Bell. Colo. 900 

Lievin coal-dust experiments 182, 150 

Light — Triboluminescent compound 310 

Lightner Mg. Co. 486, 537, 5.85. 681. 

1028, 1125. 1170 
Lignite deposits in U. S. 1023 

Lignite mining in Texas .335. 1007 

Lima field. Petroleum 89, 93 

Lime. Adding, to cvanide solution 455 

Lincoln. F. C. Types of Can. gold 

deposits 470 

Lindenberg, Richard 582 

Lindgren, W. New Mex. Deposits t58 

Lindsley, T. Ore deposits, Porcupine 1005 
Linforth. F. A. Geology apnlied to 

mining *004. 700, 845, 1144 

Lion Hill Consol. 143. *222, 440, G84, 1120 
Lithia ore treatment plant 781 

Little Pell mine. Utah 192, *220. 392. 

832, 1128 
Ore occurrence at mine * 1 101 

Little Chief mine. Colo. 830 

Little Hulton Colliery Fxplosion 35 

Little Jonnv mine, Colo. 034 

Little Nipissing, Out. 345, 387, 140, 

536, 551 
Little. S. W.. Co. 1070 

Live Oak Development 139, 237. 485, 

537. 5S5, 732, *1056 
Livermore, K., Report of 286 

Lloyd. K. L., sintering experiments 1208 

Loading bin for skins *1195 

I. nailing bore holes 

Pracl leal demons! ral ion 

Loading loco, tenders, Tippli 

Location, Lode, Propi ed law amend 

Locomotive, Dentz, for Land 

Locomotive, Gathering, Baldwin-West 

Locomotive tenders. Tipple for load- 

Locomotive vs. main and lailrope 

Locomotives, Air. Marianna mine 

Locomotives, Gasolene, 


Lode location law amendment pro 

Loggln, N. .V Hydraulic sluicing 

London mica market 

London, Selling American mines in 

Longdate Furnace Co., End of 

Longwall method in America 

Long wall mining — Operator's 

Lbngyear mine. Minn. 

Lorain Coal & Dock Co. 

Lord, N. w.. Death of 

Loring, Frank C. 

Lost mils oilfields 

Lotowana placers. Ariz. 

Louisiana. Pel roleum 

Lovell, Gerald 

Lowe concentrator, Black Hawk, Colo 

Lower Calif, onyx Co. 

Lower Mammoth, It ah 










Lucky Tiger ; El Tigre 

Ludlow, Edwin 
Lumlnator Water Co.'s pi 

Lung diseases among miners 






1 122 

23 l 



102. 302. 139, 

78 1. 82, 1'i8d 
193, 213. 263, 

393, 68.1 

050. L203 



15 4. 523, 

802, 040 

Lunt, II. Drifting will) stope drills 
Luossavaara district. Sweden 
Lupita Mines Co. 

Luty, B. E. V. Pitts, iron and steel 
markets in 1910 

Pittsburg coal dist. in 1010 
l.ynde. F. Stop block for inclines 

Use of sprags in coal mines 





* 1 005 


Maas iron mine. Mich. 
McAllister, J. Fdgar 

100. 1120. 1273 
070. 107 1. 1222 

-Greenwood cop. smelting works 
McArthur, .1. S. 
McCallie, S. W. Bauxite deposits, 

southern Ga 
Maccailum steel process 
McCan, F. K., Heath of 
McCann, F. "Guia Minera" 
McConnell, J. B. 
McConnell, R. G. Stewart Kiver and 

Portland Canal dist. 
McCormack, G. B. 

Coal, Mont, in 1010 
Claim business at 

Macoun, .1. M 
McDermott, J. P. 
McDonald, James 
McDonald, P. B. 

Ore occurrence, Dome mine 
Drilling with double-screw columns 
Taking chance in Porcupine 
Mich. Coll. of Mines celebration 
McDougal furnace. Rake and arm for 
McEncroe, Capt. John 
McFadden, W. II. 

McFarlane, G. C. Air currents and 
shaft plumb lines 
Timbering swelling ground 
-—Genesis of northern (int. ores 
— Ventilation at Leyden mine 
MacFarren, II. W. "Practical Stamp 

Milling and Amalgamation" 
Mi ( tee mine. Mo. 

McGill, M. -L Cleaning Hat cables 
McGregor, c. c. Placing timbers 
Mcllravy, W. N. Ammonia in 1910 
Mclntyre, James, Deatb >>? 
McKensie, A. K. Water in converter 

air mains a source of danger 
Mackie, R. G. Preventing live wire 
■Danger, deteriorated insulation 
not ive and other haulage 
Reheating air underground 
Underground electric hoists 
McKinley-Darragh, Ont. 345, 718, 

Mackormack, J. »'. One. mining law 
McLaughlin, William 
McLeish, J. Mineral prod.. Can. 
McNair, F. W., on shaft plumbin 

M01 1 


• 1050 


1 85 



1 38 
1 85 











• 1096 





10' l 





McNamara, Tohopah, Nev. 63, 126, 784, »9K6 

McNaught. N. F.. Death of KG I 

VlacNaughton, J., on Mich, copper 451 

Macquisten tubes 560 

Machine shops. Marianna mine *332, 381 
Madagascar. 'Gold 3. 1033 

Madeira. Dill i\; Co. 1228 

Madge. W. C. 67S 

Magadi Soda Co. 500 

Magazines for explosives 111 




S M. 



ign trade 


■ ■ ■ i 


•61 1. 895 
Matnnii'ih mine, Utah *222 241 

292, 882," 1031 

Maun- - ientific 

35 1 



ing engines. 

Mining a 
Metal prices, 1909 and 1910 
Average yearly 
j Ing Co. 
- Contagious diseases of 
po\* er to melt 
Indea numbers, in 1910 
Semi common, < tut look for 
i K.. foreign trade 
Metals, I . S., foreign trade 
Metallic oxides Reducing 


Marianna *179, 

•231, *278 










350, 550, 552 



Wines and Methods on Bin-ham re 

... '""'. l „ . 106, 109 

Mines < o. of America 589, 637, 883, 983 

1000, 1180, 1270 
Report 75 g 

Mines, Development of 943 

Mines Finance Co., of Am. 785 

Mines Timber Co. 1150 

Miner at borne, The 33(5 

Miners' phthisis S9° 94fi 

253, 451, 551, 647. 795, 

843, 945, 1043 
Metallizing process, New, Sehoop *:,.■;•• 

•323, »847 
517, 994, 






: 1 1 1 ; 


s. Market value 465 

ug. forging ::s. 403 

601, 994 

\riz. I1177 

alif. 287 

iction 750 

- ii method »806 

•466, 1 14:; 

ration of 1046 

43 1 

hie. .Middle States 564 

lata »66o, 700 

845, 1 144 

nic *618, 1191 


mill 44 

stell, Mo. 343 

k 1: 1 r>2 

•a. Model coal mine 154 *177 ~ 

►332 379 

— The »428 

le la »:;■•:; 324 

in J. 11 73 

31, ."iii; 

■ illion Iron Co. 4s7 

I F. Transvaal in 1910 80 

1 in 1910 

Marshall. William 

»eph, Death of 

a Barry, Ltd 

II K Chile mining 
ax in 1910 

Metallizing proce 

Meti rs, Improved flow. 6. 

Metzler, Henry 

Mexii an. See also under 

Eagli Oil Co. 
Mexican Exploration Co. 
Mexii an iron & steel Co. 
Mexican mine. Alaska 
Mexican mine. Comstock 



1 194 


959, *960, 961 




. Nev. 120. 391, 

831, 929, 981, 1031, 1079, 

1178, 1228, 1273 

Mexn an Mines Co., Me\. 7:;. 193 

Petroleum Co. *90n. 96.1 

Mexicans as low-priced laborers ' 27:; 

Miners. Pulmonary diseases among 

Miners' Smelting Co. 

.Mineral Devel. Co. 

Mineral Hill Ry. Tunnel Co. 

"Mineral Indnstrv. The" 

Mineral. Kans., Explosion at 

.,, , , , *1115, 1220 

Mineral land. See •'Land," "Coal," 

"Petroleum," "Leases," etc. 
Mineral. New Galafatite 
Mineral Point Zinc Co. 
Minerals, Prices, in 1910 
Minerals Separation affairs 





+ 176 

261, 1241 
588, 852 

Mineville. Deep drilling at 

Mineville, Water car at 

Mining machines. Increased use 

Mining & Met.Soc. 185, 309, 1141 

642, 74.",. 

759, 94G, 1198 



Mexico Mines of Ki Oro 

Alamos dist., Sonora 

British mining investments, 


i< lead re 

Me trunnion 




34 1 


4 2, 830 



783, 981, 1274 

L5, 682, 943 


284, 482 



110, 164 


— Candelaria pumping plant 



Cost data at a Mex. mine 
Exports of minerals 
Foreigner in Mexico 

Instituto de Minas y Met. 
—Labor. Management of 
Law. Old, still in force 
-Law Alleged libel of employee 

Mining in Mex. in 1910 
Northeastern Mex. in 1910 
Oil-well tire 
■Pel roleum 
—Petroleum — Tampico oilfield 
Pozos camp. Guanajuato 
Quicksilver from Mexico 
Railroad development 
-Railroad to Sombrerete, etc. 
Revolution, The Mexican 
Notes 2r,: 

Americans safe 
— Silver 

Traveling in Mexico 
Miami camp, Okla. 
Miami Coal Mg. Co. 
Miami Cop. Co. Notes 

193, 944 

777. 1251 

411. 452 


70. 1071 

9. 750, 891 






1104. 1143 


505. 550 


or.. 128 



65, 206 


04 S 

65, 589 


2 S3 

:, 680, 795, 1175 




63, 731 


586. 634, 682 

139. 237. 340, 

185, 598. 633, 681, 732. 829. 

839, 878, 920. 979. 1028 



7.-, 4 




nrnin 1268 

■ nlif. 205 

636, 832 

7 t 

62S B74 927 




' lifts 

1 23 

1 1 23 




in In 

Mine and mill 1 1 

Water for mill 533 

Report S44 

-Review of mine's discovery 953 

Map and statistics *1055 

No merger with Inspiration 1140. 1271 
Miami dist., Copper mines of: map *1055 
Mica in 1910 669 

Mica market. London 4 1 g 

Mica. South Dakota 58, 669, 1128 

Michigan. Coal Qg, 101 

Michigan Coll. of Mines celebration 1172 
Michigan. Coppef 7, 14. 891 

Price iti 1910 943 

Michigan copner mines. The 957 

Michigan. Drilling in !I5C, 

Michigan mines. Valuation of 1150, 1227 

Michigan miners. Nativity of 669 

Michigan. Silver 3 

Michigan Smelting Co. 7<;2 

ttal field, Oil : gas 89, 91. 595 
Mldvale's gasolene locomotives 90" 

Milan mine, N. 11. 127 

Mllburn. 1: B. Geology applied to 

mining *<;r,i, 70.1 

Militia i 1 -,' . Montana 

M, ll. Sei Stamp, rube." 

"Crusher," "Cyanida 

"Amalgamation." nan,, 

of metals, nroper nai 

Mill A.- Smelter I ; ,, L - . 
Mill | on 

I al e ' >'Bl ll 11 I 

Miller, w. Clayton 

Miller, i! mine, .,,,, ]: ^ 7:;(; ,, 7V 

Milling at 1 ildfield 

Mllllni Implicit] 

Milling. Trinity mine, Calif. 

Milling Hon ,,.,., 

Milling Sup Suggested Improve' 

!.e feed 

..■11, id. piai 

Pei 11 
fi titute 



.Mining Asso. Mill Co. 

Mining extension work, New plan 

Mining institutes. Suggestion to 

Mining, Tradition in 

Minium. A. E. 

Minnesota. Iron ranges of 

-Minn, lakes. Ore under- -Suit 

Minn. Iron-ore notes 

Minn. State mining income 

Minn. Steel Co. 770, 1076, 1124, 1227 

Minority stock. To appraise 6"9 

Mint at Charlotte, N. C. o= (; 

Mint coinage. Nov. 1910 25 

Missouri. Coal and coke 101, 542 737 

Missouri, Kan. & Tex. mine explosion 709 

. T , 825, *1115, 1220 

Missouri. Lead 
Southeast dist. 
Growth of S. E. dist. 
Missouri Mining Asso. 
Missouri, Zinc 
Mitchell, John 
— Miners owning houses 
Mitchell. William C. 
Mitten. L. F. Hoisting charts 

*260, *314, *360, •410, *458, »510 
Mizpab Extension, Nev. 125 

Moctezuma Cop. Co. 7, 12, 600 645 

I'olares mine 1016 

Modderfontein B., Developing ore re- 
serves 1000 1151 
Moffat, 1). II., Death of 630 
Moffat lun'nel. Colo. 43.-), 679, 730 977 
Mohawk. Mich. 14 
— Report 
Moir's respirator 
Moldenke, R. Coke manufacture 
Mololoa Mg. Co. 
Molybdenite discovery, Ont. 170 
Molybdenum. Peru 1007 
Monarch .Madonna. Colo. [40 288 
Monazite 1 ?.->'> 
Monazite sand. Concentrating 1254 
Mond Nickel Co. 73 
Monel metal and its uses 223 551 
Monnell slime table " *m07 
Mono mine. Calif. -| s<^ 
Monon Coal Co. Walsh mines S77 SS4 '"' 
, , 1067, lii7S. 1220 
Monongahela riv. coal traffic ".'14 
Monongahela Riv. Consol. 96 97 214 
245, 379, 684, 686, 1131, 118l! 

1182. 1231 
Report year ended Oct. 31 077 

Monorail system, Trouble with 647 

Monroe. II S 337 

Montagu & Co. Course of silver, etc 201 
„ , „, v 213, 613. 648, 844 

Montana Bingham, I tah 7,'ir, sv 

Mont., c,,ai and coke 100. 101 134' 725 

Mont.. Copper 7, u [ S01 

Mo, n 1 orbin 101 

Mont.. Employer's liability bill i:;s 

Moot Frisco ssi 

Mont., Gold ami silver 

Mont. III. Cop Mg Co. 928 

Mont, militia Ian 10 -- 





893, 1024 


17, 24, 130. 1050 

17, 19, 1056 



22, 24, 851 





141, 734, 943 

387, *952 


1 59 

1 in 

1 222 




1 1 2.". 




Mont. Mining Men's Asso. 

Mont. Mg. Co. 

Mont mining in 1910 

Mont., Operations near Helena 

Mont Phosphate I5g o-,.-) 

Mom Society of Engineers 238 

Mont, state Mining Corp 


5 1 


11 1.". I 

Mont. Tonopah Mg. Co. 125 126 *:k;i ♦ ooo 

Mont , inn ■ ,,.,, ' 

Mont, Zinc n -- . N ,' 

Monte Crist,, mine, Calif ' ' ' ' ?2n 

Monlolh, Salt Co. 1()7 - ',\'.l 

Montezuma Mines, o.sia R] ca i™ 

Mont: omerj Shoshone 01. 62, 191, 301 ' ' 

6 S 3 t ' ' *" 1 
M ° 0n d - r ,U K '"ini„g will, sloping' 

Moore Filter Co Clancy plant »go4 

m Geo w 

Moo.,. James r \ 




J. P., on mine accidents 132 

Moreing, C. A., on Porcupine 954 

Morgan, C. II.. Deatb of 185 

Morgan, Dwight C. 234 

Morganite, rose-colored beryl 205 

Morin, L. 847 

Morlnville, Saskatchewan, Petroleum 393 

Morning Glory mine Wash. 14:; 

Morning mine, Idaho ill, 4S1, 4S7. 560 

Morris, William C. 385 

Morrison, E. Chicago iron market 30 

— Chicago coal market 97 

Mortality. Anthracite mining 623 
Mortimer-Lamb, II. Canadian mining 

law 747 
Moit on. A. C. Bonus and contract 

work 994 

Morton iron mine 32 

Mosher, D. Clancy process 355, 649, 74S 

Mostowitscb on had metallurgy 48, 19 

Mother Lode mine B. ('. L250 

Motley. William G. 795 

Motors, Inverted. liaising * 1 1 •" 

Motter process. The 315, 437 

Motter. W. D. B., Jr. 117:; 

Mot/. A. F. ] 122 

Moulton mine. Mont. 539 

Mount Bischoff mine. Tas. 715 

Mount Boppy gold mine 1002 

Mount I. veil.' Tas. 9, 710 

- Report 2.T_' 

Mount Morgan mine. Queensland 9. 5J8, 557 

— Report 4si 

Mountain Cop. Co. 124. 41M. 706 

Mountain View hoisting engine 077 

Mover. A. Prevention of dusting of 

concrete floors 510 

Movers. W. W. '1?A 

Mudgett, F. G. s 75 

Muir. H. R. 234 

Mule. Harness for lowering *1195 

Mnnro Iron Mg. Co. * 11 4 S 

Murgue's experiments — Air friction 822 

Murphy, T. D., Heath of s20 

Musgrave, Robert 826 

Myers, G. W. Stamp-mill material 150 

Mysore. Gold Fields of ln27 

Mysore gold mine. India 1063 

New Guadalupe, Calif. 85, 238, 730 

New Hampshire, Garnet milling 1209 

New idria Quicksilver Mg. Co. mi 










Nagel, Q. Pneumatic agitation 
Nahl intermittent slime decanter 
Naremore, c. B. 

Nash. T. G. Accidents in mines 
Nason. A. A. Briquetting iron ores 
Sampling ores from Cobalt mines 
Natal. Coal 
National Asso. for Prevention and 

Study of Tuberculosis 
National Bauxite Co. 
National Coal & Fuel Co. 539. 734 

National Lead Co. ; St. Louis S. & R. 

Co. 20. 50 

National Mines Co.. Nev. 285, 391, 540, 

587, 635, 683, 831 
National Mines & Smg. Co.. Mex. 730 

National Mg. & Explo., Ariz. 537. 1176 

National Zinc Co. 734, 852 

"Nationalite" — English Explosive 576 

Natividad mine. San Jose. Mex. 144 

Natividad mine, Sierra Juarez, Mex. 

243. 410 
Natomas Consol. 41, 42, 341, 483. 583, 

732. 733 
Natramblygonite lion 

Natural gas. See "Gas." 
Natural resources. See "Conserva- 
tion." "Land." "Petroleum,'' etc. 
Naval collieries 1020 

Navidad Reduc. & Mines Co. 193 

Navy, Petroleum fuel for 827 

Nebraska & Me. M. & S. Co. 128 

Nedham, Henry P>. 194 

Neel, C. P>. Basic cop. converting 7o7. 

943, 904. 114.°. 
Neglected mine. Colo. 1 2 i 2 

Neihart camp. Mont. 1227 

Neill. W. The cyanide industry *902 

Neimeyer. C. Cuyuna range 797, 993 

Nepton tunnel. Mex. 71 

Nesbitt. Charles II. 87."). 923 

Neutralizing agents 253 

Nevada Consol. 7. 02. 291, 083. 953, 122s 
Quarterly reports 310. 948 

Nevada, Copper 7, 891 

Nevada Co. Deep Drainage Tunnel 

388. 1077 
Nevada. First gold dredge *1210 

Nevada. Cold and silver 3 

Nevada Hills. Nev. 191, 240, 831 

— Report 1063 

-Surface equipment 1001 

Nevada. Mining industry, in 1910 01. 

*119, 125. 126 
Nevada railroad. New 1251 

Nevada-Utah mines. Nev. 981. 1274 

Nevada Wonder. New mill at *520 

Nevada. Zinc mining in 80S. 990. 1127 

New AJmaden. Calif. 85, 730 

Vew Brothers' Home mine. Tas. 710 

New Caledonia labor statistics .",'.'". 

New Caledonia mineral taxation 709 

New Caledonia shipments 742. 839 


New Jersey 

New Jersey, Zinc. 

New Keysl one Co] Cc 

New Kleinfontein 

New Mex. coal and I 

New Mex.. Copper 

New Mex., Cold arid 

New Me\.. mining in 1910 

New Mex., Vanadium' 87, 

In old silver mines 

New Mex . Zinc- 

New Moddi mine 

New Monarch. I 

New Publications 



•1056, 1176 
13, 1151 
101, 132 

120. 438, 516, 
56i >. 57 I. 735 

'l ransvaal 

857, 1151 
289, 634, 1120 
283, 384, 480, 580, 

922, 1093 
New River companies' receivership L081 

New South Wales, Coal 738 

New York Curb market. Organizing 358, 

643, 742 
Stocks in 1910 364 

New York and Honduras Rosario 965 

New York .Metal Exchange 740 

New York. Pig iron 265 

New York State Steel Co 290 

New York. Underground mines 127 

New Zealand. Gold 193, 402, 842 

Newberger, I.. Heath of 630 

Newfoundland Wabana mines *1008 

Newman, B. Aguascalientes in 1910 69 

Newmire, Vanadium at s t 

Niagara Mg. & Smg. 142 

Nicaragua. Mining in 599, 1092 

Nicaragua mining in 1910 74 

Nichols, Ralph 185 

Nicholson, S. D., Dinner to 253 

Nichrome wire triangles 360 

Nickel, Canada 512 

Nickel detection in presence of cobalt 956 
Nickel, New Caledonia 709, 742 

Nickel, Ont. 78, 513, 552. 1260 

Nickel, U. S. 1 

Nickel, U. S. foreign trade 350 

Nigeria tinfields 293, 450, 47 1. 656 

Nipissing Central Itv. 828 

Nipissing Co., Ont. 242. 589, 717. 718, 

828, 877, 1027, 11 s ". 1229 
— Report 978 

Nissen stamps. Boston Consol. *819 

Nitrate, Chilean, industry 77, 956 

Nitrate, Chilean, Iodine from 378 

Nitrate, Chilean, outlook 110. 164 

Nitrate of potash deposit, Tex. 344 

Nitrate of soda statistics 150, 199 

Nitrates, D. S.. foreign trade 351 

Nitroglycerin mfr., U. S. 204 

Niven, W. Guerrero mining 128 

Noble Elec. Steel Co. 188, 545. 1226 

Nobs, F. W. 185 

Nolly's carbon determination method *560 

Nome. Alaska. Decline of 
Nomenclature. Iron and steel 
Norbom. J. O., Death of 
Norcross, Irwin 
Norden crane hook 
Norfolk & Western tonnage 
Norman mine. Minn. 
North Am. Lead Co 


327, 375. 454 




294, 686 

*422, 827, 1224 


North Am. Sm. & Mines Co., Golden. 

Colo. 580. 7::o. ssu 

North Am. Smelting Co.. Can. 440 

North Atlantic Collieries -'41 

North Butte Mg. Co. 54. 190. 343, 391, 

735, 881, 1178 
• — Report 211 

—Report v.", 

North Car., Gold and silver •" 

North Car. gold mining, etc. — T < ". 

North Dak.. Lignite coals 101, t384 

North Home mine. Ont. 1275 

North Star Mines Co. 102. 209, *257. 
*311, "-" s . 341, 388. *4os. 455. 

*754. 830. *951, 1240 
— Annual report 702 

North Staa' Me. Co., Plumas Co., 

Calif. 437 

North Thompson. Out. 685, ss;; 

North Tigre. Mex. 144 

Northern Calif. Gold Mg. Co. 341 

Northern Calif. Power Co. 1170 

Northern Colo, coalfield strike 137, - s \ 

338. 386, I s ". 
Northern Exploration sjs 

Northern Ont. Explc Co. 293, 954 

Northern Ont. Lr. & Power Co. 632 

Northwestern Impvt. Co. 024 

Norton, c. l.. on thermal properties 

of concrete 1 1 s 

Norton. S. 729 

Norton, W. Concrete hot water tank *vis 
Norway, Flee, smelting in 202 

Norway, Silver 

gian water-power development 1166 
Nova Scotia, Coal and coke 2 15. 513 

Nova Scotia. Cold deposits 172 

Nova Scotia relief societies 1070 

Nova Scotia Steel lV - Coal Co. *1008 

Nova Scotia. Tungsten s 7. o::7 

Nova Scotia mineral production 5i 2, 5i:: 
Nova Scotia Steel & 1 254, 736 

Scotia mine. Ont. 

■. i: II. 
Nutting, R. W., : 



O'Neale, M. L. 

1 >a\a< a mining In 1910 


: Walsh mines 877, 

Ohio, Coal and 101, 

Ohio. Coal milling accidents 
Ohio Coal Traffic Asso. 
Ohio 60, 192, 

1071, 1217 

588, 7-4. 1 

Ohio, iron, Pig, production 

1 Oiio Keating Gold .Ml 

Ohio mining code 

Ohio Oil Co. 

Ohio, Petroleum 90, 93, 

Ohio river, coal traffic 

Oil. See also 'Petroleum." 

Oil, Coal vs., for transport 

Oil Conservative Asso. 

oil fuel, Precautions with 

oil fuel regulation 

oil fuel, Tonopah Belmont 

Oil gusher. Flaming 

Oil saving— Oil can devices 

oil shah-. United Kingdom 

oil, I'se for smelting 

oils. Inflammable. Storing 

Oiler for tramway buckets 

Oiling tramway track cal 

Ojibway, Mich. 14. 390, 539, 634 

Oke, A. L. Standards of work 

Automatic- mine car tally 

Sample crusher 

San Juan province. Argentina 
Okerhuette, Harz. Germany 














1 1 26 


Okla.. Coal and coke 101, 

Okla.. Lead and zinc 22, 2, 

Okla.. oil and gas 

okla. Oil & Gas Co. 

Okla. Pipe Line Co. 

old Colony mine. Mich. 

Old Dominion, Ariz. 7. 12, 139, 



542. 1071 

1. 851, 1056 

89, 91, 595 


122 7 


1028, 1225 


— Report 

Oliver, B. I. Cyan idat ion Oliver 

filter 506, 40. *520 

— Gate for leaching vats *951 

Oliver Iron Mg. Co. 32, 207, 24::. 709, *769 
- Viaduct and flume *262 

Steam shoveling. Mesabi ; map *420 

Norman mine *422. 827, 1224 

Ombillien mines, Batavia 872 

Ontario. Copper 78, 513, 552, 1260 

Ontario. Gold 7-. 552. 1260 

Discoveries, explorations, etc. 484, 7,80, 

896, 1124. 1229 
Ontario. Iron 78, 513, 516, 552, 1260 

Ontario mineral production in 1910 

78, 512 
— official bulletin report 552 

Ontario, Natural gas 79. 559 

Ontario. Northern, ores. Genesis 910 

Ontario Porcupine G. F. Level. 833, 930, 

954. 1033 
Ontario sale and lease revi 1027 

Ontario quarterly report 1260 

Ontario, Silver 7s. 552, 584, 717. 1260 

Ontario. Stock transfer tax 1175 

Ontario mine. Utah *220, 488, 536, lloi 

Ooregum Gold Mg. Co. 1063 

Open pit mining. Me.-abi *420, *700. *769 
Ophir mine. Comstock, Nev. 12c;. 929. 

Onhir mine. Lake of Woods 236, 896 

Ophir Hill mine. Utah 14.'L '-..i 

Opohongo, Utah 142. *222, 832, 1179 

Orcutt, C. P.. Death of 337 

Ore. See also "Bin," "Conveyer," etc. 
Ore deposits al Porcupine 1005 

Ore discovery from geol. data 665, 

B45, 1144 
Ore handling in narrow septa 

stopes *949 

Ore house and washer. Belmont •85H 

Ore houses, Tonopah *104S 

Ore pocket. Underground *900 

ore reduction In Harz *1106, " 

Ore reserve, calculation of 
ore reserves, Developing, Modderfon- 

tein B. 1000. 1151 

Ore reserves of Rand 1151 

SS, Rankin 
Ores, Nor. Ont., Gem 910 

Oregon. East., operations in 1910 55 

Oregon, Gold and silve 
Oregon short line 
< irford «'op. Co. • hin 1 

Monel metal 




: mine, Fit 

:'.. Mont. 
■ alif. 

an, Ariz. 

See before "Pennsyl- 

9, 76, 

1.-., 105, 117, 118, - 

Osmiui I discovery 451 

md 906 

Ouipu- pment to *1264 

53 i 

ting *167. *850 
allic Beducing tempera- 
tures 106 
ding 963 
eji n. Enricl ■■ ith 38 


293, 345, it". Penn-Wyoming. 

541. 1081 vauia." 

lo::: Peregrins M. ft M. Co. 
*751 l'erkin modal award 
Perley, Ward B. 
Perseverance mine, Alaska 
635 Peru, Copper 
1271 Peru, Mining operations, ii 
56 Peru, Bare metals in 
Peru, Vanadium 

5, E l >. "Copper Smelting" 
Petersburg Land ft Mg. {'o. 
Peterson, W. Scrubber water 

Petit, P. Mine air sampler 
Petroleum. See also "Oil." 
Petroleum, Alberta, Northern 
Petroleum, Appala< blan field 
Petroleum, Argentina uze 

Petroleum, Calif. 89, 180, 235, 386, 535, 
631, 679, 730, 756, 77!). 827. 894, 

!>t;i, 1251, 1269 




554. 750 

•463, 516 


574, Hii'7 

; in:):: 

•Mis. 07s 



89, 90, 595 

M & M Co 

ft Bartmann l. termina- 

tion 4 54 

k. Use of 45, *369 

Co. 21, 122 

•ah *22L 242, 684 

Smg. ft 68, "15 

S lentiflc management 517. 

503, 994 


Pain: -ults 1054 

Paint- . iron 451 . 1 l 96 

Mex. 330. 601 

• •r. Irving A 1268 

l'anan... tract 7:;7 


9 1091 

■ - - from 651 

Babe pr. •1109 

St., Philippines, notes 393 

and Velta mines 1203 

The 156 


! 1 1 7 

-•al report 1041, lli'l 

Park city shipments, 1910 59 

Framing timber sets *208 

at ion 260 

235. 683, 1004 

1 yanide treatment of 


Co. report 994 

I.. 1124 

i Coa and coke in 1910 94 

anna mine. - 1 77. »228, *278, »332, 

•380. »428 
: -aster *749, 845, 

1019, 1091 
ilture in mining camp 

- 1240 
- automatic bucket dump *7<>3 

132, 628, -7::. 

1072, 1283 


191, 225, 405 

I alif. 

II M. M in Tex. *626 




■ 961 

1 35 

i 8 1 




i :: i 



oilfield maps us 

Oil resources of calif 153 

— Am. Oilfields' flaming gusher *372 

Protection against infiltration 434 

Production in 1910 595 

Storage company proposed 112.'! 

Petroleum, Canada 512, 559 

Petroleum, Canada -Naval use 116 

Petroleum, Colo. 89, 483, 595 

Petroleum fields, Alaska's, Opening 1098 

Petroleum for army transports 1019 

Petroleum fuel for Navy 827 

Petroleum fuel, I'se of 653, 714 

Petroleum, Haiti 562 

Petroleum, Illinois 89, 1)2. 595 

"Oil Resources" 
Petroleum, Cans.; Okla. 89, 91, 

Petroleum land legislation passed 
Petroleum land withdrawals, ieases, 

etc. 90, 235, 

Petroleum lands. Bills, etc., relating 

to 90, 216, 235, 423, 679, 1269 

Petroleum Locating pools 25:; 

Petroleum Maikop field, So. Russia *42i 

Petroleum, Mex. 65, 206 

— Tampico oilfield 
Petroleum, Ontario 
Petroleum, Russia and Rumania 
Petroleum, Saskatchewan 
Petroleum, South America 75, 76 

i inn. Straits of Magellan 
Petroleum, I . S-, and by fields 

Foreign trade 
Petroleum, West Ya. 
Petroleum, Wyoming 
Pettit, .1. E. 'Coal.' Utah 
Peyton Chemical Co. 
Peyton. L. Wash house 
Phelps, Hodge & Co. 

Phila. & Beading 
Philippines, Cold and silver 
Philippines notes 

I'hiliirs mine. Colo. 289 

Phillins, W. B. Quicksilver, Tex. 85. 410 
Bulletin on Tex. laws 371 

Tex. coal industry 1iiG7 

Phoenix mine. Cornwall 81 1 

Phoenix-Burroughs group, Colo. 1177 

Phonodoree shaft. Ariz. *474 

Phosphate. Florida, industry, 1910 264, 79fi 
Phosphate-land withdrawals 650 

Phosphate legislation, Western *413 

Phosphate near Butte, Mont. 158, 252 338 
Phosphate-land withdrawals. Mont. 235 

Phosphate rock for Calif. i 1 52 

Phosphate, Lock, in N. J. 157 

Tenn., in l'.uu 123, 128, 609 

Phosphates, Tunis i 17 

Phoepl . i S. foreign trade 351 

Phthisis, Australian report on 523 

Phthisis. Minors'. Prevention of 946 

Phthisis. Minns'. South Africa 892 

' law 00. 235 

Marlanna tipple *229. 

•381. *42fi 




79, 552 
I 17 
464, 582 
1, 8!), 595 

SO, 90, 595, 777 

8!), 488 




36, 1125 

600, 645, 6!)u. 820 

291, 606. 698 




m colliery, Ind . fire 
Pig Iron. See "Iron." 
e, Nacozarl 
Pilot Butte. Mont. 190, 58" 

Ion, N ev. 

' • bafi sinking 

Mai Ing them tight 


i * 1 77. *228, 

1 100 


928, 1031 



881, 981 

240, 981 



♦75 2 


34 I 


379, *880 

154, I8H 

• i . 379 870 



Pittsburg coal district in 1910 95, 96 

Pittsburg iron and steel market 28 

Pittsburg iron market in 1910 151 

Pittsburg-Liberty mine, ('alif. 238 

Pittsburg & Montana 1178 

Pittsburg Petroleum Co., Calif. 879 

Pittsburg Silver Peak 114 

Pittsburg Steamship Co. 072 

Pittsburg. I niversity of 433 

Place. A. E. Oaxaca mining ti'.i 

Placer and phosphate bill, Western *413 

Placer gold, Dry concentrator for 849 

Placer ground. Sampling 003, 754, 845 

Placer Mining, Alaska 64 

Placers. Cold, in Ariz. *561 

Placers Hydraulic sluicing *71u 

Placers. Klondike 47'l 

Placeres del Oro, Mex. 128 
Plane table Topographic maps *018, ll'.n 

Platinum. Advance in price 892 

Plat ilium, Colombia 130, 426 

Platinum in 1910 5, 130, *212 

Platinum, Russian, production 

Platinum triangles. Substitute for 
Platinum, U. s. foreign trade 
Platinum ware, Inlluence of impurities 

Platinum. Wyoming 
Playter, George H. 
Plugs, Anchoring in tunnel roofs 
Plumb bob knot 

Plumb lines. Shaft, and air currents 
Plumbing, Shaft, Post, ft Mont. 
Plummet 1 , W. T. Belt dressings 
Pocock, Cecil 

Poderosa, Compafiia, Collahuasi 
Poillon, Howard 

Poisoning, Cyanide — Antidotes 204 
Poisoning, Nitroglycerin 
Pollock slag car, Large 
Ponupo Manganese Co. 
Poor Farm Placer Mg. Co, 
Porcupine dist., Ont. 78 

500, 641 



4 6(1 


* 1 50 







1 222 

700, 806 

1 33 



41, 42, *812 

387. 533, 647. 

680. 705 

*217, *1051 

513. 7S0, 1121, 1129 






1073, 1000 


PoWer plants 

Claim business 

Present status 

Mr. Moering's views 
— Ore deposits 

Taking a chance 
— The tire 

— W. II. Weed's opinion 
Porcupine Exploration 
Porcupine Cold Mines Co. 983, 1081, 
Porcupine Cold Trust 
"Porcupine 1 Handbook" 
Porcupine Reserve Mines, Ltd. 
Porphyry coppers, The 

Review of the mines 
Portis mine, N. C. 
Portland Canal dist. 
Portland Canal mine. Ont. 
Portland Cold Mg. Co. 51, 



983, 1129 

305, 440 




833. 983 

137, 310. 

583, 631 

Portland (Me.) Iron ft Steel Co. 372 

Porto Rico, Gold and silver 3 

Postal danger, The 401, 450, 505 


Postal savings 

i owns 
Potash, Possible sources of 
Potash, Prospecting for. etc 
Potash reserves, German 
Potash salts affairs 


503, 765 
656. 1240 
240, 200, 316, 791. 
036, 1087, 1135 
Potash sails production, Germany 1015 

Potash salts, U. s. foreign trade 351 

Potash, Nitrate, deposit, Tex. 344 

Potash salts. German exports 399 

Potassium salts, World's consumption 261 
Potassium sulphate, New source 261, 1241 

PotOSl Mine 1!) 

Potter manganese steel patents 38 

r.iwer costs, Copper <)ueen 820 

Power plant, Marlanna *178, *231. »278 

Power stations, Land . 1242 

Power to haul cars, various pitches 
Powmotl Development Co. 
Pozos camp, Guanajuato 
Prarie < >ii and Gas Co. 

.1. K. Tex. mining 
Pratl Consol. Coal Co. 

Banner mine explo Ion 750 

Precious stone producl Ion, U. S. 
Precious stones In Texas 
Premier Mg Co. 83, 226 

er, i. P. Magdalena dist. 
Block A 

I'rest mi La- I I ionic Mines I 

V New mineral and 
source of potassium sulphate 
Price, i See also metals, etc., by name) 
Prices, Average monthlj of chemicals, 

earths, minerals, etc., In 1-910 8P 

Metal, 1909 and 1910 ' *17 »212 






101, 294 

821, *010 



581. 958, 

111!). 12 12 



187, 1275 


251, I2ii 

Prices. Metals, Average yearly 
Prickly Pear Mg, Co. 

oi the Wesl mine, Colo, 
Prlmoa ( !hem Ii a i < 'o. 86 ( 

i 'rlnce > !oni ol . \e\ 

William s.niiici resources 
Prlncei i Cop Co., Ne\ 
Prlnci i on < 'oa i Co 

57 1. 

I L 

1 1 27 

87 I 


1 27 I 







Probert, Frank II. 234, 551, 559, 678, 

778, '.fifi 
Production curtailment, Economics of ^305 
Profit and loss account "073 

Profit per ton, Stamp duty vs. 553 

Profit-sharing law, France 354 

Progreso Mg. Co. *312, 930 

Prometheus III, French explosive 330 

Proprietary Mines Co. 454 

Prospecting for potash 503 

Prospecting fund, Denver 1123, 1174, 

1223, 1209 
Prospecting, Tex. laws and 371 

Prosser, W. C. Malchus hyd. classifier *2o7 
— Bear Creek camp, Colo. 712 

— Outlook, San Juan Co., Colo. 874 

Mining around Tellurite and Ouray 900 
Prosser, W. T. Opening Alaska's oil- 
fields 1098 
Providencia Co., Guanajuato 74, 4 in 
I'rovidencia mine, Sonora 243 
Provincial mine, Ont. 930 
Prussian Mining Academy competition 948 
Prussian railroad electrification 94 1 
Pugs ley, F. W. Sampling Cobalt ores 

776, 1144 
Pulmonary diseases among miners 523 

-Dust, phthisis, etc. 154, 892, 946 

Pulp, Returning to classifier *258 

Pump, Cameron, History of 273, 370 

Pumps, Centrifugal, Turbine-driven 1 1 4 : » 

rumps. Sulzer turbine. Holden tunnel *266 
Pumps, Wet-vacuum, for leaf filters 843 

Pumping — Draining with well points 999 
Pumping, Humphrey system of *373 

Pumping plant, Caudelaria Co.'s 1261 

Pursers' dust arrester *951 

Pyrah, Samuel, Death of 778 

Pyramid mine, Tas. 715 

Pyrites, Crude and spent, Determining 

copper in 1194 

Pyrites industry in 1910 127 

Pyrites, U. S. foreign trade 351 

Quart ano, A. G. Use of quartz in 

tube mills *1017 

Quartz mill, Rankin *1110 

Quartz, Use in tube mills *1017 

Quartz, Nev., Discoveries at 240 

Quebec bridge arbitration 574 

Quebec mine taxation 286 

Quebec gold discoveries and mining 

law 236, 780, 833, 946 

Quebec mineral-area report 1076 

Quebec mineral production 512, 513 

Queen mine, B. C. 1250 

Queneau, A. L. 433 

Questions and answers 157, 204, 256. 355, 

356, 404, 508 
— Practice regarding them 944 

Quicksand, Grouting in 705 

Quicksilver, Acid treatment of, at 

Florence-Goldfield mill 313 

Quicksilver, Calif. 85, 656, 730 

Quicksilver from Mexico 648 

Quicksilver, Native, in Australia 518 

Quicksilver, Peculiar occurrence, Aus- 
tralia 1098 
Quicksilver, Russia 1018 
Quicksilver, Texas, industry 53, 85, 419 
Quicksilver, Transylvania 206 
Quicksilver, U. S. 1, 85, *212 
— List of mines 404 
Quincy Mg. Co. 15, 438, 943 
— Report 504 
Quincy-Thompson Consol. *220, 241, 832, 

♦1101, 1128 

Rabble rake and arm for McDougal 

Radium discovery in Galicia 

Radium, French production 

Radium, Price of 

Radnor Forge blast furnace 

Rail production, U. S. 402, 411. 

Rails, Wooden, in coal mines 

Railroad, Coal, New, Ky.-Va. 

Railroad improvements, Utah 

Railroad, Nevada. New 

Railroads and iron markets 

Railroads — Coal shipments 145, 

Railroads — L. V. decision 097, 

Railroads, Utah, New 

Railway rate decision 449, 

Railways, Light 

Rainbow mine. Ore. 142, 

Rainsford, R. S. Sinking and driving 
at Argonaut 514. 

Rainy Hollow dist.. Alaska 1191, 

Rake for McDougal furnace 

Ralph, G. .7. IIolmes-Alderson cut- 

Rambler Cop. & Plat. Co. 

Rammelsberg mine, Germany * 

Ramsay on price of radium 

Ramsay, G. S., Death of 

Rand. See also "Transvaal," "South 

Rand amalgamation. Large 435, 

Rand, Fine crushing on 

Rand gold mines, NotPS on 320, 

Rand gold prod., Total 









Rand mills, New, Starting of 581 

Rand, Aline dust prevention on »951 

Rand mines. Transportation in 12 15 

Rand, New reef on 450, 504, 958, 1242 

Rand, ore reserves of 1151 

Rand power stations 1242 

Randfontein Central and South 43, 81, 

135, *453, 581, 801, l 1 19, 1151, 1242 
Randolph, J. ('. F., Death of 337, 363 

Rankin process, The 1 198 

Rankin quartz mill * 1 1 10 

Ransome, F. L., on Goldfield ore luo 

Hare metals in Pern ■ 1007 

Rattler mine, Colo. 1 10 

Raven, Mont. 55, 141, 587, 1227 

Rawhide Coalition, Nev. 291 

Hay Central, Ariz. 926, 1 1 70 

— Report 551, 559 

Ray, Consol., Ariz. 12, 41, 287, 358, 598, 

033, 709, 926, 1271 

Interim report 905 

Kay Co., S. D. • 1128 

I, ay. Malcolm M. 77» 

Ray and Kreisinger. Heat conduct ion 

through furnace walls U]-J. 

Raymond canon, Wyo., phosphates *413 

Raymond, R. W. 1222 

'Mineral Industry" reviewed tl70 

Canadian mining law 059, 7 47 

— Resignation, A. 1. M. E. Secretary 097 

On Henry Janin 1056 

— Peters' "Copper Smelting" reviewed vlo'.i:; 

Rea Consol.,. Ont. 810, 1005, 1033, 

1180, 1275 
Ready Bullion mine. Alaska 1043 

Real del Monte y Pachuca 70, 71, 1129 

Rebates on iron ore, Alleged 932 

Records, Mining *605 

Recording, Car, Automatic *259 

"Red Cross Text book" i'.i22 

Red Jacket Consol. C. & C. Co. 037, 1129 
Red Mountain Co., Colo. 1272 

Reducing mining costs ; increasing 

profits 110 

Reed, A. II. Symons crusher 602 

Reed, H. J. L, Death of 1173 

Reef on Rand, New 450, 504, 95S, 1242 

Reefs, Transvaal, Uniform value 851 

Reel for shot-firing wires *111S 

Reforma M. & M. Co. 1201 

— Down-draft sintering experiments 1208 
Refringency, Krantz' scales of 257 

Reheating air underground 260 

Reiche, A. Transportation in Rand 

mines 1245 

Reid, A. F. Cyaniding manganiferous 

ore 994 

Reid elec. smelting process 504 

Reinholt. O. H. University situation in 

Calif. 1230 

Reis, John 923 

Relief societies, Nova Scotia 1070 

Renison Bell mine, Tas. 715 

Repath, C. H. 923 

Report form for punching *606 

Reports, Technical 748 

Reporting returns. Rand mines 82 

Republic dist., Wash., in 1910 . 242 

Republic Iron & Steel Co. 390 

— Hartford mine fire 1075, 1126 

Republic Mines Corp., Wash. 242. 488 

"Republic Mining District" t384 

Requa, M. L. Petroleum, Calif. 89, 154 

Rescue brigades, British collieries 1203 

Rescue cars, Mine 289, 292, 338. 400, 

009, 682, 724, 1071 
Rescue — First Aid Textbook t922 

Rescue — First aid team contests 024, 971 

Rescue party member sacrifices life 

331, 460 
Rescue room, Marianna mine *381 

Rescue work. A point in 008 

lies, ne work in coal mines *724 

Rescue work. Mine. Cooperative 890 

Research work. Cooperation in 748, 993 

Respirator. New. Transvaal " 387, *952 

Restricted rates on coal 917 

Revenue- Virginius property. Colo. 1123 

Reweighing coal shipments 971 

Rexall. Colo. 140 

Rexall Silver & Cop., T'tah 1032, 1229 

Rhodesia, Blasting regulations recom- 
mended 202 
Rhodesia Broken Hill Devel. Co. 84 
Rhodesia, Chrome development 1238 
Rhodesia, Gold 3, 84, 345 
Rhodesia in 1910 83, 187 
— Production, various 3 15 
Rhodesia, .Proposed blasting ertificates 4.">9 
Rhodesia, "Southern. Umvuma dist. 1073 
Rhodesian Explo. & Dcvel. Co. 84 
Rhodochrosite 157 
Rhyolite camp. Nev. 61 
Rice, C. T. Development of Goldfield 

mines *119 

Graphic calculations of develop- 
ment-work costs *174, *218 
— Sluicing out sand tanks 209 
— Utah Cop. Co. concentrator 255 
— Goldfield Consol. fire equipment *311 
— Improved zinc dust feeder *301 
— Western phosphate legislation *413 
— Cable clamp for tramway *508 
Handling copper-smeltery gases *c 1 4. 895 
— Straightening furnace jackets *053 

Rice. C. T. 

i tab Cop. Co 's 'hile mills 000 

Mending at smelteries Welding 706 

Milling at Florence Goldfield 761 

Boston Consol. mill *810, *862 

Caudle tests 848 

Tonopah Belmont surface plain ' v.::. s 1 1 

Tonopah and It *966 

Tonopah Mg. CO.'S mill *1212 

Rice, ( j 1263 

"Explosibility, Coal Dust" 3 727 

Govl . coal mine experimi *sto 

Prevention or dual explosion 97.". 

Elec. arcs and coal dust 1^17 

Richards-Janney classifier *ll9s 

Richards, j. v. Dry concentrator for 

plat er gold 8 to 
Richards, .1. w. Metal fusion constants 765 

Soldering aluminum 155, 157 

Richards, Roberl li. 1222 

Hindered-settling classifiers *415, 309 

Richards, .Mrs. Ellen ll., Death of 729, 923 
Richards, S. Calculating ore reserve 895 
Richmond Eureka Mg. Co. 

Richmond oil refinery tire 106 

Rickard, Thomas, Death of 77s 

Picket ts, L. D. 892 

Developments, Cananea, in 1910 *13 

Cananea Consol. Report, etc. 1246 

Ridgway, .1. J. Abuse of conveyer belts 458 

Right of Way mines, Ont. Ho. 730. 1033 

Rio Blanco smeltery, Peru *464, 516 
Rio ChiCO Gold Dr. & Mg. Co. 


213, 440, 489, 7::t 



750, 796, sim 







;,n. 858 



53 t 
226, 958 

Rio Grande Coal Co. 
Rio Plata, Mex. 

— Report 

Rio Tinto mine, Spain 

— Report, etc. 

Rio Tinto Cop. Co., Mex. 

Risdon Iron Works. Sale of '.)|s. 

Rittenhouse, J. II. Preventing die 

Roan. J. M. 
Roaster, Wilfley, New 
Roasting, Blast, in 1910 
Roasting, P.last, of speisses 
Roasting Down draft sintering 
Roasting furnace. Rotary, P.aker 
Roasting practice, Ilarz mountains 

Robbins, R. W. 
Robert Emmet mine, Colo. 
Roberts, Percival, Jr. 
Roberts Victor diamond mine 
Robertson, W. F. Brit. Col. 
Robeson, A. M. 
Robins, Percy A. 
Robinson, N. Profit and loss account 673 
Robinson mine, Transvaal 163. 320, 322. 

S57. 1151 
Robinson Deep, Transvaal 802, 849, 1151 
Reeha, D. Cost of transporting 

manganese ore in Brazil 553 

Rochester mine. Ont. 4S9. 1081 

Rock drill. See "Drill." 

Rocker, How to make *1243 

Rockv Point mill, Nev. 120 

Roderick, J. E. 1021, 1222 

Rogers, John I. CO 

Rogers-Brown interests 31. 284, 289. 342. 

487, 539, 797, 881. 980. 993 
Rolker, Charles M. 826 

Rolling sheet zinc, New method 955 

Roof construction, Tonopah-Belmont *S55 
Roof fall, Hazel mine 077 

Roof falls, Fatal accidents from *227. 

331. *381 
Roofs, Anchoring plugs in *159 

Rooibere tin mines 600, 12 12 

Roosevelt, T., on coal mining 330 

Roosevelt tunnel. Cripple Creek 236. 679, 

7511, 1075. 1 126 
Rope, Flat vs. round 604 

Rope guard for idler *604 

Rope, Hoisting, sheaves, Size of 253, 

Rope sheave. Large, Dodge *1210 

Rope speed. Hoisting. Chart for *260 

Rope, Wire, limber reinforcement *313 

Rope wound on drum. Determining *41o 

Ropes, Flat wire, Cleaning *313 

Ropes, Hoisting — Australian laws 1046 

Ropes, Wire. Deterioration of 848 

Rose Deep chance house 257 

Rosiclare, III., Fluorspar' 289 

Roslyn, Wash., first aid contest 624 

Ross. D. Criticism, 111. coal mining 130 

Ross. i\ E. Peru, mining in 1910 *468, 516 

Ross, James G. 

Rothwell filtering tank 

Rotterdam, Copper at 

Rownd. II. L. 

Round Mtn., Nev. 

— Report 

Roundup coal dist.. Mont. 

Rowe, Ernest II. 

Roy Development Co. 

Royal Flush mine. Colo. 

Rubber, Preservation of 

Rubei's magnesium-zinc alloy 

Rubidge, I". T. Mining records 

Ruby. Mont., Gold dredging near 

Ruby, X- II. Making adobe bricks 

Ruh'm. J.. Jr. Tenn. phosphate 

Rumania. Petroleum 

Runners. Concrete 

1 17: 


248, 252 


! 12 831 


1 :: 1 


5 20 




•9 is 





■ ~ , . 


mniond in 







OS-".. 1231 






im. report dis- 

San Francis 1 11 1 

* l nr. 
•997, *l ii4'.> 
5 overwinding *£ 
-ting * *207 

•.na mine 

uianv 1166 

\ 100 

■. 1056 


fc S '". tailings ballast 
- - 4 B 


•■ report 



. of 

■-ay ing 
slime, Drying 










•468, U4:: 
• 799 



. ;itina 




770, 1144 



•400. 114:; 

5 I, 845 

7:;. 128 




1 1 23 


1 1<>:; 




So toke abatement 
es, Wheel-barrow, Convenlenl 
dinavia, Iron mining in 
in. William II. 

er's natramblygonite discovery 
Schmidt, II. C. X. E. Mex. 
Schmitt, C. O., on stamp milling 

• id. F. w. East. Ore. operations 

3 namite thawer 
Arguments for coal merger 
: house, Marianna mine 
•op's metallizing pro< • 
skol drill 
II. Solution filters 
ennesen, A. T. Tracing through 
opaque paper 

fie management 503, 517, 

Scotch pig-iron production 
Bar Hyd. Mg. Co. 
Hansen, A. Norwegian water- 
power development 
Scottish Ontario mine 
Scramble mine, Out. 1129, 1275 

Scranton Coal Co. Pancoast mine 

disaster *74!>. sir.. 852, 1019, 1091 

l vnn . Subsidence at 609 

—Surface-caving report 774 

Galvanized, Zinc recovery from 1211 

analysis. Boston Consol. 

. Battery, frame 

for mill feed 
nor, J. B. 
Scrubber water clarifying 
ird iron markets 
_ r, J. A. Elec. machinery troubles 
■ tricitv in sinking operations 
' i... Death of 
loon Co. 
Seaver. .1. W.. Heath of 
Section 30 Exploration Co. 
Selby Smelting Co. 
Selenide of aluminum, etc. 
Selling American mines in London 

• & Michaels. Iodine extraction 
Semple, C. C. Dewatering slime 


s of converter fume 
ing Hat holes with air hammer 
Homestake mine. S. D. 
Milling the Homestake ore 
-Homestake cyanide plants 
:n sample drier 
Seneca mine. Mich. 14, 117. 118, 559, 
Sentein mines. France 

it ion. Barite and chalcopyrite 
. ant, Henry G. 
Servia, Silver 

ing. Hindered, classifiers 
Thirty mine. Colo, 
dist., Nev. 
Sevier-Miller Coalition 
Seward peninsula dredging, 1910 
Seymour, A. P. 

Shan alining. Transit bar for 
Shan. Belmont mine 

m, Proposed layout 
shaft. Circular. New Modderfontein 

oil Salt I 
shaft. ' remsbokfontein 

ining, Repairing with cement 
plumb lines and air currents 
plumbing, Bost. & Mont. 
■ sinking and driving at Argonaut 

514, 502 

jinking, Bucket trolley for *998 

Shal ricity in *872 

Pioneer mine. Minn. *112 

framing *1047 



in *949 

Kingdom 1050, 1121 


\riz. 7. 12 

1 1 7.'! 

sifler •258 

i 220 

I D 284 


7. 682 

B78, 970 


■'ire *7ll 

tilizer Industry 128 



i '.HI 
I i • truni 

*::i i 

1 35 
•420, 122 


I 85 
1 II 





.17 7 







994, 1224 











j .,■>■> 






.">."> 7 
►415, 309 

1 12s 


1 85 







Shoshone Quicksilver Co. 

Shot tirers, Injuries to 

Shot firing, Elec. Ala. mines 

shovel for concrete work 

Shovel pit. Viaduct over 

Shovel. Steam, dippers. Trip for 

Shovel. Steam, work. Mesabi 

shovels. Steam. Coaling 

Shubart, B., et al. Symons crusher 

Shurick, A. T. Colliery trestles 
Siam 1 in production 
Siberian railway, Effect of 
Siemens & Ilalske Co. 902, 

Siempre Viva mine. Nicaragua 
Signal, Block, system, for mines 
Signal systems, Water tank 
Silica sponge 
Silver. Australasia 

Discovery, Meglo, N. S. W. 
Silver Ear mine, Ont. 
Silver. Brit. Col. 
Silver. Canada 
Silver coating. Removing, from copper 

plati - 
silver. Cobalt Sampling ores 
silver. Commercial movement 


124 4 




•316, 0o2 

♦52S. »577 


201, 213 

•915, 1091 

599, n ''-'2 






24 2 


3, 512 


776, 1144 

4. 107, 

207. 837 

201. 213 



3, 1015 

481, 777 

3, 210 
600. 740 

Silver Kins Consol. 
Award in suit 

Silver. Course of, in 1910 

Silver discovery. Meglo. N. S \V. 

Silver exports. London, in 1910 

Silver, Germany 

Silver Hill Mg. & Trans. Co. 

Silver. Idaho 3, 18, 

Silver in February 

Silver in L910 

Silver, India 201, 213, 

silver Island Coalition 

Silver King Coalition 36, 137, *220, 241. 

344, 439, 680, 784, mis. 832, 982, 1128 
220, 241, 430. 488 

636, 784, 1128 

Silver Lake Mg. Co. 

Silver-lead furnaces. Blowin 

Silver Ledge mine, Colo. 

Silver, Mexii 

silver. Ontario 78, 

--Cobalt production 

Silver on- assay Litharge effect 

Silver ores. Nor. Ont., Genesis 

Silver Leak mine. Nev. 

Silver prices 5, 151 

Silver ( lueen. ( 'obalt. Out. 

Silver. Tex. 

Silver. D. S. 

- Production by States 

Estimated consumption 
Silver. Utah 
Silver, World production and coinage; 

tabulated statistics, etc. 3, 216, 648 

Simmer Deep, Transvaal 320, 321. 1151 

Simmer & Jack 1140. 1151 



::. 731 
584, 120O 

*212, 214. 648 


3, 53 




:;. 137 





Sioux Consol., Utah 
Siskol and Ilolman drills 


Simmons. .1. Skipway for supplies 
Simpson. Charles S. 
Sims-Olsen mine. Nev. 
Sinali a mining in 1910 
tin production 
Sinking, Shaft. See -'Shaft." 
Sim erins. experiments. Down-draft 

142. 192, *222. 241, 
202. 588, 882, 1031 
81, 101, 204. 
153, 16?- : ' r l [ l 
Silting Bull mine. Mo. 
Sizer. Frank L. 
Skiddoo Mine- Co. report 
skip dumps, Types of 
skiiis. Balancing 
Skijis. Loading bin for 
skipway for handling supp 
Slack rope device, Marianna 
Slag. Breaking up, in reverberatories 

Slag car. B. C. Cop. Co. 

Slag car. Large, Pollock 

Cop. Queen 
Sleeper, Handy wooden 
Slime decanter, Nahl Intermittent 

. Difficult, 
Slime filter, New. Ei Oro 
slime samples. Dewatering 
Slime table. Monell 
sioat. E. J. J. 

Sheffield rep 

ting, from drill holes 
Notes on 
Sluicing "-it sand tanks 

tlso "Furnace," 

trie," names of mi 

Smeltery, Old Bingham 
moke in 1910 
Smeltery -moke quest Ion, Calif 

631, 679, 781, 1029 

Ha mil in_- sin 

'•rv and at Cation « 
Smelterj smoke quest Ion 


Smelteries. Mitlilill- at 700 

Smelting Colo 172 

Smelting conditions in Utah 1024 

Smelting In bond, lead, zinc etc. 164, 844, 

nm, 1193, 1241 
Smelting. Use of oil In 22 1. .".17 

Smlllle. s Concrete in Inclined shafts •940 





11 1 




17'. 1 







* 1 00 

* 1»>T 





12 1. 583. 
1029, 1174 
City <Tl 

1. Mont. 5337TI 




Smith, Clyde W. 826 

— Death 1 1 73 

Smith, G. i >. r.inghaui report of Geol. 

Survey L09, 106 

Smith, James, Death of 1023 

Smith. J., claims. Out. 980 

Smith's, J., gas-testing apparatus *705 

Smith, J. J. Hoisting-cage Impvts. *165 

Smith, J. O. Wireless telegraphy *800, 842 
Smith river discovery, Calif. 1125 

Smith, Sumner S. 070 

Smith, White 433 

Smith. W. C. Mane explosions 754 

Smoke abatement, Saxony 309 

Smoke prevention, Berlin 335 

Smoke. Smeltery. See 'Smeltery." 
Smokestacks for natural draft. 1196 

Smoot, \. M. Zinc oxide in chemical 

glassware 1098 

Smuggler mine, Colo. 286, 679 

Snake Creek tunnel. Utah 186, A'-','.), 

982, ill's 
Snatch blocks in hoisting *258 

Snowslides, Colo., Calif. 339, 633, 709 

Snow Storm mine, Idaho 189, 481 

Soap and water, Coal-dust spraying 

with 531 

Soeiete le Nickel 70$) 

Socorro Mines Co., N. M. 
Soda nitrate. See "Nitrate." 
Soda. Brit. Cast At". 

deposit exploitation, Calif. 
Sodium amblygonite 
Sohnlein, F. G. 
Soldering aluminum 
Soldering, Schoop's substitute for 
Soledad lead mine, Mex. 
Solomon, Fred W. 
Sons of Gwalia report 
Souora in 1010 

Soper, E. K. Iron ranges of Minn. 
Sophienhuette, Harz, Germany 
Sounds in gas engines 
South Africa. See also "Transvaal." 

"Rand," "Rhodesia," "Natal," 

"German," "Gold," "Tin." etc. 

South At'riea. Miners' phthisis 

South America, mining in 1910 

South Australia. See "Australia." 

South Butte Mg. Co. 

South Crofty mine. Cornwall 

South Dak. in 1910 

South Dak., Gold and silver 

South Dak. mining notes 708, 893, 1241 

South Eureka mine. Calif. T_"_T, 

South Ilecla. t'tah 488, 540 

South Lorraine. Out., production ill 

South Utah M. ,v- s. 61, 488, 636, 832, 

982, 1170 
Southeast Mo. lead dist. 

Southern Iron & Steel Co. 29, 

Southern Pacific Co. 90, 631, 

Southern Ry. coal tonnage 
Southwest Lead & Coal Co. 
Southwestern Coal Op. Asso. 
Southwestern R. R. Asso. coal ship 

Souvenir Gold Mg. Co. 

Sovereign mine. Calif. 140, 

Spad wark in coal mines 

Spain, Lead 

Spain, Metal exports 

Spain, Silver 

Spain. Market for coal iu 

Spain, New mineral in 

Spain and Port., Copper 

S| auish American Iron Co. 

Spanish iron mines 

Spassky Cop. Mines, Ltd. 

Spearman. I. J., Death of 

Speckter, IL. and Clancy process 





15."). 157 











M l 

:;. 58 

17, 10 

32. H»27 
70. 1251 

oOl I 

420. 510 


07 1 



261, 1^41 
0. 750 



11 '21 


650, 74S 

* 12(14 
2-". 4 


riving entries in coal min- 
Speer, Maj. J. P.. Death of 
Speier, P.- cadmium 
Speisses and their benefication 


Spelter. See also "/.inc." 

Speller convention, Kuropean 200 
Spelter, etc.. Germany 205, 440, 404. 1015 

Spelter market and prices in 1010 22. 

151, *212 

Spelter prices, Average yearly *115 

Spelter. Situation in 1-S 

Spelter statistics for 1010 851 
Spelter, United Kingdom 205, 2 is 

Spelter, World's production 205 

er, zinc, 1". S. 1, 22, 205, 851 

— Foreign trade , 350 

Spilshury. I".. G. Silica sponge 509 

Spitzbergen, coal 073 

Mining *11T2 

Spokane Indian reservation 13S 

Spontaneous-combustion investigation 7 or, 

SpragS, Use in coal mines * 1 nor, 

Springfield coal-mine telephones 1067 

Springhill mine. N. S. 1220 

Springs, Cage safety dog *10."> 
Sprinkling. See "Coal Dust," "Dust." 

Spud. Surveyor's, Plug for *159 

Spurr, J. F... on Tonopah 966 

Squaw Creek mining dist. 253 

Squirt gun for cleaning drill holes *00S 

Stacks. Smoke, tor natural draft 1100 

Sum I anon Fuel < 0. 000. 645 

Stamp duty vs. prolit per ton 553 

Stamp mill parts. Lot material 156 

Stamp mills, Homes take •661 

Stamp mills, Water quantity for 017 

"Stamp Milling and Amalgamation" 
stamp milling, Boston Consol. *816 

stamp milling, Cal. & Hec. ♦116] 

Stamp milling in 1010 40. 42 

Stamp milling, Transvaal 42, 40. so. 

321, 322. *4o3, 581, OH. 996 
Stamp shoes. < 'al. A: Hec. 1 1 17 

Stamp stems. Lushing for * 4ns 

Stamps. Gravity, Abandonment of 200 

Stamps, Gravity, Weight of 4n2 

Stamps. Nev. Wonder mill 521, *-V22 

Standard Consol. report 600 

Standard mine. B. C. 144, 2 12. 1 In. s:;:; 

Can. Mg. Inst, paper 1 1 40 

Standard oil Co. 2:. I, 386, 406, 535, 77o 

The trust decision 001, 1075, 1 1 1 I 

Standard Porcupine G. M. Co. 293 

Standard mine. Porcupine, Ont. 785 

Standards of work 307 

"Standardization of Elec. Practice" t580 

Standardizing mine accounts 756 

Star of the Congo 10, 40.".. 599, 857 

Statz, P.. A. Gravity tram-car and 

switch *7Uo 

Stauffer Chemical Co. 413 

Stauffers and divining rod 253 

Stavanger Electro Stahhverk Co. 202 

Steam. Exhaust, in mines 625, 723 

Steam shovel. See "Shovel." 

Steamboat mountain, B. C. 1200 

Steamers, Lake ore 750, 770 

Steed. See also "Electric." 
Steel alloy, Unmagnetizable 1203 

steel. Brazil Proposed plant 489 

Steel, Canada 513 

Steel conference, International 4SU 

Steel, Determining carbon in 414. *560 

Steel. Franc 805, 1270 

Steel. Germany 740, 700, 1015, 1237 

Steed investigation, The 114-1. 1190 

Steel making practice changes — Duplex 

and open-hearth processes; rolling 

manganese steel, etc. 
Steel. Manganese, Rolling, forging 38 
Steel Mfrs., Am.. Asso. of 
Steed. Nickel, Largest ingot of 
Steed nomenclature 327, 375 

Steel plant, Elec. Pommeldange 
steed prices 

st.'ed production of world 
Sif.d rusting iu concrete 
Steel, Titanium, rails 
Steed. I'nited Kingdom, 




31 1 



044, 1089, lion 




product ion 

1 199, 1237 

Steed. U. S„ in 1910 26, 598, 640, 655, 1237 

■Rolled steed in 1909 196 

Foreign trade 397 

Iron and steel rails 402, 411. 143 

Steel works employees, Conditions 820 

steeds. High-speed, Composition 412 

Steinhauer, Frederick _ 99 1 

SteM> process, Jones 141, lo7o. 1078, 

1090, 1104 
Sterling Borax «',,. 21. 122 

Ste-iditii;- mines, Gut. 1076 

Stewart, P. C. A. Maikop oilfield *424 

Stewart. R. II. l§6 

Stewart Co., Idaho (82, 831 

Stewart mine, Mont. 138 

S; .■wart. N. L. Economizers for waste- 
heat boilers ■ *J52 
Stewart River dist. 211 
Stiebel, Herbert .1. 87a 
Stillwagon, C, Death of 136 

Stobel, E. G. Lj> 74 

Stock frauds, Alleged 551, 770. ,o.,. 82<, 

S43. lo43. 1190 
stock jobbing • >1, | 

Stock marked. Curb, N. Y. 358, 043. ,42 

curl, stocks in 1910 364 

Stock, Minorite To appraise 020 

stoed< transfer tax. Ont. 
"Stocks, Mining, Twelve Years Follow 

■ :>l 


Stone' elust on coal dust 

Ste.eks Selling Am. mines, London 

Surlier "nil hreime" triangles 

Stoltz, g, C. Deep drilling at. Mine 

ville 'HI 

Types of Skip dump-, 1 1 I 

— Two ton water car *10n 

— Azi clinometer *'_'-" 

Concrete pipe carrier *752 

Stone, Building, Calif. Discrimination 

285. 386 
ls2. 1092. 

1210. 1221 
Stone G. c. Storing inflammable ma- 
terial 257 

Stop block for incline- pla *654 
Stope-drill tests. Transvaal 81, I'M. 153. 

163, 2"L 356. 602, 1242 
Slope's. Narrow square-set, Handling 

ore in ' *949 

Open, Mapping *o.,n 

Storage of high exDlosives *111 
store Company, Marianna mine 
Steu-e's. Company 325 

Steering Inflammable material 257 

storms, w. II. Corner framing shaft 

timbers *1047 

Storms, W. II. 

How to build axrastre 

Am • .1 1 1:1 : lea 

Ho-., a rocker *fji:; 

Stoughton, L. Changes in Iron 
steel ma! 
Cost of mi 104 

Straits tin shipm 
Strait', n Estate, Colo. 031, 634, 730, 

Stratton's independence, Ltd 15, 51, llo. 

137. .".12. 631, I020, 1126 
Strauss, L. w. Peruvian cop. prod 554 

Strawberrj tunned. Driving *1153 

Strike's. Coal, Petty, Departure In 

settling 131 

strut, I,'. John 1: 1074 

St rut hers. .1 007 

Subsidence at Scranton 609, TTj 

Success mini'. Ont. 7s.",, 127.', 

Sudbury, Filling methoi * 1 204 

Sugar Loaf Consol. Ho, 238, 031 

Sulitjelma, Elmore plant at 
Sullivan air compressors *3ir> 

Sullivan Machy. Co. Channeling coal 11** 
sulphate'. Se'e "Ammonia." 
Sulphide ore--, Blasting; ignition 


356, on s 


3:, I 

85 1 
l 109 

Sulphur, Jaj an 

Sulphur, Sicily 

Sulphur. F. s. foreign trade 
Sitlphiit hank mine, Calif. 
Sulphuric acid from zinc smelters 
Sulphuric-acid making, Harz 
Sulphuric acid plant, Tenn. < lop. 1 

1.-,, 17. 1 I.',.-, 
Sulphuric-acid process, German 007 

Sultana Ophir Mg. Co. 230. s;„; 

Sulzer turbine pumps *200 

Summerhayes, M. W. 1173, 120s. 

Summit mine. I',. c. 127" 

Sunday lay-off at Argonaut 515, 502 

Sundial compass, Flirt's 1 1 ■', 7 

Sunlighi mining dist.. Wyo. 1155 

Sitnnyside mine'. Colo. 874 

Superior, Michigan 11", 118, 559 

Superior >\- Boston, Ariz. 139, 102s. 1271 

Superior ..V Pittsburg 7, 12, 188 

•Report 770 

Surface equipment, Nevada Hills 1001 

Surface plant. Tonopah-Belmont *8.">3. 841 
Surprise mine, Wash. 783 

Surr. g. Geology applied to mining sn; 

Survey, Geological Gingham report 

106, 109 

Appropriations 453 

Prospecting for potash 503 

Topographic maps. Middle States 564 

1 ons.'i vation. Two ,\ cars of 656 

— Fire' protection for reee,rds 893 

Reports Park City, etc. 1041, 1101 

Surveys and spad work, coal mines *o, 1 

Surveys. Magnetic iron deposits *1L'>7 

Surveying Anchoring plugs in roofs *ir>0 

Surveying. Mine A check 256 

Surveying, Mine', azimuth method *112 

Surveying shaft plumbing *318, 991 

Surveying Suspending cand *950 

Surveying— Topographic mapping *618, 110; 

Surveying l ndergpound leveling 652 

Susquehanna c,>a I Co. ' 32 

Sutton, L. 1'.., Death of 1 102 

Swaren, .1. W. Mining and milling a: 

Trinity mini' 
Swastika mine, Ont. 302. 1081, 1180 

Sweden, lion and si ■ 4 <_> 

Sweden, Iron mining in *1255 

Swe'ilish Iron ores. Method of mining *40fi 
Sweden, Silver :; 

Swedish foreign trail.' (89 

Swedish railways abandon peal 184 

Sweeper shenii.i have been promoted 113 

swelling ground, Timbering 
Switch and gravity tram r0o 

Switches, Electrical, Design of 2i5 

Sylvester, George 1: 

Svmons cru 307, *316. 602 

Svinems. P. Wahana iron n *100« 

Svneiicai Mana * :: - :; 


Table tops, Assay office 852 

"Tables for Determination of Common 
Rocks." <». Bowles 
el, .1. Coal elust experiments 

156, I s - 
Tailings elevation, Kami 
Tailings, Mine', for R. R. ballasl i". 

Tail F. g. Seeking employmenl 356, 

.-,.-.1. 602, ';••". 748, 798 846 
Talc mine'. N. •'. 276 

Ta io Mining 1 1 
Talbot. F. A- Coal mining in Spitz 

bergen *U12 

Tam 1 t'Shanter Montezuma, Colo. 
Tamarack, Mich. 14, '. 1 '■ 

01::. 1120 
Report 656 

Tampico oilfield, Mexico 
Tanganyika Concessions, Ltd. in. 84, 105, 

I, 857 
Tank. Filtering. Rothwell *667 

Tank. Hot water, Concrete 
Tanks, Cyanide, Hoops for 557 

Tariff. Coal Rebate of d '•" ~ 




Tariff 803, 841 

Tarifl tlook for x ""' 

Smelting r. t ; 4 

Tariff on lead by-products; smelting 

iu 1 164, M4. 1044. 1193, 1241 

842, 402 

onia, Tin mining in »715 

ands, Calif. i.:i 


12 8 

82 I 

- unmlned coal, Ind. 141 

Stem 503, 

.".IT. 994, 1043 


II sinal. a mining »•■ 

ani. Iron. Alumina, chromium 

!U 1 

» pis 
\i. x 

1 I 1 7 . 
.il mine 1067 

ound 906 

aluminum 276 

Tellurium, 1 B20 

■'U.'i. 392, 489, 
637, 718, 833 
atures Metallii sides, Reduc 
ing 406 

ion. 101, 609, 673 
...I mining fatalii 1 1 70 

8 R. R. Co. 29, 114. 

J8, 566, 978, 1141 
ilture in minin;: (amp 

•1068, 1240 

tricity at mines •1118. •! L6S 

127. 24". 249, 731 

l :. . 1210 

atement 13U 

-• furnace *573 

buric-acid plant 15, 947. 11."..". 

mination of alumina 1105 

Iron and 265, 609 

_ 588 

Mineral production 609 

Mineral Resources of" 

Tenn.. !eum 89, 595 

123, 128, "in:, 
Terrible-Dun - ; oup, Colo. 286 



Metallurgical 1 1384 

Small *654 


- Lignite mining 335 


Ding coal in Texas *626 

Industry l067 

mining during 1910 53 

as and prospecting ".71 

391, 925 


• -leiim 595 

■ s in 2 10 

::. 53 

: industry 85, 410 

Tin. 16, 53, *168, 309 

Copper Co. 1066 

namite 114. 162, 558, »704, 1243 




at mines 

• - \ ':• tor 

I R. 

r l.ottoms 



B., Jr. Traveling in 
aes lost In Welsh 








ll of 

.1 I Monel m< 

.1 V., coal tr.'i 

P. Lake of the Woods 


■ . ^ - 

136, 1268 





53 1 

• 1.7 

allf. l^s 


a 'a 


Timbers, Shaft. Corner framing *1U47 

Timbering, Boom method *161 

Timbering — Colliery trestles *528, *577 

Timbering, European, to prevent roof 

falls, etc. »227 

Timbering, Re-, a tunnel »898 

Timbering rules. South Wales .".">". 

rimbering swelling ground *507 

Timmins mine. Ont. 78 

Timmins Interests, Ont. *'_M7. 242. 954, 1 1 7:. 
Tin ami ore -Brit, foreign trade 2ls, 264 
Tin, Argentina and Bolivia 7.". 

Tin, Bolivia 248, 419, 790 

Tin, China 7)72, 867 

Tin determination In presence of 

antimony 110:* 

"Tin, Gray" Metal diseas 273 

Tin in 1910 Sargent's review 47 1 

Tin Industry In 1910 16 

Tin lodes. Banks and Malaya 2t;2. 617 

fin. .Malaya 16, 198, 1234 

Tin market and prices 16, *11.>. 151 

Tin, Me\i.o 69 

Tin mining near El Paso *168 

Tin. Nigeria, fields 293, 450, 474. <;:><; 

Tin prices 'llo, 151, *21| 

Tin. Slam production 1152 

Tin, Singkep production 23 

Tin, South African mines 600, 1242 

Tin, Straits shipments 198 

Tin, Tasmania, Mining in *715 

Tin, Texas 16, 53, *168, 309 

Tin. United Kingdom, production 1050 

'Tin, U. S. foreign trade 350 

Tin, Why is it not smelted in D. S. V 204 
Tintic Central mine. I'tah 241 

Tintic Combination, I'tah 241, 588, 636, 684 
Tintic, llolden tunnel at *2Gii 

'Tintic shipments in 1910 50 

Tippet's sludge ejector *799 

'Tipple for loading loco, tenders *459 

Tipple. Marianna *178, *229, 381, *428 

'Tipples. 'Trestles for *528, *577 

Tisdale Co., Out. 144, 1229 

'Titan steel Casting Co. 38 

'•'Titanium in Steel," etc. 1922 

'Titanium, Pure, Preparation of 330 

Titanium, Short method tor determin- 
ing 216 
Titanium steel rails 1010 
Tomboy Gold Mines. Ltd. 380 
Toms station camp, Mo. 977, 1079 
Tonopah and iis geology *966 
Tonopah Belmont, New 36, 63, 125, 126, 

142, 391, 683, 784, *90G. 1274 

Mine fire 454, 587, 758. 857 

Surface plant 841, *853 

Report 995 

Ton.. I ah (list, in lOlo 03, 125 

'Tonopah Extension 125, 12G, 191, *966 

Tonopah Midway 12C, *9GG 

Tonopah Ms. Co. 86, 63, 125, 12G, 142. 

240, 683, 780, *966, 1095, *1147 
— Report 90,'}. 994 

(lid- *1048 

Mill »1212 

Toole. J. R. Circular steel bins 110 

Topeka mine. Colo. 140, 880 

Topographic maps. See "Maps," 

Torreon, Smelling at 49, 484 

'Total output hoisted. Chart for *510 

Tracing through opaque paper *1149 

Track. Mine; extension with short 

rails *1047 

'Tracks Wooden rails *558 

'Tradition in milling 40.''. 

Tram (aides. Soft clutches for 754 

Tramway buckets, Oiler for *753 

Tramway, Cable elamp for *508 

Tramway track cables. Oiling *359, 452 

Transformer house, T.mopah-Belmont *853 

Transil bar for shaft alining *897 

Transport conditions, Bolivia *365 

Transportation in Rand mines 1245 

portation line. Elec. automatic 420 

iorting manganese ore in Brazil 553 

Transvaal. See also "Rand," "South 


Transvaal cyanidation; tube-milling 

tamp milling 42. 40, 80, 55.°,. 

944, 001; 
Diamonds 83, 22c. 581, 958, 

1149. 1242 

Transvaal drill-steel and hit tests *849 

■ aal, Cold 3, 80, 243, 584, 1200 

Rffecl of depth on richness 1200 

1. mtein farm 450, 

504, 958, 12 12 
aal e.oi.1 mines, Notes on 320, 306 

•.aal map, Bleloch's 

1 em s 2 

1910 80 

1 ransvaal mining, Report on so 1 

16 185, * 15::. 581, 

801, 802. H .7. 958, 1242 

I : 1 1 1 d 115 1 

Trail ' drill compel it 1. .11 81, 

101. jot. 356, 602 

eporl 163 

I 2 1 2 

|i 1. ury In 20c 

nv In Me] l '-'hi 

High nlli- 813 

SG, 1177 


Tregear, N. T. *84S 

Trent agitating lank *1215 

Trenton Iron Co., Cable oiling 4..." 

Trestles, Colliery, Details of *528, *577 

Trethewey mine. Ont. 242, 44o, 718, 1220 
'Triangle Mg. & I level. Co. 187 

Triangles, Platinum, substitute for 
Trl-Bullion S. & D. Co. 181, 1179 

Triboluminescent compound 319 

Trigo mines, Mex. 67 

Trlmountain filling method, Sudbury 12<H 
Trinity gold mine. Calif. 238 

Mining and milling *907 

Trinity G. M. Co., Alaska 804. 829 

'Trip for steam shovel dippers 1244 

Triplet t, L. C 337 

Trojan Mg. Co. 1080, 1241 

Trolley. Bucket, for shaft sinking *99S 

Trolley -wire hanger, Ala. *1120 

True Fissure Cold, Nev. 201 

Trull, Colo., oil strike 4S3 

Trust decision. Standard Oil 991, 1144 

Tube City Mg. Co. 
Tube mill, Returning pulp from 
Tube mills, Krupp, San Kafael 
'Tube mills. Use of quart/, in 
Tube milling, Cyanide plants 
Tube milling. South Af., costs, 

provements, etc. 
Tuberculosis among miners 
Tulameen, B. C, Diamonds 
Tulare Mg. Co., Calif. 
'Tungsten, Calif., in 1910 

His., .very in Stringer dist. 
Tungst en, Colo. . *52, 

Tungsten, Mont. 
Tungsten, Nev. 
'Tungsten, Nova Scotia 
Tungsten ore, N. B. 
Tungsten ores, Purchasers of 
Tungsten ores. Treatment of 
Tungsten ores. Concentrating 
Tungsten, U. S. 
'Tungst en, 1'eru 
'Tungsten. Wash. 
Tunis. Phosphates 
'Tunnel. Drainage, Nevada Co., Calif 

388, 1077 
Tunnel, Retimbering *89S 

'Tunnel, Strawberry, Driving *1153 

Tunnels, Drainage, Colo. 236, 339, 535. 

679, 750, 827. 87G, 1026, 1075, 1120 
Tunnels. Sampling ore in 798 

Tunstall, G. C, Death of 234 

Tuolumne Cop. Mg. Co. 54, 211, 438. 635. 

928, 1178 
Turbine driven air compressors 
Turbine-driven centrifugal pumps 
Turgeon, F. N. Concrete bin 
Turkey, Lead 
Turkey, Silver 
Turner. II. W. 
Turquoise, U. S. 
Tuscarawas dist. agreement 
'Tuyeres. Converter, Removable 
'Twelve Years Following Mining 

Stocks" +384 

Tyee Cop. Co. 40, 80, 983 

Tvssowski, J. Dredge installations 

during 1910 
- Pyrites industry in 1910 
'Tradition in mining 





43, 44, 81 

523, 892. 946 








87, 037 





1. SG 


S7, 292, 488 








219. 811 




-University situation in Calif. 452, 1239 

Uguet, P. Calafatite treatment 1241 

Uintah 'Treasure Hill 137, 192, *220 

Impleby. .1. M. Republic Hist. 1384 

I mvuma dist.. Southern Rhodesia 1073 

Uncle Sam mine. I'tah *222, 241, 344, 439 
1 iiion Catoreefla .\ln. Co. 210 

Union Coal Co. 1171 

Union oil Co ; Lake View gusher, etc 89, 

90, 386, 1123 
Union Phosphate Co. 413 

United Comstock Pumping Asso. 63, 126, 

7:;:.. 981 
United Kingdom 

Accidents in 1910. 720. 1107 

Ammonia sulphate 209, 702. 1039 

Briquet industry 570 

1 'a 1 .less use of explosives 1 33 

- Coal-Dusl Experiments, Altofts i l 384 

Coal dusi ; Altofts trials 1219, 1221 

Coal 1 luction 1 050 

Coal exports 195, 245. 775 

Coal miners 1 baths 902. 1217 

1 lolliery gas 1 ■• >\\ er stal Ion 1 1 07 

Colllerj timbering *227, 335 

1 \ n age disputes, 8 hours act, 

etc. ' 598, 628, 720. 1238 

Copper 248, 750. 877, 1050 

Cornwall minim: notes 81 1 

plosives, Permitted, flameless? 1219 

Firedamp tesis: handling explosives 1267 

Fortune lost, Welsh collieries 1020 

Gold and silver movement 1. 107, 213, 207 

Iron and steel production its. 1199, 12.".7 

1 ron product Ion 1 050 

Iron. Bteel, ore trade 297 

I ron. Scotch pig, product Ion B34 

Labor In 01 7 

i ■ ad and ore 17. 21s. i050 

Metals, Foreign trade 248 

Mica market, London 11s 



I United Kingdom. 
- Oil, Shale 

Patents, New '. 

Prize for elec. lamps 
Rescue brigades 

Silver prudiic-1 Ion 
tin ore product ion 
Tin ami ore imports 
Mineral production in 1910 
United .Metals Selling Co. 

Litigation with Am. Smelting 
I nil. m1 Mine W inkers 
United Mineral Co. 
United Missouri Riv. Power Co. 
Inited Red. & Kef. Co. 
United Rico, Colo. 
I nited Smelters, Ry. & Cop. Co. 
United States Uureau of Mines. 

United Stales, productions, etc. 


aiiim. sulpli. 


1050, 1121 
132, 628, 873, 

1072, 1283 

1 263 


205, 248 



248, 20 1 


84, 647, 

709, 1145 

1 58 

236, 294 




288, 000 



1, 8 




I'.isuiut h 



chemicals, etc., Foreign trade 


Anthracite shipments, 90 years 
Coke 1, 

- cai and coke, Foreign trade 
Copper 1, 7, 9, L50, 

- Copper sulphate 
Gem production 

Cold and silver movement 4, 107 
Cold in Treasury, Jan. .'! 
Immigration Commission reports 


1, 21 
1, 21 



21, 122 

1, 50 

35 1 

1, 94, 101 


)4, 101 

598, 040, 655 
steel. Foreign trade 

347, 771 
750, 891 

1, 10 

0, 101 



1. 3 

201, 213 

24 7 


-,20, 669, 821 

1, 26 


251, 265 

310, 404 

111, M3 


1, 20 

i. r 










1 152 


in and steel 

Rolled iron and steel in 1909 

Pig production by States 

Iron-making capacity 

Kails 405 

I roii ore 
lion, ore, 

- -Lead 

Lead, White 
Lignite deposits 


Manganese ore, Forei{ 

Metals, Foreign trade 



Peat fuel 
Pel roleum 

Petroleum, Foreign 1 1 ade 
Prices Of chemicals, earths, mineral 

Pj riles 

— Quicksilver 

Tuny st ell 

- -Vanadium 

— Zinc ; spelter 

— Zinc oxide 

I . s Hiamond Mg. Co. 

l. s Cold Dredging Co. 

U. s. Metals Ref. Co 

i , s Metals Selling Co. 

I'. S. Keelamat ion sen ice 

r. s. Snag., Kef. & Mg. Co. (See also 
"Mammoth," etc.) 55, 59, 60, 1 
I 12, *22<>. 27:;, :;.,7. 876, 926, 
1024, 1 125, 1 178. 1227. 120 
llolden tunnel, Centennial Eureka 
— Report 

— Development of mines 
rj. s. Soda 

U. S. Steel Corp. (See also "Tenn.,' 
••Minn.", "Oliver," etc.) 28, 31 
35, 36, 107, 147. 310, 4u4 

576, 676, 672, 820, 992, *1049, 1232 
Hill iron ore lands 32, 158, 495, 808 

1, 89, 



1, 85, l"l 

1. 3 


1. 86 








1. 22, 20." 

9, to. r 

Si raw berry 

* 1 1 53 

.' I. 


i, 1271 







Furnace practice changes 
Monthly repoi Is 117. 

Quarterly reports 
Exports iii 1910 
Report for year 1910 
Gary coke plant started 
Purchase or Risdon iron 
Price l»r «k 



Connellsville coke purchase 

92, 7 



9 18. 


■The investigation 

I . S. Tungsten mines, Calif. 

[I. S. Tungsten mines, Hub, Nev. 

[7. S. Zinc Co. 

United T'niiic Mines Co. 392, 63( 

United Vanadium Co. 

United Verde, Ariz. 

United Zinc c<>. 



I 232 

, 880 





i inn 


1 I9U 

si ; 


8.-, 2 




481, 546 

7:t4. 977 

1 1 82 
1 141, 

8.", 1 . 



United Zinc ft Chem. Co. 2::, 851, 852 

1 nlversal Porl laud Cemenl 102 l 

Universities. See proper names 
1 ralla gold-dredging companj 1027 

I rauium, Ferro, analysis 1 105 

I raniuiii ore, I lah 180 

I rhain's discover] of < 'eltium 21 2 

I 1 en, William .1. .,.; i 

Uruguay, Manganese ore in 916 

1 tali Apex 60, 112, 584, 7:10 779, 870, 

122:;, 122'.i 
I mil, Asphalt materials 439 

Utah, Cement 01 

Utah, Coal and eke urn, mi, 1114, 1171 
1 tah Cons.. I.. Highland Boy, etc. 60, 192, 

292, 302, ivs ;i, 540, 736, 7:.:;, 

876, 929, 1032, 1080, 12..::, 1270 

Geol. Survej report luo, 100 

Report 7."».j 

Utah, copper 7, 891 

I tah Cop. CO. 7. 60, 292, 34 I. 181, 488, 

636, 736, 870, 924, 1032, 1229 

Concentrator j.:,:, 

Quarterly reports 309, 948 

Report for 1910 901, L04JI 

-Chile mills 553, 099 

Boston Consul, mill »816, *S02 

Utah Fuel Co. 136 

1 tah, Gold and sil\ .1 :;, l.!7 

Utah, Lead L056 

Utah Metal Mg. Co. 60, 241, 292, 188, 

929, 1032, 1080 
1 tah mine, Fish Springs 192, 541, 1229 

Utah Mines Coalition »220, 241, 339, ::44, 

439, 488, 929, 1032 
Utah mines, Notes on; map *229 

Utah M., M. & T. Co. 1:12, 832, L179 

I tah mining in 1910 59 

I i ah railroads, New 777 

Utah salt lands 1 192, 107.". 

I tah. Smelting conditions in 1024 

Utah Soc. of Engineers 875, 1122 

Utah, Zinc 01, *22n. 851 

Valdez, Alaska, operations at 804 

Valdez creek placer (list. 401 

Valdez-Bonanza, Alaska 781, 804 

Valentine group. Colo. 586 

Valentine, W. ll.. Heath of 284 

Vallance, J. Standard mine 1 1 10 

Valley View Consol. 48:! 

Valves, Gate tor battery pipes 950 

Van Brussei, .1. B. Electricity, .Birchen- 

W 1 collieries *074 

Van Koi Mg. Co. 80, 
Van Saun, r. E. Nev. 
Vanadium, Colo. 
Vanadium In 1910 
Vanadium, informal ion 
Vahadium, Metallic 
Vanadium Mines c 
\ anadlum, .New M 

162, ♦704, 983, 

Wonder mill 

.".74. o.,i. 
c erning l">7. 


87, 4 20 

12 7.". 






10, 560, .".7 4 

438, 516, 

560, .">7 1, 7. ''.."> 

12 18 


and Walsh 


In old silver mines 
Vanadium, Peru 
Vandalla Coal Mg. Co 

mines s, ,-, sm, nii;T, L078, 1220 

Vandalla lirst aid contest 971 

\ a adeventer mine \\ is. 1 4 l 

Vanners, Boston Consol. mill »802 

Vats, Leaching, Gate for *951 

Vautelel. 11. I'.. 482 
Watch. O. Bauxite, soutnern Ga. *1050 

\ ekol copper dep.siis *473 

Venezuelan goldmine concession 126 

Venezuelan mining code. Elder ">o:; 

Ventilation at Leyden mine *12is 

Ventilation Auto, air sampler *847 

Ventilation Elec. fans, Ala: *llos 
Ventilation Elec. machinery troubles 274 

Ventilation, Marlanna mine *F 
Ventilation Mine air door 
Ventilation, Kami Alines 
Vermaes, S. .1. Banka tin lodes 
Vermilion iron Development Co. 
Vermilion l ron ..V Steel 1 '0 
Vermilion iV Mesabi Iron Co. 
Vermillion Lake pyrites property 
Vermillion range 
Vermilion range railroads 
Veta Colorado Co . Mex. 
Viaduct over shovel pit 
Victor American Fuel Co. 
Victoria Falls power 

Victoria mine. Mich. 
Victoria mine. I tah 

►228, *380 
* 1 147 

202. 017 
I 127 


1 127 





4:. 1 



220, 584 

587, 943 

344, 588, 784, 

882, 127 1 
Vigouroux, G. E. 'Twelve Years Fol 

lowing Stocks" '■"■ s l 

Village Keel' mine, Transvaal 958, 1151 

Vindicator mine, 1 342, 980 

Vinegerone mine. Nev. 683, 831, 928 

Vlpond mine, Ont. »809, 883, 983. 

1005, 1229 
Virginia Carolina Chem. Co 
Virgina, Pig iron 
Virginia Pocahontas Coal 
Virginia, Pyrites 
Virginian Ry. 
Vogt, Carlos, Heath of 
Von Weiss had smeltery 
Voscule, Doctor 
Vulcan hoisting engines, 



1 29 





.",9 1, 







.28 1 


Wahana iron mines \. F. *1008 

Product ion 

Wages Immigration Comm 273, 

II 669, 821 

Wages, Mill, San .loan region 159 

Wages of Mexii ans in 1 - ^7:: 

Waihi gold mine. The lui 

w a Id or f mines. Ci 1 81; 
Wales, C. B. 

\\ ales, 1 ...ii exports 19.", 
Wales, South, Timbering rules 

Walker. A. L. <op. metallurgy ::9 

Melting cathode copper 309 

Walker, B. 8. Technical reports 7 is 
Walker, c. w. Gate valves tor battery 

pipes 950 

Walk.,, 11. G. First gold dredge, 

Nev. »1210 

Walker, P. II. , on glassware 1<i9s 

Walker, S. 1-'. Insulation of cahles 470 

Thawing dynamite hy electricity *70t 

Fires due to elec. cahles 772 

Walker, W. K. 87.". 

Walla.e, Charles P. 1025 

Wallace, II. J. 1 v. 

Wallace, K. B. Steel ladders •124.". 

Wallaroo ft Moonta report 1066 

Walsh mines. New corporation to 

operate Hni7, 877, 884, Ili78, 1220 

Wanderer mine, Rhodesia 84, 1073 

Ward Shalt, Nev. 63, 120, 1228 

Warriner, J. B. First-aid contest, 

Koslyu. Wash. 624 

Warrior Devel. Co., Ariz. 139, 878, 

979, 1100 
Report 868 

Warwick Iron ft Steel Co. 101 

Wash house tor miners *604 

Washery, Coal. Marianna *178, *229. 231 
Washington Iron ft Steel Co. .Ill 

Washington mines in 1910 242 

Washington, Tungsten 87, 292, 488 

Washington Water Lower Co. 1224 

Washoe smelterv 4."..'.. 533, 583, .".87. 683, 

735, 892 
Wasp .No. 2, S. I). 70S, 802, 1080 

Wassaw mines. West Af. 1207 

Waste coal. Utilization of 1207 
Water bailers, Automatically discharg- 
ing *1190 
Water, Boiler-feed, treatment. New 401 
Water car, Two ton *160 
Water, Copper in. Alio mine .".09 
Water How meters, G. F. 1099 
Water, Heating, for concrete *952 
Water in converter air mains a source 

of danger 161 

Water power. Norwegian, development 1100 

Water power regulations, New lis 

Water power regulations. Calif. 977 

Water Sanitary drinking fountain 1097 

Water. Scrubber, clarifying 1097 

Water lank signal systems *1ii97 

Waterhouse, G. B. 1025 

Waters Fierce (»i.l Co. 959, *900, 901 

Watson, Clarence W. 284, 337 

W atson Stilltnan I. oiler compound 461 

Watson. Harry II. 1074 

Walts. J, S. Long ore conveyer *867 

Way, E. .1. on stamp milling 43 

Webb Cy. Sing, ft Mfg. Co. 25 

Webb, Francis J. 820 

Welili mine. Ont. 242 

Webber, M. Extracting copper from 

ore in place 700 

Weed. Floyd 630 

Weed. W. H. 1'orcupine opinion 1099 

Weed .x Prober! 2:14. 551, 559, 078. 778, 

926, 1074, 1 191 

Weerts. Godfrey, Death of 182 

Weill. Henry 1229 
W.iss. K. Alvin 

Welch. J. Cuthbert 1 1 7:: 

Welding at smelteries 706 

Welding, Oxyacetylene 963 

Welding. Sc hoop's substitute for *."..".2 

Welding Thermit repairs 11 Hi 

Well points, Draining with 999 
Wellington Co., Colo. 389, 733 

Wellman mixer at Hommeldange *91."> 
Wells, J. L. Removable converter 

tuyeres 1143 

Welsh collieries. Fortunes lost in 1020 

Wentworth, F. w.. on fire loss 107 
West Africa. Gold production and 

mining 3. 34."), 877. 1207 
West Canadian Collieries Co. 331, 460 
West Home mines. Ont. 637, 736. 

883. 1229 

West End Consol. 120. 141. 784. 832. 

900, »966 

Headframe *912 Va., Coal and coke 101 

"Levels and Coal Analyses" tr>80 

Long wall method, etc. 625, 597 

Va. Coal Lands Co. 293, 930, 982. 1081 Va. Coal Mg. lust. 673 

West Va Liability for hoys 479 

West Va., <H1 and uas in 777 

West Va., etc., Petroleum 89, 90, 595 

Western Australia. See "Australasia," 

Western coal combination, Proposed 462 




W istern coal rates 370 

Western Federation of Miners 254. 994 

Western I-uel ■ 460 , S33. 869 

Western Indiana tig. Co. 1076 

Western Md. i;. l:. "tonnage 590, 737 

We^ern Minerals 681 

Western Kami Estates Co. 1095 

western Union Telegraph Co. 154 

>>estfalia rescue apparatus •7M 

Westinghouse mica mines 58, 669 1128 

Weston. E. M. "Rock Drills" t283 

^tiug sludge from drill holes *7<ni 

Drill steel and bits, liand »849 

Dost prevention on Itand »951 

I mvuma district. Kho.i 107.S 

weston, w. o 7R 

Wethey. A. H. g34 

Wettengel, G. A. Rotatable zinc smelt 

iug furnace *6"0 

wetting a mine. Evidence for 95, 379 

WettJaufer mine. Ont. -212. 393, 685, 785 

wet*el, Thomas a 

Wharncllffe colliery cage gate *800 

Wheel-barrow scales. Convenient *651 

Wheel elevator for short lifts *1°43 

Wheeler, 11. a 8. B. Mo. lead dist li) 

— Growth. S B. Mo. lead dist. 1°9 

W heelwright. J. II. 337 

Whim Well mine. Australia 1027 

White Iron Lake Co. 4s7, 635, 783 

White. R. T. 875 

White lead in 1910 18 

White. Kush J. 1222 

W'hitefish Lake dist.. Que. §33 

Whitehead. George W. 10>-, 

Whiteside. W. II 13(5 

Whiiford. Judee G. W. 137, 333 

Whitney, W. R. Outlook for semi com- 
mon metals 1094 
Whining Mg. Devel. 286 
W ickard mine, Calif. 68 9 
Wickes-Corbin Cop. Co. 239, 572 
"Wide entry" law decision ' 286 
Wild Goose M. & T. Co. 41 
W lltley roaster, New 6°2 
Wilfley tables. Roston Consol.'s *862 
Wilhelm. V. II. Prevention of foaming 

in launders *1095 

Wilkinson. Charles D. 826 

Willemite. Examination for 654 

Williams. Richard K. 1222 

II M. Treatment of mine fires 1117 
Wilson, John 234 

Wilson, J. R. Accident prevention 1045 

Wilson. W. K. 77 8 

Winch. Electric traveling *87 v> 

Winding. See "Hoist," -Cage" 

•Skip." etc. 
Wingfield. George 119, 201, 240 

Winnemucca mill. Utah 236 

Winnetka mine. Mont. 939 

Winona Gold-Cop. M. & M. Co. 1155 

Winona King Philip, Mich. 539 

Winstanley. G. H. Safety lamps 527 

Winton Vermilion Iron Co. 783 

Wire. Copper g4g 

Wireless telegraphy underground 647 

Wireless telegraphy for mines *800, 842 


W isconsin, Lead 1 or.* 

W isconsin, Zinc 9Q om 

Wisner. A. L.. & Co. **■ 79J 

Wiiherbee. Sherman & Co. *111, *704 759 
u-lV b- L - . L - Tailin S s for ballast ' 407 
W oleott s channeling-niachlne mining 

Wolf Tongue mill, Colo. 86, 1177 7 'l%59 

Wolnamite. See "Tungsten" ' 

Wolverine. Mich. 141 »r-,r- 

Wood. J. E. Collecting gold from' 

pannings Rs;l 

Woodbridge, D. E. Lake Sup. iron 

country * 31 

dean disorders ?63 

•Orijarvi mine. Finland •75a 

Lake Superior copper mines 957 

Woodbrldge, 1). 10. i, 0I1 mining, Scan- 
dinavia *]"-,-> 
Woodman, P. L. Air door .7747 
Worcester, S. A. i»S 
Work. Standards of 307 
World productions. See metals by name. 
Wrench, Pipe. Handy improvised *"59 
Wright, C. A.. Death of 2074 
Wright, II. G. Cal. cV Hec. milling *1161 
Wright, Louis T. B J222 
Wright, W. R. Sanitary conditions, 

LIngham .,qq 

Wiist, F. Carbon determination in 

iron and steel 414 

Wyandoh mine, Ont. 3 4 o 

Wyoming. Copper 7 goT 

Wyoming. Petroleum 89 488 595 

Wyoming phosphate legislation '*4is 

Wyoming, Platinum . 4 «n 

Wyoming. Sunlight dist. if 55 

Wyopo Pipe Line Co. 2oq 

Wysor, R. J. *|° 









Yampa mine and smeltery 59, 540 1275 

lankee Consol., Utah *222, 344, 391" ' 

439 784 
\ankee-silver resistance alloy ' ' 39c 

\ellow Aster mine, Calif 238 

\ellow Jacket mine. Nev. •rq? 

Yellow Pine dist., Nev. 803 

Yellow Pine mine, Nev. 803, 996, 1127 

lelta and Paramatta mines i«>os 

\ilgarn goldfield. The 552 

Wing. C. M. Explosion at Mineral, 

lvan. . ,, ,,- 

x- 0l . lng V, G - J - D '>ving in loose ground •161 

luba Consol. Goldfields 41, 42, S30, 1077 
^ukon dredging * 41 40 

Yukon Gold Co.— Report 511 

Notes 483, 1033 121 - 

Yukon gold deposits, Types of 470 

Yukon gold royaltv 12 04 

}ukon, Guggenheim purchases in 930 

'Hikon mineral production 510 

\ukon-Pocahontas Coal Co. 636 

Zaaiplaats tin mines 

600, 1242 

Zalmski, E. R. Utah mining 

Notes on Utah mines 
— Holden tunnel at Tintic 
—Ore occurrence, Little Bell 

Driving Strawberry tunnel 
^apiie. C. Cuyuna range 
Capote group, Mex. 
teller Coal Mg. Co. 
Zinc. See also "Spelter." 

ziuc,a°c r ces 22 ' 25 - 15 °- i5 v 2 ii 

Zinc, Broken Hill V? 

Zinc, Colo.— Production, mining, Lead- 
ville ores, etc. 22, *51, 171, 253, 535, 

Zinc convention, European 851, 1 o,u 

-R C ep ( ort POratl0n ' Ltd - 745 ' 946 > 11M 

Zinc -Decline of sheet-ore mining at U2J 
Joplin 6 aL Q11 

Zinc-dust feeder, Improved *™7 

Zinc, Germany, and spelter 205, 446, 

Harz— Pape W'itter-Babe process, 4 etc 

Zinc, Idaho 4*8 1 l 1 °?77 n M, 

Zinc, Illinois 461 ' 7 U' fj?l 

Zinc industry in 1910 ' 22 

Zinc, Jones step process tried for 

Zinc, Kansas 107 | 2 10 ?° 

Zinc lathe, Double-tool inq^> 

Zinc-magnesium alloys *ors 

Zinc, Mexico 65 So^ 

Zinc-mill flow sheet, Petersburg ' *8rs 

Zinc mine at Deadwood ?o* 

Zinc, Missouri 22 94 sXi 

Zinc, Montana if it' §2} 

Zinc, Nevada, mining 803, 996;' 1127 

Zinc, New Jersey, ore ak\ 

Zinc, Oklahoma 2 2 25 851 

Zinc ore contracts, Joplin ; Ore Pro- ' 

ducers' Asso. 202 3^4 e\na 

-Notes 598, 742, 936, 977, 988?' 1280 

Zinc-ore market, three months, etc. 

Zinc ore tariff decision fof' 841* 

Zinc ores, Imported, Smelting ' mm 

Zinc ores, Lead determination in 56<) 

Zinc ores, etc. Huff process 273, 357 1024 
Zinc oxide in chemical glassware ' 1098 

Zinc oxide, U. S. ? 

Zinc recovery from galvanized scrap 1211 
Zinc recovery from slags kk 

Zinc, Sheet, Rolling, New method 955 

Zinc smelters, Lists of 93 £52 

Zinc-smelting furnace, Rotatable ~ ' *670 
Zinc — Spelter statistics for 1910 ■ 

smelting capacity 851 

Zinc, U S in 1910 1, 2 2, 205, 851 

Zinc, etc., U. S. foreign trade 350 

£° Cl S* ah 61 « * 220 - 851 

Zinc, Wis. 23 8"1 

Zinc— World's spelter production ' 205 

Zirconium, Uses of 5^ 

'/ 00 £' J \A J °P Hn dls t- In 1910 24 

Zophar Mg. Co. 07 

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Subscriptions payable in advance, 
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date of issue. 

Entered at New York Post Office as 
mail matter of the second class. 

Cable Address, Engminjour, N. Y. 


Durum 1910 we printed <ut<l circulated 
©6,500 copies of The Engineering and 
iIimxi: .lori'.XAL. 

Our circulation for December, 1910, teas 
[9,000 copies. 

January 7 13.000 

None sent free regularly, no back numbers, 
■"mures arc lire, net circulation. 


Jold, Silver and Platinum F. Hobart 

irkansas Diamonds John T. Fuller 



lines of Butte B. B. Thayer 

liami Mine •/. Parke Charming 

lopper in Arizona James Douglas 

'ananea L. D. Ricketts 

.ake Superior Copper .... (7. L. G. Fichtel 

'ennessee Copper Co A. //. Emmons 



Southeast Missouri H. A. Wheeler 

Lluminum Arthur V. Davis 

iorax 8. T. Mat Ik r 



;inc in Wisconsin J. E. Kennedy 

oplin District Jesse A. ZooJc 

Iklahoma G. W. Bigham 

ron and Steel Frederick Hobart 

.ake Superior Iron. .D wight E. Woodbridge 

"limnology of Mining in 1910 

lining Company Dividends 


ron Metallurgy Bradley Stoughton 

'opper Metallurgy Arthur h. Walker 

>redge Installations John TyssowSki 

'yanidation PMlip Ariiall 

Itamp Milling Louis l>. Huntoon 

<ead Metallurgy //. O. Hofman 

lining in the United States. .0. E. Collins, 

J. K. Prather, W. P. Gary, E. W. 

Schofleld, L. II. Eddy, E. R. Zalinski 
Iexico . . . . Kirby Thomas. E. A. II. Tays, 

II. V. Schmidt, B. Newman, A. E. Place, 
A. 8. Brady 

r ntral America 

outh America 

hile Harris K. Masters 

>ntario Thomas If. Gibson 

iritish Columbia E. Jacobs 

'ransvaal — Rhodesia. . .Hugh E. Marriott 

Kiicksilver and Tungsten 


'hemical Prices 

'etroleum. . . . M. L. Requa. E. Haroorth, 
II. G. George. R. 8. Blatchlcu 

'cal and Coke Eloi/d W. Parsons 

"he Coal Trade John If. Jones 

'he Mining Index 1 





JANUARY 7, iqii. 


This annual statistical number of the 
Journal is laid out upon the same plan 
as its predecessors, but it comprises some 
new features that are important. Among 
these are the more comprehensive treat- 
ment of many of the minor minerals and 




Ammonium sul- 
phate . . 

. tons 



S. tons 


Coal, anthra- 

Coal, bitumin- 


Copper sulphate 

Iron ore 


Petroleum Bbl. 

Tungsten ore. . . 3. tons 

Zinc oxide S. tons 

S. tons 
S. tons 

L. tons 


2, 015,; sso 







182,058, 158 


























Copper (a) 





L. tons 



Gold (&) . . . 





L. tons 



Lead (c) . . . 

S. tons 



Nickel (/). . 








Silver (6) . 

Tr. oz. 



Zinc (d) 

3. tons 



(a) Production from ore originating in the 
United States. (6) The statistics for 1909 are 
the final and those for 1910 are the preliminary 
statistics reported by the director or the Mint, 
(c) Production of refined lead from ore and scrap 
originating in the United State-;; antimonial lead 
is included, (d) Total production of smelters, 
except those treating dross and junk exclusively; 
includes spelter derived from imported ore. 
(e) Estimated. (/) Imports for first 11 months 
of each year. This nickel is smelted in the 
United States for the production of metal, oxide 
and salts. 

metals and an exceptionally valuable 
series of articles reviewing metallurgical 
progress. Also there are numerous arti- 
cles upon mining developments by lead- 
ers of the industry, many of those that 
are unsigned being fully as responsible 
as those that are. No one can turn 
over the following pages without a recog- 
nition of the impressive list of contribu- 
tors and the authoritativeness of their 

summaries. To all of these contributors, 
who have collaborated in this number, we 
tender our thanks, and also to the many 
persons who have assisted in the collec- 
tion of statistical information. Our thanks 
are due also to the producers of copper, 
lead, spelter and other substances, who 
have communicated to us the amount of 
their output in 1910 and have thereby 
enabled close approximations to the ac- 
tual production in 1910 to be made by Jan. 
4, our date of going to press. 

The production of the more important 
minerals and metals is summarized in the 
table on this page. The details appear in 
subsequent pages. It will be found that 
in some cases our contributors give fig- 
ures that do not agree with our own. 
The explanation of such differences will 
generally be that the articles of outside 
contributors were necessarily written and 
put into type before our own statistics 
were available. The necessity of hand- 
ling the great mass of material in this 
huge number in a few days leaves no 
time for leisurely comparison and revision 
to effect a careful coordination of all the 
data. We feel sure that no one, in the 
light of this explanation, will be misled 
by any discrepancies that may be dis- 
covered. This number of 104 pages, if 
made up in the form of an ordinary tech- 
nical treatise, would constitute a book 
of upward of 360 pages. 

The reader of these pages will obtain 
the idea that 1910 was a remarkable year 
in the mining industry and will, perhaps, 
find it difficult to understand the pessi- 
mism that has prevailed. Nearly all of the 
important substances show increased pro- 
duction. In many cases the outputs were 
the largest on record. Consumption also 
was large. In the latter particular iron 
showed no gain, but coal, copper, lead, 
spelter, tin and other things improved. In 
copper the gain was phenomenal. Nor 
was the increased consumption at the 
expense of prices, our index number 
for the metals in 1910 being 115, against 
115 in 1909. The troubles of which pro- 


January 7, 191 1. 

ducers complain were due to their own 
previous extravagances in overextending 
their capacities. This was notoriously 
the case in iron, copper and cement. Pro- 
ducers were disappointed by the failure 
of consumptive demand to rise to their 
own grossly exaggerated expectations 
atd provisions, and their inability to use 
to the full their new plant, in which 
huge amounts of capital have been in- 
vested, created unsatisfactory financial 

This overextension was the direct re- 
sult of the conditions leading up to the 
crisis of 1907, indeed was contributory 
to the development of that crisis. It 
was not appreciated that those conditions 
were fundamental and in 1909. long be- 
fore the curative process had been suf- 
ficiently in action, the old movement of 
extension was resumed. In 1910 we had 
renewed liquidation and in the latter half 
of the year the usual secondary reaction 
in business followed. 


New York. Jan. 4 — The year closed 
quietly in u ? metal market generally, 
and the new year opens with only slight 

Gold, Silver and Platinum 









$ 4,813,500 


p.$ 2,937,489 



p. 11,785,644 

■ ii 22 























the port "i" New fork, week 
10 : silver, $1,418,- 
_ 863 chiefly from 
- 10 172, from South and Cen- 
tral America. 

Gold— The price of gold on the open 
market in London was unchanged at 77s. 
9d. per oz. for bars and 77s. 4' 'A. per 
oz. for American coin. Supplies were 
taken chiefly for France and Germany. 

Platinum The market continues quiet. 
Sale 1 - have been light, and there are re- 
ports of weakness in the foreign market, 
healers quote- $38.50 per oz. for refined 
platinum, and 540.500? 41 per oz. fot 
hard metal. 10 per cent, iridium. 

Silver — The market advanced this week 
on buying lor Chin' e banks and closes 
steady at 25'd. in London. Tli 

■ r fluctuations within narrow 




Poc. -Jan. 







Now York 

London . 
sterling Ex.. 





64 > 8 

25 A 



54 s „ 

26 '., 

4 8600 

64 *k 

24 U 


Now York quotations, cents pet ounce troy, 
lino silver: London, pence per ounce, sterling 
silver. 0.92S tine. 

Copper, Tin, Lead and Zinc 






d . 




T. ~ ' 

tC "H 




t* Z 


i« i 




| i 

a . 


•: r. 

A T 






00 _ 


02 O 

U 5 6 

L2 46 

4 35 5.42J 




®12 56 



„4 37i®5.47| 


12 s „ 


4.3.-. 5.4-2.' 

5- -'71 








12 s e 


4.36, 5.42J 

©4.37* ©5. 47j 









12 H 

12 40 

4 .35 5 45 



®12 \ 





©5 . 35 



4.35 5 47', 

5 . 3- \ 




39 % 

4 . 50 

©4. 37 \ ©5.52.1 

©5. 37 J 

The New York quotations for electrolytic 
copper are tor cakes. Ingots and wirebars, 
and represent the bulk of the transactions 
made with consumers, basis New York. cash. 
The prices of casting copper and of electrolytic 
cathodes are usually 0.125c. below that of 
electrolytic. The quotations for lead repre- 
sent wholesale transactions in the open mar- 
ket. The quotations on spelter are for 
ordinary Western brands; special brands 
command a premium. 









3 Mos 

Sel'td Spot. 

3 Mos 






60 ' 174 



•j l 














179%' 13,',, 







179* 13ft 

24 % 

The above table gives the closing quota 
tions on London Metal Exchange. All prices 
are in pounds sterling per ton of LiL'lo Hi. 
Copper quotations are for standard copper, 
spot and three months, and for besl Se- 
lected, price lor the latter being subject ti 3 
per cent, discount. For convenience in com- 
parison of London prices in pounds sterling 
per 2240 lb., with American prices in cents 
per pound the following approximate ratios 
are given: E10 2.17% c. ; £12 2.61c; 
£23 Pic. : £60 13.04c. b £1 = ± 0.21 %c. 

Copper — The market is peculiar in 
some of its features. The leading agen- 
cies maintain their previous asking price, 
but while failing to get business mani- 
fest no concern respecting the situation 
and give no sign of weakening. Other 
sellers, on the other hand, have made 
concessions to consummate business. Al- 
though the transactions of the week have 
been relatively small, they have been 
made at lower prices. Nevertheless a 
■ feeling is noticeable in the mar- 
led if the business effected lias been 

small, at least there has been a better 
inquiry both for domestic delivery and, 
for export. At the close, Lake copper is 
quoted at 12$£@12%c, and electrolytic 
copper in cakes, wirebars and ingots at 
12.40rw 12.50c. Casting copper is quoted 
nominally at \2 l / A (a\2)4, cents. 

The London market for standard cop- 
per, which closed on Friday at £56 for 
spot, and £56 16s. 3d. for three months, 
displayed more activity and strength on 
Tuesday and Wednesday of this week, 
closing on the latter day at £56 15s. for 
spot, and £57 10s. for three months. It 
is reported that the speculative market 
is pretty well sold out and that senti- 
ment is more hopeful. 

The visible supply of copper in Eng- 
land and France — including copper afloat 
from Australia and Chile — on Jan. 1, 
1911, was 83,838 long tons, a decrease 
of 2412 tons from the Dec. 1 report. 

Tin — Supported by large orders from 
the United States, the London market re- 
tained its firm tone throughout last week. 
The only exception was Dec. 29, when 
the unexpected announcement by the 
Dutch government of an increase of 1500 
tons in the quantities of Banka tin to 
be sold during 1911 had a depressing 
influence on quotations. The exceedingly 
favorable statistical position of the metal, 
which was revealed both in London and 
here at the beginning of business in the 
new year, gave the market considerable 
stimulus. Interests which hitherto had 
not put any confidence in the reports of 
large deliveries into United States con- 
sumption and ever decreasing shipments 
from the Straits, were compelled to 
change their opinion of the market and 
turned bulls. The result was an advance 
of about £4 10s. and an excited market. 
The close is cabled very strong at £180 
12s. 6d. for spot, and £179 15s. for three 

The domestic market is quoted at aboul 
39.75 cents. 

Visible stocks of tin on Jan. 1 were 
17,194 long tons, a decrease of 1681 tons 
from the Dec. 1 statement. 

Lead — A fair volume of business is be- 
ing done from day to day at last prices 
4.50c. New York, and 4.35 (<T 4.37 J/>c. St, 

The market for Spanish lead is again £ 
trifle lower, being quoted at £13 Is. 3d 
and £13 3s. 9d. for English lead. 

Spelter — The market is firmer. At the 
lower prices which have recently beer 
current, manufacturers show a dispositior 
to replenish their depleted supplies, anc 
as stocks in the hands of smelters are 
small, they are not eager sellers. In con- 
sequence, the market appears to be sensi- 
tive upward. At the close, St. Louis is 
quoted at 5.32] 5@5.37^c. and New Yorl 
at 5.47' j@S.52J4 cents. 

The London market is firmer, good or 
dinaries being quoted at £24 2s. 6d., witl 
' ' I 7s. 6d. for specials. 

January 7, 191 1. 


Gold, Silver and Platinum in 1910 

By Frederick Hobart 

The gold production of the world, which 
has been increasing steadily and by con- 
siderable proportions ever since the set- 
back given to its total by the stoppage of 
Transvaal production during the Boer 
war, increased in 1910 but with a smaller 
percentage of increase than in 1909. Our 
preliminary figures for 1910 show a total 
of $468,815,067, an increase, as compared 
with 1909, of 58,887,585, or 1.9 per cent. 
The completed figures for the year may 
possibly change these totals somewhat, 
but it is not likely that there will be any 
material difference in the revised figures. 

The statements for the United States 
given herewith are the preliminary esti- 
mates compiled by the director of the 
Mint. For nearly all the important pro- 
ducers reports are for 1 1 months of 
the year, the month of December being 
estimated. For Russia the definite fig- 
ures are for eight months, with a close 
estimate for the remainder of the year. 
Our estimates have been made on a con- 


Country. 1909. 1910. 

rransvaal S150.299.329 8155,916,000 

rjnited States 99,673.400 96,055. 214 

Australasia 71,254,182 67,730,000 

Russia 37,455,032 47,042.853 

Mexico 22,511,966 22,850,000 

Rhodesia 12,751,226 12,712,000 

British India 10.725,000 10,469,000 

Canada 10,050,000 n,250,ooo 

L'hina, Japan and 

Korea 9,599,800 10,000,000 

West Africa 4,644,386 3,715,000 

Madagascar 2,480,000 1,950.000 

Fiance 1,196,280 1,625,000 

South and Central 

America 14,464,352 14,750,000 

Dther countries 12,822,529 12.750,000 

Totals 8459,927,482 8468,815,067 

servative basis, so thart revisions later 
nay slightly increase the total; but the 
difference will not be great. 

The year 1910 did not witness the open- 
ng or development of any important new 
producing districts, except in Russia, 
A'here the new mines in the Lena basin 
ind in the Amur region made a notable 
>ain. Indeed, Russia shows the only large 
ncrease for the year. The Transvaal 
lad only a small gain, the smallest for 
^ears; United States production de- 
ceased, as did that of Australasia; while 
)ther countries had only small changes, 
rhe changes of the year in the Transvaal 
ire treated at length in the following 
jages, as are those in the principal States 
)f the United States. 

Australasia — The production of gold in 
\ustralasia again showed a decrease, as 
t has for several years past. This was 
nost marked in Western Australia, which 
s the largest producer; and there the 
oss came chiefly from the lower grade 
)f ore in the important Kalgoorlie dis- 
rict. One new district, the Southern 
Dross, was opened and great hopes are 
mtertained of its future; but not enough 

work has yet been done to show its 
real value and importance. In most of 
the other States, no new discoveries were 
made, and the gold-mining industry has 
suffered from a lack of prospecting and 
from the diversion of labor to other fields 
of industry. New Zealand production 
was nearly stationary, an increase from 
the quartz mines being offset by a de- 
crease from the dredges and other placer 


1891 8130.650,000 1901... $260,877,429 

1892 146,292,600 1002... 298.812":193 

1893 158,437,551 1903. . . 329.475. 101 

1894.... 182,509.283 1904... 349,088,293 

1S95 198,9(15.741 1905... 378,411,054 

1896 211,242,081 1906... 405..-).-, 1 .022 

1897 237.833. 9S4 1907... 411,294,458 

1S9S 287 .327.833 1908. . . 443,434,527 

1899 311,505.947 1909. . . 459,927,482 

1900 258,820,703 1910... 468,815,067 

Russia (Special Correspondence) — The 
completed official returns for eight months 
give the following production of pure 
gold as registered at the smelting works 
of the Imperial Mint: Ural, 78 poods; 
Tomsk, 75; Irkutsk, 228; Amur and 
Seacoast, 429; Lena basin, 845; Yenisei, 
44; miscellaneous, 44; total mint, 1743; 
registered by banks from private smelt- 
ing works, 877; total, 2620 poods fine 

The year was a satisfactory one for the 
Russian gold-mining industry. The re- 
turns of the large gold-mining enterprises 
show that the production of 1910 sur- 


(Figures furnished by Director of the Mint.) 

Country. 1909. 1910. 

United States 54,721,500 56.438,695 

Canada 27,878,590 32,878,590 

Mexico 73,949,432 72.57 1.220 

Africa 1,076.577 1,076,600 

Australasia 16,359.284 16,359,284 

Russia 132,122 158,:, 16 

Austria-Hungary.... 999,184 099.184 

Germany 5,332,901 5,332.901 

Norway 213,122 213.122 

Sweden 29,373 29,373 

Italv 786,620 786,620 

Spain 4,767,091 4,767,091 

Greece 829,025 829,025 

Turkey 7,971 7,971 

France 592,042 673.302 

Great Britain 159.747 618, 129 

Servia 11.226 10,230 

South America 16,038,182 16,476,928 

Central America 2,294,272 2.294,272 

Japan 4,278,392 4,798,351 

Dutch East Indies. . . 465.980 46:,. 980 

Total 201,215,633 217,788,714 

passed that of the previous year by a 
large amount. 

At the head of all gold-mining districts 
we can put the Kodaibo district, situated 
in the basin of the Lena, in the Irkutsk 
government. The Lena Gold Mining Com- 
pany (Zentskaya), owned by the Eng- 
lish company, the Lena Goldfields, Ltd , 
alone produced the enormous quantity of 
1200 poods of gold, the production of the 
whole district being 1400 poods. 

This improvement attracted the atten- 
tion of Russian and foreign capital- 

ists to the gold-mining industry, and many- 
enterprises that had suffered from lack 
of money have been supplied with suffi- 
cient capital. In the same district, for 
the first time during its existence, there 
were opened gold veins in quartz, but the 


(In Value.) 

St ate. or Territory. 1909 1910 

Alabama 829,200 829, lie, 

Alaska 20.339.600 16,987,990 

Arizona 2,626,800 3,375,250 

California 20,703,600 21,146,150 

Colorado 21,846,600 20,408,641 

Georgia 13,400 25,488 

Idaho 1,344.200 992,030 

Missouri 200 .... 

.Montana 3.750,100 3,465,364 

Nevada 16,386.200 17,011.013 

New Hampshire 590 

New .Mexico 252,800 397,974 

North Carolina 31,400 51.881 

Oregon 829,000 631,173 

Pennsylvania 6,200 2,419 

Philippine Islands 247,600 90.357 

Porto Rico 600 1,013 

Kansas 11,163 

South Carolina 7,400 31 ,566 

South Dakota 6,573,600 5,183,070 

Tennessee 4,300 3,51 1 

Texas 400 475 

Utah 4,213,300 4,243,907 

Virginia 4,000 558 

Washington 429,000 711,359 

Wyoming 3,900 3,990 

Oklahoma 15,090 

Miscellaneous 299,225 

Totals S99.673.400 896,0.",.-). 21 1 

industrial importance of this discovery is 
not yet determined. 

The quartz gold mining improved 
also in the Tomsk district (West 



(I.v Fine Ounces.) 

State or Territory. 1909. 1910. 

Alabama 200 264 

Alaska 198,600 126,480 

Arizona 2,523,600 2,835,64 1 

California 2,304,900 3,530,246 

Colorado 8,846,300 8,7 17.777 

Georgia 200 286 

Idaho 6,755,900 6,686,016 

Illinois 900 1 .727 

Michigan 217.600 268.642 

Missouri 15,200 32.900 

Montana 12,034.500 11,519,059 

Nevada 10,119,200 9.346.256 

New Hampshire 3.000 85 I 

New Mexico 324,200 683,111 

North Carolina 400 1 .2 1 :. 

Oregon 69,600 62,8 18 

Pennsylvania 7.867 

Philippine Islands 3,000 1.523 

Porto Rico 2 

Kansas 4,113 

South Carolina 11 

South Dakota 196,300 113,460 

Tennessee 65,300 75,7 1 1 

Texas 408,100 365,854 

Utah 10,551,100 11,242,301 

Virginia 6,400 34 

Washington 75,200 176,816 

Wyoming 1,800 1 .363 

Oklahoma 66. 176 


Totals 54.721,500 56. i 

Siberia), where many new veins have 
been discovered and development begun. 

The Amur railway has opened new 
and large gold placer fields, which have 
already attracted many prospectors. 

On the Imperial Domains, in the Baikal 
region, production greatly increased, be- 
ing equal to 500 poods, but from this dis- 
trict much gold escaped registry, being 
carried abroad by the Chinese miners. 

Gold mining in the Ural district re- 


January 7, 1911. 

mained stationary, showing no improve- 

Gold dredging developed gradually. 
New dredges have been proposed for in- 
stallation: two in the Seacoast district on 
the Kolchan mines, near Nikolaievsk; one 
was ordered from the Engineering Com- 
pany of New York. Four dredges were 
started in the Kodaibo district; one 
dredge of the Werf-Conrad pattern has 
been irmalted by: the Angara Gold Mining 
Company, in the Seacoast district. 

Gold and Silver Prodlction in the 
United States 

We have received from the director of 
the .Mint his preliminary statement of 

gold and silver production, based on the 
returns from the mints and assay offices. 
Comparisons are made with the revised 
and completed figures for 1909. The gold 
output showed a decrease last year of 
$3,618,186, or 3.6 per cent.; the losses 
being mainly in Alaska, Colorado and 
South Dakota. California, Nevada and 
Utah showed gains. California stands at 
the head of the list for 1910, changing 
places with Colorado, which was first for 
several years. Nevada stands third, pass- 
ing Alaska, which drops to fourth place. 
South Dakota holds the fifth place, while 
Utah is sixth, Montana seventh and Ari- 
zona — with a considerable gain — is eighth. 
The causes of .these changes are ex- 

plained in the reviews on the following 
pages. The figures are given in the tables 
on the preceding page. 

The silver production for 1910 showed 
an increase of 1,717,195 oz., or 3.1 per 
cent., over the previous year. Montana 
held the first place as a silver producer, 
but it was very closely followed by Utah. 
Nevada advanced to the third place. Colo- 
rado fourth and Idaho fifth. The chief 
increases were in Utah, California and 
Arizona. Montana and Nevada both de- 
creased their output. In the other States 
there were no marked changes. The 
greater part of the silver came, as usual, 
from the great copper and lead-producing 

Gold and Silver Movement in 1910 

By Frederick Hobart 

A problem presenting much interest 
and also many difficulties in the way of 
a- solution is the final disposition of the 
precious metals mined and added to the 
world's stocks year by year. These metals 
are not consumed or used as are the 
metals of construction — such as iron, 
copper, lead, zinc and others. Gold, es- 
pecially, is not used, but is added to 
stocks in use or circulation, except that 
portion which is employed in the arts. 
Even that does not disappear, and is not 
consumed, but is for the most part put 
into form? which are preserved, and 
which can on occasion be put into metal- 
lic form and used again. An unknown 
quantity is lost, it is true, by fire, wreck 
and similar causes, but this cannot be a 
-:reat proportion of the total mined. 
In modern times a large part of the 
world's gold is held by national treasur- 
ies and by banks, and can be traced by 
their records. In 1910, however, as in 
many previous years, the increase in what 
may be called the visible stocks of gold 
in no degree approached the quantity 
mined. There is no space here, however, 
to discuss this question, which has been, 
and continues to be, the subject of un- 
ending controversy. 

Gold Movi ment 

While 1910 was a year of active busi- 
ness and trade in most of the commercial 
there was not as active a demand 
d as in the previous year. 
plies were absorbed, but there was less 
competition for them among the leading 
commercial nations. The United States 
ild than in 1909, 
thou*;'' In exceeded its 

The movement for tl 
rront 1 



I ■ 

A considerable part of the imports are 
from Mexico, South America and other 
countries where our people have mining 
interests. The commercial movement to 
and from Europe was comparatively 
small. For most of the year our bankers 
were not in a position to demand gold; 
while London and Paris was not disposed 
to lend it. At the close of the year the 
exchange position indicates that we may 
import gold early in the new year. 

The movement through the port of San 
Francisco — which is of interest as it in- 
cludes the direct exports to China — was 
as follows, for the 1 1 months ended Nov. 

Imports: Coin. Bullion. Total. 

Cold $1,943,174 82,201,866 $4,145,040 

Silver 790.3 17 865,102 1,655,449 


Ccl'l 1,970,208 i .avi.L'i^ 

Silver 31,000 6,480,397 6,51 1 397 

Gold L 1,933,174 I. 231,658 [.2,164,832 

Silver 1. 7.".!),.: 17 E.5,615,295 E. 1,855,9 18 

The exports show decreases of $24,- 
924,009 geld and $712,595 silver, as com- 
pared with the previous year. 

The offices of the United States Mint 
service sold in 1910 S38,474,398 worth of 
gold bars for use in the industrial arts, 
which compares with S34.486.063 in 1907 
the next highest record. The amount of 
■•' lid used in the arts in the United 
States in 1910, was over S40,000,000, in- 
cluding coin. 

The imports and exports of gold in 
Great Britain for the 11 months were as 

1900. I'Mc. Changes. 

101,383 VI !72,938 1. 1,171 556 

The considerable gain in Imports was 
ofTsel t<» a large degree by the increase 

in exports. 
The Treasury Department estimates the 

gold in the United States in December as 

In treasury, held against certifi- 
cates $910,354,669 

In treasury, current balances. . . . 189,351,933 

In banks and circulation 601,492, 1S5 

Total $1,701,197,787 

Total, December, 1909 1,692,759,176 

The increase in 1910 was $8,438,611. 
The uncertain quantity in this estimate 
is the amount in circulation, which .is apt 
to be overestimated, in the absence of 
certain deductions which do not appear 
in public records and are hard to trace; 
such as gold carried abroad by individ- 
uals, coin melted for jewelry, and other 
similar causes. 

The specie holdings of the great Eu- 
ropean banks at the close of December 
were as follows, reduced to dollars: 

Hank of England .... $164,319,645 

Bank of France 657,733,600 

Bank of Germany. . . 185,296,250 

Hank of Russia 7 10,110,000 

Austria-Hungary. . . . 277,550,000 

Spain 82,090,000 

Italy ' 196,070,000 

Netherlands 57,350,000 

Belgium 27,376,665 

Sweden 22.3fi5.000 

Switzerland 3l, 

Norway 8,950,000 


$1 ('..',, 113,800 


Total $2,446,690,930 $518,920,135 

Total, Dec. 1909. .2,444,629,940 534,252,015 

The Bank of Spain, alone of all the 
European banks, carries a large silver 
reserve. The Bank of France reported a 
large amount in silver coin, but that 
amount is small in comparison with its 
geld. The Bank of Russia includes in its 
statement gold bills on foreign banks, and 
to that extent there is a certain duplica- 
tion. The Bank of Russia also acts as 
<" in For the Imperial Treasury, which to 
some extent explains the large amount of 
its gold reserve. 

The specie holdings of the Associated 
Brinks of New York at the close of De- 
cember were reported through the Clear- 

January 7, 1911. 


ing House at $239,495,000, which com- 
pares with $230,401,000 at the close of 
1901. These holdings include silver as 
well as gold. 

The stock of coined silver in December 
is estimated as follows: Silver dollars 
held against certificates, $488,190,000; 
silver dollars in Treasury balances and 
circulation, $76,593,508; subsidiary sil- 
ver, $156,456,852; total, $721,330,360; 
the total is an increase of $424,056 only 
during the year. 

The Silver Movement 

The accompanying table shows the 
average monthly prices of bar silver in 
London and New York for two years. 

monthly Average Prices of Metals 


February- • 


April , 







New York. London. 

1909. , 1910. I 1909. 1910 

750 52.375 -2:1.84:5 
472 51.534 23.706 
4<>8 51.454 23.227123 
428 53 JJ1 23.708 24 
905 5:1.870 24;343 24 
538 53.4G2 24.166 24 
04:1 54.150 23.519 25 
125 52.912 23.588 24 
44ii 53.295 23.74324 
923 55 490 23.502 25 
703*55 635 23.351125 
226 54.428 24.030 25 


Total 51.502 5:1.480 2:1.700 24.070 

New York, cents per line ounce ; London, 
pence per .standard ounce. 

The table shows that silver prices in 
1910 were generally on a higher level 
than in 1909. With occasional small re- 
cessions prices continued to rise through 
the year, the highest monthly averages — ■ 
55.635c. in New York and 25.680d. in 
London — being reached in November. 
From that point there was a drop in De- 
cember. The extreme fluctuations — be- 
tween February and November — were 
4.181c. in New York and 1.990d. in Lon- 

As is usually the case the demand for 
silver has rested largely upon the amount 
taken by the Far East. China was a 
heavy buyer early in the year, but the 
demand quieted down, and much smaller 
quantities were taken until late in the 
year, when buying from that country re- 
vived and some large amounts were 
taken in London. At times, however, 
China not only ceased to buy silver, but 
sold some to India. The total taken by 
that country in London was some £500,- 
000 less than in 1909, but this was partly 
made up by purchases from Australia. 

India was a pretty steady buyer of 
silver throughout the year, though the 
government took none for coinage, the 
stock of rupees having been sufficient 
without making additions. Owing to 
generally good crops the demand from 
the Indian buyers was fairly large. This 
was not always reflected in the London 
buying, as there was a strong speculation 
In the white metal by native banks and 
operators. At times this group held large 

stocks and used them to raise and lower 
prices. Several times there were ex- 
changes of silver between these oper- 
ators and the Chinese banks. At the 
close of the year stocks were reduced to 
a point much lower than they had been 
at an earlier date. The demand for sil- 
ver was helped in some degree by the 
high price of tin; though this cause has 
not been so much a factor in the market 
since the change in the currency of the 
Straits Settlements, two years ago. 

It is anticipated that the Indian gov- 
ernment will be obliged to increase its 
stock of coined rupees before long, and 
will therefore become a buyer of silver. 
The Chinese government has adopted a 
new scheme of currency reform which 
will call for the purchase of a large 
quantity of silver; but Chinese reforms 
are slow in action, and it may be a year 
or two before this becomes operative. 

Imports of silver into Great Britain 
for the 11 months ended Nov. 30 were 
valued at £13,163,535 and exports at 
£12,300,190; the excess of imports being 
£863,145. Most of the silver taken by 
Great Britain is really only in transit, 
handled through the London market. 

Shipments of silver from London to 
the East from Jan. 1 to Dec. 22 are re- 
ported by Messrs. Pixley & Abell as in 
the accompanying table. 

1909. 1910. Changes. 

India £6,507.000 £6,858,000 I. £ 290,400 

China 1,9:10,000 1,424,000 D. 506,0(10 

Straits 114,600 D. 114,600 

Total £8,612,200 £8,282,000 D. £ 1130,200 

The Straits Settlements dropped out of 
the silver market last year as completely 
as Japan did some years ago. 

Apart from the sales to the East there 
was a fair demand for the white metal. 
France and one or two other countries 
in the Latin Monetary Union made con- 
siderable purchases for coinage. Russia 
was also a buyer, to a small extent for 
coinage, but more largely, in all prob- 
ability, for use in its Eastern posses- 
sions. Purchases by the United States 
Government during the year were limited 
to 200,000 oz., bought for coinage into 
fractional currency at the Denver mint. 
This silver was bought in December, at 
54.88c. per oz., delivered, and was the 
first silver bought by the Government 
since March, 1909. 

The takings of silver for use in the 
arts were generally good in 1910, though 
it is impossible to get at the exact quan- 
tity. This varies considerably from year 
to year, but in 1910 most of the large 
manufacturers had a fairly prosperous 
year. Apart from the use of silver for 
household ware and decorative purposes, 
an appreciable quantity is now used in 
photography in preparing sensitive plates 
and similar ways. This use of the metal 
is an actual consumption since it is used 
up and disappears, and does not continue 
to be preserved and kept for years, like 
household ware and ornaments. 

The movement of silver in the United 
States for 1 1 months ended Nov. 30 was 
as follows: 

1909. 1910. 

Imports $52 294,3 1 1 (61,299,913 1>. $ 994,431 

Exports 41,984,006 41,479,718 D. 

Net excess. .. $10,310,338 $9,820,195 D. $ 190.143 

A].]..'./ 20 021,000 ]s,:;9o,ihio D. 

The approximate quantities of the net 
imports are calculated on the average 
price of silver in New York. The im- 
ports of silver are largely in the form 
of base bullion which comes to this coun- 
try to be refined and passed on else- 


The production of platinum in the 
United States in 1910 was limited to 
about 500 oz., about the same as in the 
preceding year. Most of this was ob- 
tained through the mint, where a certain 
quantity is recovered every year as a 
by-product in the refining of gold and 
silver bullion, mainly from California. 
A much smaller quantity is saved in 
treating the nickel-copper mattes brought 
here from the Sudbury district in On- 
tario to be refined. 

In Dollars per Ounce Trot. 

New York, 


Crude Metal— 83 Per 

Cent. Platinum. 

St. PettT*--- 


January .... 
February.. . . 







September.. . 
November. . . 
December. . . 

$29 . 00 

28 75 

29 L3 

29 55 
111. 38 
33 . 00 
33 6:i 

37 . 50 
39 1 1 

38 75 

24 99 
2 1 .50 
28 . 67 
27 . 20 
27 . 93 
32 34 

$20 68 

21 si 

22 75 
2 1 06 

23 69 
2 1 50 

27 82 

28 20 
28 20 
30 46 
:;i 96 
32 34 

Average for 
the year 

$32 . 70 

$26 96 

$26 . 37 

Imports into the United States for the 
11 months ended Nov. 30 were 105,340 
oz. in 1909, and 111,670 oz. in 1910; an 
increase of 6330 oz. A large part of 
these imports is crude metal, which is 
refined here. Most of the imports are 
Russian platinum, usually received here 
from Paris, where the control of the 
Russian industry rests. There was an in- 
crease in the receipts from Colombia; 
but these are still rather irregular, and 
the Russian plrtinum is the chief re- 

The accompanying table gives the 
prices of refined platinum in New York 
and of crude metal in Russia; the latter 
being reduced to our weights and cur- 
rency. Hard metal ruled generally at $2 
((T2.50 per oz. higher than refined plat- 
inum for 10 per cent, iridium alloy. 


January 7, 1911. 

Arkansas Diamond Field in 1910 

By John T. Fuller* 

Contrary to expectations, the progress 
forecasted for these fields in the review 
for 1909 did not materialize during 1910. 
It was confidently expected by the com- 
panies in the field that sufficient working 
capital would be found to develop the 
mines, and that the development would 
be well under way by the close of HMO. 
It has proved a difficult task to persuade 
the average investor that genuine dia- 
monds actually exist in America and that 
these Arkansas fields show great promise 
of being a profitable venture. On the 
other hand the large investors held off 
due to the fact that the owners refuse 
to. consider any offer involving the sur- 
render of a controlling interest in the 

Newspaper Reports of Nevc Discoveries 
Were Baseless 

The situation in 1910 remained prac- 
tically the same as in 1909. There were 
several new discoveries of diamonds and 
new pipes reported in the daily press, all 
of which proved, on investigation, to be 

•General manager, Arkansas Diamond Com- 
pany, Murfrecsboro, Ark. 

cases of mistaken identity or clumsy 

The total number of diamonds taken 
from the whole field during the year was 
200, all of which came from the one pipe 
in sections 21 and 28 T-9-S, R-25-W. 

The total diamonds, to date, from the 
entire field amount (as far as can be 
reliably determined) to 1200 ' stones 
weighing approximately 574 carats. Of 
this number 1179 stones came from the 
pipe in sections 21 and 28, and 21 stones 
from the pipe in section 14 owned by the 
American Diamond Mining Company. 

Arkansas Diamond Company 

This property in sections 21 and 28 
was visited during the year by represen- 
tatives of an English syndicate. A pro- 
visional agreement for the development 
of the property was signed by both par- 
ties, but at a subsequent meeting in Lon- 
don, this agreement was not ratified 
owing to difference over the details of the 

During the year 145 loads (of 16 cu. 
ft.) were washed in the small test plant 
at the mine, from which 142 diamonds, 

weighing 53.56 carats, were obtained, 
thus making an average of 0.369 carat 
per load. In addition to this 44 stones, 
weighing 20.5 carats, were picked up on 
the surface. The total recovery for the 
year was therefore 186 stones weighing 
74.06 carats. The total recovery to date 
from this property is 1800 stones of all 
colors and weights from 1/16 to 6 carats. 

Other Companies 

The Kimberlite Diamond Mining and 
Washing Company, with property in sec- 
tion 14 T-8-S, R-25-W, sunk several pits 
from 20 to 30 ft. deep and put down a 
number of bore holes. In the early spring 
this company made some test washings 
on a small scale, using a hand jig fol- 
lowed by riffles. No diamonds were re- 
ported. Neither the Ozark nor the Amer- 
ican company did any work beyond put- 
ting down a few bore holes. Seven dia- 
monds were picked up on the surface of 
the Ozark company's property. 

At present the outlook for great pro- 
gress in these fields during 1911 is not 
promising although I am confident of ulti- 
mate success. 

Antimony in 1910 

The market for antimony during 1910 
was dull and quiet, chiefly owing to the 
lack of large purchases by the railroads, 
and until these consumers come back 
into the market low prices may continue 
to prevail. As shown by the statistical 
table accompanying this article, Cook- 
son's antimony opened in January at a 
premium of over ) „c over the U. S. brand, 
with an average price of 8'jC. for the 
month. However, the price fell with com- 
parative regularity during 1910, and ends 
at a little under 8c with about the 0.3c. 
difference which may be expected be- 
tween Cookson's and the nearest com- 
peting brands. 

At present there is no antimony ore 
being smelted in the United States, and 
there was no production of antimony ore 
in 1910 except small lots for sample pur- 
: In 1006 there were 360 tons pro- 

duced. 05 tons in 1909, and while there 
are no reliable statistics available, it is 
believed the 1010 production fell short 

This evidently JU 
the comment made in the Journal 
in Jat. it if antimony mines 

could not be di with the metal 

at 25c. per lb., it u to expect 

them t loped btu 

tariff on metallic antimony and Ic. 
On ore. with antimony selling 

per lb. It becomes more and more evi- 
dent, therefore, that the tariff is simply 
in the interests of the producers of anti- 
monial lead. 

(In Cents per Poind.) 



























_'OL's 117.-, 

7 fi7. '.s 500 

7 . 988 

7 7;:s 

1 ebruary. 


125|8 000 

7 531 s 169 

7 9697 578 



17 7 843 

7 5008 359 

7 9387 :<i:( 



2508 031 

7 718)8 138 

7 938 : 138 


3878 150 

7 ss7s 138 

7 9387 138 



:ilL's 062 

7 893 8. 241 

7 9387 138 



375,7 875 

7 3758 177. 

7 9387 loo 



5258 125 

," 6258 278 

7 9387 328 



(is7s 125 

7 :.or, s 313 

7 938 ; 313 

I a tobi 


5378 012 

7 5008 _'<;:; 

7 9007 loo 



1377 937 

7 (is7 7 922 

7 6567 iss 


i.;7 7 937 

7 687|7 625 

7. 138 

7 063 

^ eai 


3608 015 

7 166 


Status op Metallurgy of Antimony 

So far as known, there were no radical 

ements in the metallurgy of an- 

dn rirm: 1010, the Are processes 

still depending on reduction of liquated 
antimony sulphide by scrap iron, or catch- 

ing and reducing previously volatilized 
oxides. There are also some wet pro- 
cesses, but all, both wet and fire, have 
the common objection, from the Ameri- 
can standpoint, that they depend upon a 
plentiful supply of cheap labor for theit 
successful working. The Betts process, 
in use by the United State Metals Re- 
fining Company, has not proved effective 
for the production of metallic antimony, 
the antimony being marketed as anti- 
monial lead. 

Antimony Oxide 

The Harshaw, Fuller & Goodwin works 
at Elyria, Ohio, are still the only manu- 
facturers of antimony oxide in the United 
States; they operate, it is understood, on 
Chinese regulus. The oxide has a lim- 
ited use as a substitute for tin oxide in 
ceramic and enamel work, selling at about 
8c. per pound. 

As said above, the outlook for metallic 
antimony is by no means bright, nor 
will it probably become so until the rail- 
roods alter the policy of doing a little 
less repair work than should be done, 
together with no new construction. The 
use of antimony oxide and antimony sul- 
phide will probably increase largely in 
this country for pigment purposes, and 
lor non-poisonous match compounds. 

January 7, 1911. 


The Copper Industry in 1910 

The American refineries in 1910 pro- 
iuced about 1,445,000,000 lb. of copper, 
["his figure is based on the report of the 
Copper Producers Association, for 
he first 11 months of the year, 
o which we have added an estimate for 
December. As usual, we have collected 
he smelter statistics, the meaning of 
vhich we do not now need to describe. 
Reports from every smelter in North 
America show a total of 1,334,534,797 lb. 
»f blister and Lake copper. Excluding 
he production (32,771,683) that did net 
:ome to American refineries, and adding 
he imports (December estimated) of 
)lister copper coming from countries 
ither than Canada and Mexico (141,530,- 

i In Poi MDS.) 

Slate. L909. 1010. 

Alaska 1,057,142 5,450,000 

Arizona 292,042,820 297,081,605 

California 53,357,451 15,141,043 

Colorado 10. |s7.9IO 8,867, lol 

Idaho 7.770,010 5,31 7,039 

Michigan 227,247,998 219,000,000 

Montana 313,838,203 288,449,425 

Nevada 51,835,309 63,778,000 

New Mexico 5.134,506 .-,.7110.000 

Utah 100,438,543 127,906,115 

Wyoming 89,654 200,000 

Southern States and 

East 22,837,962 17,039,356 

Other States 3,746,895 2,17(1.1 Hi 

Totals : 1,105,336,326 1,086,151,430 

to some extent explains the maintenance 
of the high rate of refinery production in 

1910; and they show also that the curtail- 

lotted to New Mexico. In all of the other 
cases we believe the figures to be fairly- 
close. It is to be noted, however, thai 
errors in the figures for any State do not 
imply an error in the total, but merely 
that some copper has been credited to 
one that ought to have been to another. 


1,105,336,326 1,086,151,430 

126,169,962 131,765,910 

17,677,361 50,408,276 

6,627,028 7,779,986 

United Stales . 




It may be noticed that the total sum or 
the American, Canadian and Mexican 
production falls short of the total smelter 
production. The difference is accounted 



Arizona, Ltd 


Joleo (Mexico) 

British Col. Copper Co.. . 

topper Queen 

/Blumet & Ariz 

Cananea (Mexico) 


r ,ast Butte 



tfoctezuma (Mex.) 

se\ ada Con 

)ld Dominion 


Superior & Pittsburg 

Mali Copper Co 

Suite District (estimated) 
/dke Superior (estimated) 

imports, bars, etc 

mports in ore and matte 


Vrizona Ltd 


Boleo (Mexico) 

British Col. Copper Co.. . 

topper Queen 

3atumet & Ariz 

3ananea (Mexico) 


2ast Butte 



idoctezuma (Mex.) 

Nevada Con 

)ld Dominion 


Superior A: Pittsburg 

Jtata Copper Co 

iutte District (estimated) 
Lake Superior (estimated) 

[mports, bars, etc 

imports in ore and matte 



















19, 250, 000 

19,260 127 



2.65S, 000 









L ,864,000 


13.75S, 620 




2,1 18,383 

so 1,4 19 

57. 1, (ISO 






Arizona, Ltd 


Boleo ( Mexico) 

British Col. Copper Co. . . . 

Copper Queen 

Calumet & Ariz 

Cananea (Mexico) 


East Butte 

Granby : 


Moctezuma (Mexico) 

Nevada Con 

Old Dominion 


Superior it Pittsburg 

Utah Copper Co 

Butte District (estimated). 
Lake Superior ( istimated) - 

Imports, bars, etc 

Imports in ore and matte . 


57 1,172 


1.500, (Kill 
I ,S()|I. 000 

1 ,268,055 


1 ,958,637 
6,896, 129 

8, 677,000 
17,71 1,031 





2, .Mil). (KM I 

■100. 000 


6,052,62 1 
1,5 1:6,000 

IS, SOO, 000 




2. 535. (KM 


625, s 10 



2, 125, 000 

16,700 (loo 

2 1,303,859 







SOO 000 











993, SOO 







1 ,226,000 

S, 513, 177 




2,2 15.0(10 





Arizona, Ltd 
Balaklala . 

Boleo (Mexico) 

Brit. Col. Copper Co . . . . 

Copper Queen 

Calumet & Ariz 

Cananea (Mexico) 


East Butte 

< Iranby 


Moctezuma I Mexico) .... 

Nevada Con 

Old Dominion 


superior & Pittsburg 

Utah Copper Co 

Lake Superior (estimated) 

Imports, liars, etc 

Imports in ore and matte 

( Ictotiel'. 

3,00 1.000 


2.278.1.-, I 
1,18 1.23! 





No\ en i ei 







1 ,65 1 .235 

2,75 1,000 



2 1,835.95 1 

(a) This (able includes only the 
irodoction of American mines. 

production of those companies reporting monthly, and consequently does not represent the total 

225) we get a total of 1.443,293,339 lb. 
is the supnly of crude copper to Ameri- 
:an refineries in 1910. Comparative fig- 
ires for 1909 and 1910 are as follows: 

Vear. Crude (a) Refined (6) 

1909 1 .138,509,583 1,405,619,519 

1910 1,443,293,339 1,444,782,901 

(a) Includes Lake copper, (h) Includes Lake 
•opper and pig copper. 

The full meaning of these figures we 
shall not undertake to discuss at the. 
^resent time. Broadly speaking, they 
show that the refiners carried over a 
rather large stock of crude copper, which 

ment by the smelters in 1910, which, as 
compared with their maximum production 
of that year, was at the rate of about 
10,000,000 lb. per month, did not effect 
any reduction as compared with the total 
for 1909. 

In the following tables and special ar- 
ticles we give details of the production 
and many other statistical data. The dis- 
tribution of the American production ac- 
cording to States of origin at this early 
date can be made only approximately. 
Most doubt is attached to the figure al- 

for bv foreign ores smelted here and by 
domestic scrap and junk resmelted. 


The domestic deliveries, estimating 
December, were 766,000,000 lb., 
against 705,000,000 lb. in 1909. Over 
periods of such length the deliver- 
Over periods of such length the deliver- 
ies may be taken as equivalent to con- 
sumption. If anything, the manufacturers 
had larger supplies in their yards at the 
beginning of 1910 than at the end. 


January 7, 1911. 

-_ : 


71_ 1 - — 71 1 • " — X 

0« — if X n io 



- - ■ '_--'_ 

pi - m re — ' m" m" 

- — 71 _ 






a - to ■- '-i~c 

1- 71 CO -1 CO 

~. ".-.'"■. ~'. x . ~. 

c'/'.-i- »« "c* 

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The exports in 1910 were about 70 
000,000 lb., against 681,000,000 in 19( 
From what we can learn the unreport 
stocks at Hamburg and Rotterdam we 
reduced during the first six months a 
increased again during the last s 
months. As between beginning and e 
of 1910 there was probably no gre 
change. Summarizing all the data it 
clear that the world's consumption 
copper in 1910 was larger than the pr 
duction. The statistical position is co 
sequently good, but at the end of t 
year many persons were obsessed by i 
haunting fear of a retraction in consum 
tion. We do not wholly share that fe 
.and are rather inclined to be conserv 
tively optimistic. 


The situation at Butte, at Cananea ai 
in Arizona, Michigan, Utah and Tenne 






tor Expo 

Vear, 1909... . 




I, 1910 















Year 1910 




visible stocks. 




I. 1910 











211, 276. si io 

360, 1170,." 





1, 1'Jll 

Figures are In pounds of fine copper, r : 
production includes ;iii copper refined in Hi 
country, both from domestic and Import) 
material. Visible stocks are those reporti 
on the first day of each month, as brougl 
over from the preceding month. The Bgun 
for production m December, 1010, and for stoc 
in the United Slates on January 1, 1911, ai 

see is so admirably and authoritativel 
summarized in special articles in thi 
issue that we need not refer to it in thi 
introductory article except in a passin 
way. Broadly speaking, the keynote o 
developments at Butte, Cananea, Lak 
Superior and elsewhere has been econ 
omy, and the results have already bee 
noteworthy. On the other hand, th 
"porphyry" mines have not been able t 
live up to the promises of very chea] 
copper, or if they have it has been by th 
mininu of the richer and more easily ex 
tractable ore, and in some cases thi 
methods of bookkeeping are under sus 

January 7, 1911. 


picion. In the early part of 1910 some 
of the "porphyry" people were talking 
about 10c. copper and the survival of the 
fittest. Toward the end of the year the 
conviction seemed to be growing that 
among the great copper-producing groups 
no one really had any preponder- 
ating advantage. This paved the way 
for "harmony" dinners. 

As to the new production of 1911, 
Miami will begin toward the end of Janu- 
ary and Ray Consolidated later on. The 
Chino mill is expected to be ready about 
the end of July and Braden is also due 
about that time, but all of them are likely 
to be more or less delayed and all will 
begin on a relatively small scale. Utah 
Copper Company will also complete its 
enlargements in 1911 and possibly a little 
copper may come from Copper River. 
Katanga copper is promised in 1911, but 
no one worries much about this. The 
quantity of new copper that will actually 
reach market in 1911 is not likely to be 
very large. 

On the other hand the fact that the 
arithmetic of the copper industry com- 
prises subtraction as well as addition 
was demonstrated by the disclosures of 
1910 respecting Granby. North Butte. 
Calumet & Arizona and Highland Boy. 
Before long the outputs of these mines 
will necessarily begin to dwindle. 

Smelteries and Refineries 

At the middle of 1910 the production 
rose nearly to the refinery' capacity. The 
latter is now being increased, as described 
in a subsequent article. As for the smelt- 
eries, new plants of 1910 were Tooele and 
Tezuitlan. Humboldt resumed. The 
North American Lead Company went into 
hands of a receiver and shut down. Co- 
lusa-Parrot, at Butte, was bought by Ana- 
conda, which closed it. The Clara Con- 
solidated, of Arizona, produced a few car- 
loads of copper. 

World's Production of Copper 

We have received data, by cable and 
otherwise, from most of the important 
foreign countries that enable us to make 
a reasonably close estimate of the world's 

CIn Metric Toxs.i 

Country. 1909. 1910. 

United States 501,372 492.675 

Mexico .57.230 59.769 

Canada 21.626 22.865 

Cuba 3.006 3.529 

Australasia 34.952 43.000 

Chile 42.726 41 .500 

Peru 16.257 20.500 

Japan 42.987 41,000 

Russia 18.035 23.500 

Germany 23.500 24.800 

Africa 15.18.-, 16.000 

Spain and Portugal 53.023 49.500 

Other countries 24.317 25,000 

Totals 854.316 863,638 

production of copper in 1910. In the 
cases of the United States. Cuba, Can- 
Canada we have had complete re- 
turns from the producers. For Aus- 

tralasia, Germany and Spain we have had 
reports from many of the important pro- 
ducers, while for many of the countries 
we have the aid of the regular commer- 
cial statistics of shipments and arrivals. 
For Russia we have the official figures 
for the first seven months. Only for 
Japan and "Other Countries" do we en- 
tirely lack specific data. 

It will appear from the above estimate 
that the world's production in 1910 was 
about 1 per cent, larger than in 1909. 
The visible supply of copper in Europe 
and America at the beginning of 1910 
was 175,075 metric tons; at the end, 103,- 
934. Consequently a world's consumption 
considerably in excess of production is 

The total production of copper in Aus- 
tralasia in 1909 was 34,953 metric tons, 
against 40,123 tons in 1908. 

The Copper Market in 1910 

Electrolytic Copper Refining 

The accompanying table gives the ap- 
proximate annual capacity in pounds of 
the active electrolytic refineries of the 
United States at the end of each year: 

During 1907-9 the world's consump- 
tion of copper lagged behind the produc- 
tion, and in consequence, stocks piled up 
until at the end of 1909 the visible sup- 
ply amounted to about 386,000,000 lb. 
During 1910 the consumption overtook 
the production. Complete figures are not 
yet available, but we estimate that while 
the consumption increased about 10 per 
cent., the production increased less than 
2 per cent. The visible supply at the 
end of 1910 has been decreased to about 
307.0000,000 lb., which is equivalent to a 
little over two months' supply. 

In Europe the increased consumption 
has been due principally to the great 
activity in electrical branches. In the 
United States, owing chiefly to the dearth 
of capital, large enterprises could not be 
financed, and it is noteworthy that not- 



Nichols Copper Company 

Raritan Copper Works 

American Smelting and Refining Company. 

U. S. Metals Refining Company 

Baltimore Copper Smelting and Rolling 


Balbach Smelting and Refining Company. 

Boston & Montana Copper Company 

Tacoma Smelting Company 

Calumet 6c Hecla Mining Company 


Laurel Hill. N. Y. . 
Perth Amboy. N. J 
Perth Amboy, N. J 
Chrome, N. J 

Baltimore Md . . . 
Newark, N. J . . . . 
Great Falls. Mont. 
Tacoma. Wash. . . 
Buffalo. N. Y 


1909 Capacity, 







1,287, 000.000 

1910 Capacity 


4s. 000,000 


The Calumet & Hecla Mining Com- 
pany, at its Buffalo works, refines only 
Lake copper. The refineries of the 
Mountain Copper Company, North Amer- 
ican Lead Company and the old works 
of the Anaconda Company were idle in 
1910. The Baltimore refinery is to be 
increased to capacity for 288,000,000 lb. 
per annum. 

withstanding their absence, the consump- 
tion in this country nevertheless increased 
and this presages a still further increase 
whenever these enterprises can be under- 

The consumption of copper in the 
United States was remarkably large in 


Production of Copper in 

The production of four of the import- 
ant copper mines of Australia during the 
first 10 months of 1910, representing all 
of the large producers of that common- 
wealth except Wallarro & Moonta, is 
given in the following table: 

Mount M.mnt Great Great 

Morgan. LyelL ("bar. Fitzroy. 

Jan 1,317,120 1,386.560 1,200,000 

Feb 1,256,640 1,391.040 1,200,000 

March... 1,216.320 1,729,280 1,254,400 

\pril 1,355,200 1.585.920 1,211340 362,800 

Mav 1,337,280 1.393 280 1/08,560 347,200 

Jure 1.305.920 1,500.800 1.128,960 :«U,lU0 

July 1,223,040 1,460 480 1,458.240 401,600 

Aug 595,840 1.404.480 1.386,560 162,480 

Sept 1,226.720 1,308,160 1,276.000 436,800 

Oct 1,514,240 1,225,280 1,942,080 427.840 

Totals.. 12,24s, :«0 14 385.280 13,276,640 2.733,360 

The Cobar, Fitzroy and Lyell copper 
comes to the United States for refining. 

January. . . 
February. . 




June . 


August . 


Electrolytic Lake 

1909. 1910. 1909. 1910. 





September .. 1J 870 




12 56J 12 






November. . 
December. . 


620 14 
332 13 
255 12 
733 12 
550 13 
404 13 
215 13 
4 '.'i i 13 
379 13 
55: J 13 
T42 13 
581 13 

280 13 

295 13 
826 13 
93J W 
2:is 12 
548 12 
363 12 

296 12 

1909. 1910. 

870 61.198 

719 57.688 

5st; sr, _'.n 
mil 57.363 
885 59 . 338 
798 59 627 
.">7ii 58.556 
T15 59 393 
668 59.021 

5T .551 
58 '.'IT 


56 313 
55 310 

54 194 

55 207 

56 T22 
5T 634 
56 069 

12.982 12.738 13 335 13. 039 58.732 57 054 

New York, cents per pound. Electrolytic is 
for cakes, insots or wirebars. London, pounds 
sterling per Ions ton. standard copper. 

view of the general lagging of trade dur- 
ing 1910 and particularly the depression 
in the iron and steel business. It reflects 
a constantly increasing demand in the 
way of electrical conveniences, and in the 
building trade, and we can therefore look 



January 7, 1911. 

with confidence for a large augmentation 
of the consumption as soon as bonds of 
public utility companies and of develop- 
ment enterprises can again be readily 
sold. As 1910 draws to an end it is 
hoped that these conditions are approach- 
ing, and while the market closes in a 
somewhat depressed state, the outlook for 
1911 is encouraging, rather than the op- 
posite. We have well in mind the cer- 
tainty that during 1911 the production 
will experience a still further increase, 
due to shipments from the new Ari- 
zona properties, but unless there be a 
general recession in business, a further 
increase in copper consumption may be 
expected, and moreover, after the prop- 
erties now under development are pro- 
ducing, there is no further large produc- 
tion in sight, so that in the long run we 
expect to find consumption again out- 
stripping the production. 

Throughout 1910 the market was dom- 
inated by the presence of large stocks, 
which encouraged the manufacturers to 
work with smaller supplies in their own 
yards than usual. While during the year 
at various times they replenished their 
supplies, when the market showed signs 
of advance, the year closed with less ma- 
terial in the hands of the manufacturers 
than they usually carry. 

January opened with Lake copper at 
!3~>'</ 14c. and electrolytic at 13&£<§ 
There had been a large buying 
movement during the fall of 1909, due 
principally to the rumors of a contem- 
plated merger of some of the important 
American producers. As this did not ma- 
terialize, buyers held off. As the im- 
provement in business generally which 
had been expected was also not forth- 
coming, and as the security markets be- 
came very weak, the copper market re- 
lapsed into dullness. This continued till 
toward the end of February, when the 
large sellers met the situation by reduc- 
ing the price to 13 .<•> jc, and buy- 
ers' supplies being again depleted con- 
siderable business was done. The stocks 
of copper in the United States and 
Europe, which during December and 
January had declined, began to increase 
aj»ain and this acted as a damper on the 
buying movement. Speculative sentiment 
at London which had been quite optimistic 
during the fall and early winter chanced, 
and the London standard market declined 
below the parity of the American market 
for electrolytic copper, so that the elec- 
trolytic copper in European warehouses 
to move into consumers' hands. 
' Jcrable pressure to sell developed 
on this side, and at the end of March 
•ice of electrolytic copper had de- 
clined to Id cei 

le the European statistic 

wed a <i • 6,000,000 

lb., those of the !' 
an ir over 16,000,000 II 

remained nothing for the producers 

to do but price 

or curtail their production. The largest 
Lake producer adopted the former al- 
ternative; the electrolytic producers fol- 
lowed suit, and at about 13c. for Lake 
copper and 12\ ( c. for electrolytic some 
large transactions were made. Toward 
the end of April the market again turned 
weak, the demand having subsided. The 
price of electrolytic slumped steadily until 
it reached 12 ; s c. The European markets 
continued below the American market, 
and copper moved out of the warehouses 
abroad. Thus while stocks in the United 
States kept on increasing, those in Europe 
were decreasing. 

Toward the middle of May the excellent 
consumption abroad began to make itself 
felt. The European buyers were en- 
couraged to take hold more aggressively 
at the lower prices established, and con- 
siderable business ensued, the market ad- 
vancing to 125^(5 12 m. 

In June the market sagged back to 
1 2 ' .'J c. There was a good volume of busi- 



(In Cents peb Pound.) 



Y\ ire. 
















15 0625 
1 1 3125 
1 1 250 
l I 500 
15 ooo 

15 000 

1 1.7.-.0 
1 1 .")()() 

1 1 937 
1 5 250 

20 . 000 
is 675 
1 7 30 
17 00 
1 7 . 50 
17 50 
1 8 . ."»() 

1 1 75 
1 1 . 75 
14 . 19 
1 LOO 
1 LOO 
1 1 . 25 

1 9 . 50 
1 8 . 50 
1 8 . 50 
18. 50 
18 50 
is :,u 

Year. . . . 



14 41 

IS 69 

ness. The leading interest remained out 
of the market, and the other sellers suc- 
ceeded in disposing of their product. 
However, the buying was chiefly of the 
"hand to mouth" character. By the end 
of June, however, it looked as if the 
buyers would have to come to the views 
of the leading interest, as the others ap- 
peared to be pretty well sold out, and the 
demand persisted. 

July opened with electrolytic at 12' 4c, 
but after the first week a weakish ten- 
dency developed following the action of 
the largest seller, which for the first time 
in many months met the market but was 
promptly undercut. Toward the middle 
of the month electrolytic was on the basis 
of 12'4c. On July 21. the indications as 
to a probable curtailment of production 
induced some buyers to come into the 
market and rnther large transactions were 
consummated at n slight advance. The 

t improved decidedly in tone and 

the month closed at I2<<c. firmly held. 

During \ugui t manufacturers realized 

thai the fundamental position of the metal 

hanging for the better. As n mat- 
U r of fact, during this month the stocks 
in the United States decreased for the 
fii t time since January. The hand to 

mouth policy, which they had pursued 
successfully for so long, was dropped 
and sales were made for delivery over 
the remainder of the year. At the close 
of the month business was done at 12^c, 
delivered, 30 days. 

During September a considerable 
amount of scepticism prevailed as to 
whether the curtailment had really taken 
place, and buyers once more held aloof, 
but as producers' books were well filled 
there was no pressure from first hands. 
The market went off somewhat by offers 
from second hands and closed with elec- 
trolytic selling at 12.30 cents. 

Early in October the publication of the 
figures of the Producers' Association for 
September, showing a decrease in stocks 
of 20,000,000 lb., had a decided effect 
upon the market both in this country and 
in Europe. Both sellers and speculators 
took hold largely and a good business 
resulted at better prices. The European 
consumers were the first to buy, and then 
the domestic manufacturers followed. At 
the end of the month a large quantity 
changed hands at 12-}4<5?12% cents, de- 
livered, 30 days. 

During November and early December 
the market hovered around these figures, 
but buyers held aloof, and toward the end 
of December the price fell off to about 
12^ jC, net, cash. 

Copper in Katanga 

The report of the directors of Tangan- 
yika Concessions at the beginning of De- 
cember states that the greater part of the 
smelting plant for the Star of the Congo 
has now been shipped, and that the rail- 
way will shortly put that mine into com- 
munication with Beira. Smelting has 
continued steadily at Kansanshi, where 
there are now about 1500 tons of smelted 
copper awaiting transport. A further sec- 
tion of the Benguela railway — up to 323 
km. — was completed in October, and a 
contract has been made for the continu- 
ation of the line. In order to finance this 
railway, arrangements have been made 
with the Zambesia Exploring Company — 
which at the date of the report had ad- 
vanced some £213,000 — for a further ad- 
vance of £100,000. It is expected that 
smelting will be begun at the Star of the 
Congo mine before the end of 1911. 

Copper Sulphate 

Returns from all- of the concerns mak- 
ing copper sulphate as a by-product show 
an output of 26,356,788 lb. in 1910. We 
estimated a make of 45.000,000 lb. in 1909. 
The production in 1908, according to re- 
turns, was 37,654,961 lb. The decline in 
the output of copper sulphate in 1910 is 
due to improvements in the metallurgical 
practice Of some of the refiners enabling 
them to avoid making this undesired by- 
product, which is loss profitable than re- 
covery of metallic copper. 

January 7, 1911. 


By B. B. Thayer * 


The Mines of Butte in 1910 

Notwithstanding the fact that the out- 
put of the Butte camp for the year 1910 
was curtailed to a certain extent, de- 
velopment work throughout that period 
was pushed with the usual vigor, and 
with most gratifying results to the oper- 
ating companies. 

It is doubtful if there is another well 
founded copper district in the country 
where the copper-bearing boundaries 
have been extended laterally from year 
to year to such an extent as has been 
the case in the Butte district. 

Twenty-five years ago the operators 
were inclined to think that the great 
copper zone was confined to a certain 
area extending from the Colusa on the 
east, with the Anaconda and Parrot mines 
in the central district, to the Gagnon on 
the west. Some years later a group of 
claims, known as the Chambers Syndi- 
cate, was purchased and developed, ani 
afterward became the so called "North- 
ern" properties of the Anaconda Copper 
Mining Company. 

For years afterward it was felt that this 
was practically the northern limit of the 
copper zone, and that the country to the 

•President, Anaconda Copper Mining Com- 
pany. 42 Broadway, Now York. 

north of this area would prove to be ab- 
solutely a silver district, and develop- 
ments up to that time seemed to warrant 
the belief; but in later years, the devel- 
opment of a great mining property well 
north of the area mentioned, and dis- 
tinctly within the so-called silver zone, 
exploded the old surmise, and furtl'er 
developments during the year 1910 by 
the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, 
and also by W. A. Clark and others, 
made it more evident that the northern, 
eastern and western limits of the copper- 
bearing veins still remain to be deter- 

Large orebodies have been encoun- 
tered at depth in the mines of Butte, 
during the year 1910, and the discoveries 
have not been confined to any one par- 
ticular portion of the district. The most 
gratifying feature of the developments 
mentioned is in the fact that the ore- 
bodies encountered have been found on 
the deepest levels of the mines, and that 
the grade of the ore has been far supe- 
rior to that which occurred in many of 
the upper levels. In many instances no 
knowledge of the existence of these ore- 
bodies was gained by the workings on 
the upper levels, as in some cases the 

orebodies occur in apparently discon- 
nected masses, while in others they ap- 
pear in vein form in fissures which were 
known to be barren nearer the surface. 
The orebodies give every indication of 
extending to great depth. 

For many years the fact that zinc ex- 
isted in the Butte ores was well known, 
but it was treated as an unfortunate 
occurrence, and looked upon simply as 
an undesirable element in smelting oper- 

A great deal of attention, how- 
ever, has been paid to the development 
of zinc within the last two years, es- 
pecially so during the year 1910, and 
operations have passed from the experi- 
mental stage to that of absolute produc- 
tion upon a fairly large scale. Large 
bodies of zinc ore have been found at 
a number of points in the Butte district, 
and while the reduction process, so far 
as concentration is concerned, has not 
been absolutely satisfactory, improve- 
ments in methods are constantly being 
made, and the opinion is freely expressed 
that the Butte district will within the 
next few years become as prominent a 
factor in the production of zinc as it has 
in the copper industry. 

The Miami Copper Mine and Mill 

By J. Parke Charming * 

The year 1910 was devoted to getting 
:he Miami property in shape for produc- 
tion, and it is expected that the mill 
will be ready to operate in the early part 
)f 1911. The underground work was con- 
ined entirely to operations above the 
120-ft. or main-extraction level. The 
ground was cut up into rectangles 50x100 
ft., and sub-drifts have been run every 
15 ft. Up to the first of December the 
otal underground work on the property 
vas as follows: Shafts. 2,062 ft.; drifts, 
33,842 ft.; raises, 10,976 ft.; total, 76,- 
$80 ft. There are 250,000 tons of ore 
m the stock pile. 

Two Mountain-shaped Orebodies 

The No. 2, or Red Rock shaft, which 
vas the original discovery shaft, came 
lown in a mountain-shaped body of ore, 
vhich gradually increased its area as 
lepth was attained. Developments on 

•Consulting engineer and vice-president <>r 
Miami Copper Company. 42 Broadway, New 


the 370-ft. level showed that the ore at 
this level extended further north than 
was shown in the original work, and this 
resulted in the discovery and development 
of a second mountain of ore lying to the 
north and extending up almost to the 
same hight as the original mass. As this 
body of ore must be removed first, it 
necessitated considerable additional un- 
derground work in thoroughly blocking 
it out. 

No particular attempts were made dur- 
ing the year to block out additional ton- 
nage, though two drills were kept at 
work systematically on day shift only, so 
as to make the results as reliable as pos- 
sible, and a total of 29 holes were drilled. 
A drift was run out to the Captain claim 
that encountered the ore struck in the 
first 10 holes driven on that particular 
part of the property, but nothing was 
done toward blocking out this particular 
ground, as it is not needed for the 

New Orebody Shown by Drill Holes 
Nineteen more holes were drilled, 
mostly to the north of the present ore 
deposit, and out of these six showed no 
ore, while the other 12 showed ore of 
varying thickness and grade. It seems 
quite likely that this ore will in time be 
found to be connected with the present 
main orebody, when drifts are extended to 
it and it is systematically opened up as has 
been the main body. It is perhaps a little 
early to determine accurately the amount 
of ore indicated by this drilling, but it 
certainly will amount to several million 
tons over and above that previously re- 
ported in the main orebody, which on 
Jan. 1, 1910, was estimated at 15,500.000 

Six Units of the Mill Erected and 
Machinery Installed 

While foundations for nine units of the 
mill have been completed, only six units 
have been erected and machinery in- 
stalled. In two of the sections the fine- 



January 1 Q11. 

crushing machinery was temporarily left 
out until the results obtained from the 
Burch fine-crushing rolls were deter- 
mined. Three of the sections are pro- 
vided with chile mills, and one section 
with these fine-crushing rolls. Should 
the results in the first two months' run 
be satisfactory, rolls will be added to 
the remaining two sections. Should. 
however, the results not be superior to 
the chile mills, then chile mills will be 

The power plant undoubtedly will be 
the most economical in the .southwest, and 
there have already been installed three 
600-h.p. boilers, two 1250-k.w. alternat- 
ing-current generators, each operated by 
a Nordberg four-cylinder triple-expansion 
engine, and also one 4000-ft.. two-stage, 
four-cylinder, triple-expansion Nordberg 

compressor. Foundations are in for a 
fourth boiler, a third generating set and 
a second air compressor. 

The two hoists at the main shaft of the 
mine are installed, both are geared, and 
will be driven by re-heated compressed 
air. The main, or ore hoist, will handle 
T^-ton skips, and the total capacity of 
the shaft will be 2000 tons of ore per 
eight-hour shift. The main hoisting en- 
gine will be given over exclusively to 
the handling of ore by self-dumping skips 
from a 1000-ton underground pocket. 
The second hoist will be used entirely 
for men, timber and supplies. 

Water Supply 

A pumping plant consisting of two 
Nordberg flywheel pumps has been in- 
stalled at the McLane ranch, distant four 

miles from the mill, 2nd •*•--«? pumps run 
by synchronous motors, will furnish the 
mill and power plant with a proper sup- 
ply of water. The discharge flume from 
the Old Dominion mine has been ex- 
tended by a 14-in. wooden pipe to the 
McLane ranch, and will be the main 
source of water. Developments on the 
McLane ranch, however, proved three 
wells, each of a capacity of 500,000 gal. 
per 24 hours, so that an ample supply 
of water is assured. 

The methods of mining and milling 
adopted at this property are all with 
the idea of making as large a saving of 
ore and copper as is consistent with a 
fair cost of producing copper, keeping 
in view the fact that the conservation 
of the mineral resources of the company 
is as important to it as it is to the State. 

Copper in Arizona in 1910 

By James Douglas * 

The copper trade in Arizona and north- 
ern Sonora was uncheckered in 1910. 
The only incident of importance was the 
closing of the Imperial smeltery. The 
company followed the mistaken policy of 
not keeping its development work ahead 
of its stopes, with the inevitable results. 
It is doing some interesting exploration 
on adjacent porphyry claims. 

In the Warren district the most notable 



wry* 93,926,240 

Calumet A: Arizona 53,615,000 

I>etroit Copper Mining Company.. . 22,826,725 

Arizona Copper Company 33,158,000 

Shannon Copper Company IS, 000,000 

old Dominion Copper Company. . . 28,232,666 

Total 249.758,631 

una Copper Company f.Mex.i 22,536,754 
Cutanea Copper Company (Mex.). . 16,395,232 

* Thi» Includes the Copper Queen and custom 
ore. but does not Include shipments from the 
m .ma Company at Nacozari. In all cases 

the December output is estimated. 

incident has been the negotiating for the 
amalgamation of the properties of the 
Calumet & Arizona Mining Company and 
the Superior & Pittsburg Company, 
which, if consummated, will give the 
new company a vast territory with great 
possible resources under a unified man- 

To the dividend-paying mines was add- 
ed the Sha'fuck & Arizona, which com- 
pany, however, continues to ship its ore, 
for reduction, to the Douglas smeltery, 
of the Copper Queen company. The 
same good feeling, looking to helpful co- 
operation, prevailed amonn the different 
companies near Bisbee. 

Dodge & Co., Inc., 96 
Jobn ork. 

In the Clifton district there were no 
changes in the operations of the present 
companies and no great change in the 
production. The old copper-mining com- 
pany, originally known as the Copper 
King, and reorganized as the New Eng- 
land & Clifton Copper Company, again 
failed to make a financial success, but its 
production was never large enough to 
affect notably the grand total. 

Globe Approaching Large Production 

Globe is approaching the time when 
the first of the low-grade mines will com- 
mence making good its promises. The 
Miami mill will start early in 1911, and 
ship the concentrates to Cananea for re- 
duction. The neighboring properties, es- 
pecially the Inspiration, have continued 
exposing more millions of tons of cop- 
per-bearing schist. The Black Warrior 
was a producer, and is said to be opening 
up well. On the east of Pinal creek, 
the Old Dominion company developed 
its mines in depth, both east and 
west, with encouraging results in places, 
but exercising "hope deferred" in others. 
The reserves of the Old Dominion mine 
and its ally, the United Globe mines, 
are, however, greatly in excess of what 
they were in 1909, but the facilities for 
economical mining and extraction are not 
sufficiently advanced to warrant expecta- 
tion of a much larger production than 
at present. 

The Arizona Commercial Company and 
'he Superior & Boston Company arc still 
ir the development stage. The Saddle 
Mountain mines, on the Gila, now under 
the control of the Development Company 
of America, are said to be encouraging 

as depth is gained. The large concen- 
trator of the Ray Consolidated, at Win- 
kleman, is approaching completion. It is 
understood that its concentrates will be 
smelted in El Paso by the American 
Smelting and Refining Company, to which 
also the concentrates from the porphyry 
ores of the Chino, in New Mexico, will 
be entrusted. Their addition will tell 
upon next year's figures of production. 

None of the old smelting works are 
making provision for increased output. 
Improvement was made in the Calumet 
& Arizona smeltery, at Douglas, and the 
Copper Queen company made plans and 
preparations for a reverberatory addition 
to its Douglas plant. This is with the 
view of handling more economically the 
large volume of concentrates from Naco- 
zari, which decrease in copper contents 
as the grade of the ore declines, but in- 
crease in the percentage of iron and sul- 
phur contents. 

Modification of Smelting Methods 
Likely at Clifton 

The decline, in the Clifton district, of 
first-class lump ore and its replacement 
with richer concentrates point to a modi- 
fication of smelting methods, and the re- 
placement of the cupola by the reverber- 
atory; but none of the three companies 
who reduce their own ores have yet made 
plans looking to an immediate change. 

At Cananea. likewise, the extension of 
the smelting plant is in the direction of 
reverberatory in preference to cupola 
smelting. The estimated 1910 production 
in the districts above referred to is given 
in the accompanying table. 

January 7, 1911. 



Developments at Cananea in 1910 

By L. D. Ricketts * 

The accompanying sketch shows the 
relative position of the various mines of 
the Cananea Consolidated Copper Com- 
pany and allied interests. It will be seen 
that these mines extend through a ter- 
ritory seven miles long by about two 
miles wide. Geologically this strip can- 
not be strictly called a single zone al- 
though there are many large croppings 
as yet unexplored between some of the 
developed mines. 

The development work of the Cananea 
Consolidated Company for 1910 was as 
follows 1 : Drifts, 45,160 ft.; shafts,. 1949 
ft.; raises and winzes, 9583 ft.; total, 
56,692 feet. 


The mines produced the following 
tonnages of dry ore: Puertocitos, 26,279 
tons; Henrietta, 26,290; Elisa, 57,261; 

output of each mine, and accordingly 
during the latter half of 1910 the Puer- 
tocitos, Henrietta, Veta Grande and 
America mines were closed. 

The total reduction-division costs, per 
dry ton of ore and concentrate treated, 
at Cananea, have fallen yearly for the 
last four years. In 1907 the cost was 
$6.82, and during 1910 it was $2.62. 
This reduction in cost will continue and 
the company expects to smelt in 1911 
for about $2.25 per ton. These costs 
permit direct smelting of material that 
previously had to be concentrated or left 
in the ground as waste. 

It has long been known that the large 
limestone areas contained copper, but 
with the single exception of the ores of 
the Elisa mine, the value has been too 
low to make the material ore, but now 
the company can treat such material 

tracted during the year and is of better 
grade, but owing to the irregular form 
of the lenticular deposits of this mine it 
would be difficult to say just what ton- 
nage has been opened. 

In the Sierra de Cobre property, min- 
ing followed in the old workings on 
Eureka hill, and the ore given above has 
come chiefly from this mine. The ore- 
shoot was developed a vertical distance 
of 240 ft. below the stopes and the grade 
is maintained on the bottom level in a 
satisfactory way. The most interesting 
development on this property is from the 
Combination tunnel, which passes from 
Capote basin to the Elisa mine. Here 
two raises have penetrated a flat body of 
ore that appears to be 50 ft. thick. De- 
velopments are encouraging, but have 
not proceeded far enough to state how 
large the orebody is. The ore so far 

Iht Engineering 

Sketch Map Showing Mines and Railroad of Cananea Consolidated Copper Company 

Sierra de Cobre, 66,841; Capote, 22,428; 
Oversight, 362,380; Veta Grande, 109,- 
157; Kirk, 102,701; Cobre Grande, 13,- 
221; America, 28,576; Cananea-Duluth, 
161,936; total, 977,070 tons. 

Of the above total tonnage 332,060 
dry tons went direct to the reduction 
works, and 645,010 dry tons to the con- 
centrators. The latter produced 182,217 
tons of concentrates. The bullion yield 
was as follows: fine copper, 46,395,232 
lb.; silver, 1,173,321 oz.; gold, 5609 

Both the tonnage and the yield would 
have been higher, but about the middle 
of 1910 production was notably de- 
creased. To meet the reduced output 
and to preserve costs it w?s decided to 
close down mines instead of reducing the 

♦General manager. Cananea Consolidated 
Copper Company, Cananea, Mexico. 

*The tonnage and production figures ami all 
Statistics in this article arc close estimates, 
subject to revision for the month of ll e- 
ceniher. Thev are also subject to revision 
on account of stocks on hand Jan. 1. 1U10, 
and Dec. :',1, 1910. 

profitably, and during 1910 a large 
amount of the development work was in 
the limestone. 

About the first of the year the Cananea 
Consolidated Copper Company and as- 
sociated companies purchased the prop- 
erty of the Indiana-Sonora Copper and 
Mining Company. The chief asset of 
this company consisted of about 396 
acres of mining ground entirely sur- 
rounded by the property of the Cananea 
Consolidated Copper Company. It also 
owned about 2267 acres of undeveloped 
mining land southeast of Cananea, which 
are of doubtful value. 

Important Developments 

Briefly the important developments 
are as follows: In the Elisa mine satis- 
factory development has been made on 
the fifth level, which is 140 ft. higher 
than the Combination tunnel. No de- 
velopment of moment has as yet been 
made on the sixth level. The known ore 
developed far exceeds the tonnage ex- 

taken out in development has averaged 
about 4 per cent, copper. 

The Capote mine produced little ore 
during 1910. At present it is being opened 
on the 10th and seventh levels and above. 
Some copper glance was found on the 
10th level but as yet not in notable quan- 
tity. Valuable ore is known to lie under 
the seventh level and this will be devel- 
oped later. In the old orebody a notable 
tonnage of smelting ore with some con- 
centrating ore was opened between the 
sixth and fifth levels, but until 1911 no 
production of moment from this mine will 
be made. 

Development in Porphyry Ore 

The most important developments in 
the porphyry ore were in the Oversight 
mine, where there was opened an area of 
concentrating ore, several acres in extent, 
in the vicinity of the deepest extraction 
tunnel. The Oversight zone has also 
been opened a considerable distance to 
the northwest and an orebodv about 70 ft. 



January 7, 191 1. 

wide and several hundred feet in length 
has been found which is estimated as 
containing approximately 3 1 . per cent, 
copper. As the company is in no need of 
concentrating ore. development in this 
body has ceased for the present and no 
extraction is being made from it. 

A small amount ot work was done dur- 
ing 1910 in the Sierra de Cobre property 
adjoining the Oversight, and one drift has 
passed through 32 ft. of an excellent 
grade of concentrating ore. No attempt 
was made to develop this class of 

Important Development at the Kirk 

Possibly the most important develop- 
ment made during 1910 was in the Kirk 
mine, where was found a zone of altered 
limestone, dipping at about 30 deg. and 

extending from near the surface to be- 
low the third level of shaft No. 12. As 
far as developed it appears to be about 
750 ft. in length, from 150 to 200 ft. in 
width, and from 60 to 70 ft. in thickness. 
While there is a great deal of coarse ma- 
terial that will have to be thrown out in 
mining it would appear that this bed can 
be mined to a grade of over 3 per cent, 
copper, with approximately 2 oz. in sil- 
ver and about $0.30 in gold. It is self- 
fluxing and a desirable ore. 

During the latter part of 1910 develop- 
ment was resumed in the Cobre Grande 
mine, and a notable tonnage of ore con- 
taining from 3 to 6 per cent, copper is be- 
ing developed. This ore contains from 
70 to 75 per cent, silica and alumina com- 
bined, and is used for converter lining. 
The use of this material has reduced the 
acid contents of the converter slag from 

38 to about 27 per cent., and has, there- 
fore, made the slag much more desirable 
as a flux. 

On the Cananea-Duluth the develop- 
ments were satisfactory on the fourth 
level. The shaft passed through valuable 
ore between the fifth and sixth levels but 
no development has been done on the fifth 
and crosscutting on the sixth has not pro- 
ceeded far enough to determine the im- 
portance of the ore found. 

In closing it may be said that during 
1910 the developments at Cananea were 
exceedingly satisfactory and a far larger 
tonnage of ore was developed than was 
extracted. I do not care to give an esti- 
mate of the tonnage opened on account of 
the irregularity of the orebodies and on 
account of the fact that development is 
not done with a view of estimating ore 

Lake Superior Copper District 

By Carl L. C. Fichtel * 

During 1910 the mines of the Lake 
Superior copper district were operated 
under normal conditions with one or two 
exceptions, where advantage of tne 
metal market was taken to make needed 
repairs and alterations which would re- 
sult in more efficient and economical 
handling of the product. As a result a 
slight curtailment will be noted at these 

Keweenaw County 

Diamond drilling was done on the 
Clark property, which occupies a posi- 
tion near the extreme end of the Kewee- 
naw peninsula. The Keweenaw Cop- 
per Company did some drilling from the 
bottom of its Medora shaft during the 
summer months. Both the Calumet con- 
glomerate and the Osceola amygdaloid 
lodes were penetrated at depth, but the 
cores did not show copper in commercial 
quantities. Later this shaft was allowed 
to fill with water. The shaft on the 
Kearsarge lode was put" down several 
hundred feet, but the lode was not suf- 
ficiently opened to determine its miner- 
alization. Several drill cores were taken 
from the Ashbed lode of the Phoenix 
property showing it to be about 40 ft. 
wide and well charged with copper. 

The ClifT property was acquired by a 
new company, controlled by the Calumet 
& Hecla, and an exploratory shaft started 
on the Keai -ic near the northern 

boundry of the Ojibway. Sinking was 
resumed in both shafts of th<: Ojibway 
the 1 2=0- ft. level. Good remits 
obtained by the drifts from the 
500-, 850- and X'H)-ft. levels in both 
shafts. This property has opened a large 
amount of ground and should be in a po- 

ii' . in 

sition to begin milling operations during 

The Seneca property continued sink- 
ing and at a depth of 920 ft. the lode was 
encountered and found uniform and well 
charged with copper. Developments 
about this point were disappointing. The 
Gratiot company, under the management 
of the Calumet & Hecla, entered the pro- 
ducing list, shipping its rock to the Al- 
louez-Centennial mill. Rock shipments 
were made from the two stock piles at 
Shaft No. 1, which was put down below 
the 17th level. Operations at Shaft No. 
2 were suspended the greater part of the 

The Mohawk operated under about 
normal conditions throughout the year 
with the lower levels of its northern 
shafts showing an improved mineral 
yield. Shaft No. 6, started a little over 
a year ago, was put down below the third 
level, which corresponds with the sixth 
level of the main workings, and the 
lateral openings showed average copper 
bearing ground. An agreement was made 
by this and the Ahmeek company rela- 
tive to the boundry lines whereby both 
companies benefited. 

Shafts No. 3 and 4 of the Ahmeek 
company were put down during the year 
and the curve was put in to conform to 
the pitch of the formation as the shafts 
neared the Kearsarge lode. Two heads 
of this company's new mill went into 
commission. The two shafts of the Al- 
louez company were opened extensively 
and a lame reserve of hi^h-grade ground 
blocked out, so that production can be 
increased materially when conditions 
it. At the stamp mill, owned 
jointly by this and the Centennial com- 
pany, the sixth head went into com- 


Houghton County — Calumet & Hecla 

The Wolverine began shaft sinking on 
the Osceola amygdaloid lode after a 
series of drill cores had been obtained. 
The Centennial company confined its 
operations to the extension of lateral 
openings from the lower level of its two 
shafts which are bottomed at the 35th 
level. Drifts were extended toward the 
Wolverine and Kearsarge zone where 
bunches of rich ground were found. 

All of the shafts on the conglomerate 
lode of the Calumet & Hecla mine were 
operated throughout the year, with the 
exception of No. 12. At the Red Jacket 
shaft new guides were installed in the 
two hoisting compartments and altera- 
tions were made to the shaft house which 
required about six weeks to complete and 
caused a reduction of about 900 tons in 
daily production, during that time. On 
the Osceola lode six shafts were operated 
and one on the Kearsarge. This com- 
pany also carried on drill explorations 
on the St. Louis tract. A large addition 
was built to its machine shop and addi- 
tional machinery installed in the foundry. 
At the stamp mills all the conglomerate 
rock from this and subsidiary companies 
was treated, the amygdaloid rock going 
to the Osceola and Tamarack mills. At 
the smelting plant, the erection of a new 
furnace building was started. The sale 
of the Cliff lands wiped out the standing 
indebtedness of the Tamarack company, 
and the treating of the conglomerate rock 
at the main mills of the Calumet & Hecla 
company gave a much better mineral 
yield per pound of rock stamped. 

[The directors of the Calumet & Hecla 
Mining Company announced on Jan. 3, 
1911, a plan of consolidation of the af- 
niiated companies. EDITOR.] 

January 7, 1911. 



Houghton County — Other Companies 
Operations at Shafts No. 5 and 6 of 
the Osceola Consolidated Company were 
suspended during March and repair work 
continued the remainder of the year. 
Shaft No. 3 of the Kearsarge branch was 
overhauled and alterations were made to 
the rock house. Shaft No. 3 on the main 
mine was equipped with electrically oper- 
ated pumps to handle the mine water. The 
Laurium Mining Company sunk its shaft 
to a depth of about 1150 ft. and drifting 
from the various levels showed a good 
grade of rock. A site for the second 
shaft was staked out, but nothing further 
done. Shipments to the Allouez-Cen- 
tennial mill were started by the LaSalle. 
Results from the Tecumseh tract were 
encouraging, but operations were sus- 
pended on the Caldwell tract. A large 
amount of drilling was done at the south 
end of the property without warranting 
further development. 

Franklin centered its activities on the 
Pewabic lode. Shafts No. 1 and 3 were 
sunk deeper and good ground was opened 
at depth. A search was made to locate 
the Hancock series of lodes without re- 
sults. The Quincy company purchased 
300 acres of land from the St. Mary's 
Mineral Land company, which will enable 
it to sink Shafts No. 2 and 8 to a greater 
depth. This company installed a low- 
pressure steam turbine, operated by th^ 
exhaust steam from one of the hoisting 
engines, to generate its electric power. 
This is the first installation of the kind 
in the district and promises to be the 
forerunner of numerous other similar in- 
stallations. The Hancock company sunk 
its vertical shaft to a depth of about 2700 
ft., cutting the series of Hancock lodes. 
About normal conditions prevailed at 
the Champion and Baltic properties of 
the Copper Range Consolidated and im- 
provement was noted in the lower work- 
ings of the Trimountain shafts. The 
Contact Copper company was organized 
under Michigan laws and acquired the 
lands and effects of the Elm River com- 
pany and secured options on several hun- 
dred acres of adjoining land. Explora- 
tion work was started. 

Ontonagon County 

At the various properties in Ontonagon 
county a systematic search was carried 
Dn for copper ground and promising re- 
sults were obtained by the North and 
South Lake, Indiana, Cherokee, Algomah 
and Bohemia companies. The Indiana 
encountered in its No. 2 drill hole, at a 
depth of about 1450 ft., a copper-bearing 
felsite formation, about 40 ft. thick. 

South Lake encountered a series of 
three copper-bearing lodes and started 
clearing a shaft site. At the Algomah, 
a shaft was put down on an outcropping 
of copper ore and for a distance of 104 
ft., at which point the first level was 
started, the ore continued with undimin- 
ished richness. The Lake company 

passed into the hands of a new manage- 
ment, headed by W. A. Paine as presi- 
dent. The shaft was put down below 
the eighth level and a crosscut was driven 
to the lode on the seventh level. Drifts, 
from the levels above, opened a good 
grade of stamp rock with an occasional 
lean streak. 

Shaft C of the Mass company suc- 
ceeded in opening good ground on the 
Butler lode from the 4th to 8th levels, 
inclusive, and as a result the unwater- 
ing of Shaft B, which has been bot- 
tomed for a number of years at the 18th 
level, was started so that this lode could 
be opened at greater depths. Elton W. 
Walker was appointed superintendent. 

The Michigan company carried on ex- 
ploratory work. The Adventure's vertical 
shaft was put down about 1000 ft. The 
Victoria did much development work, 
tributary to the 22d level of its main 
shaft, with good results. 

Operations of the Tennessee 
Copper Company in 1910 

By N. H. Emmons* 

There were treated in 1910 at the 
smeltery of the Tennessee Copper Com- 
pany 452,500 tons of ore, of which about 
30,500 was custom ore; 16,900,000 lb. of 
copper was produced from this ore. The 
mines produced their usual tonnage, with 
the exception of London mine, at which 
the new shaft house was not completed 
until about Oct. 1, when mining opera- 
tions were resumed. 

Back stoping was gradually introduced, 
in place of the usual underhand method 
in use since the mines were opened. In 
the Burra Burra mine a filling system 
was inaugurated to recover the back of 
the first level. The diamond-drill work, 
completed in 1910, at the Eureka mine 
indicated an orebody of greater magni- 
tude than any so far developed in the 
basin, but the copper content is lower 
than in the other mines. This, however, 
is compensated for by the high sulphur 
which will make the ore as valuable as 
that of the others. 

Smeltery Improvements 
At the smeltery a bedding plant, with 
two beds for ore and two for first matte, 
was installed, together with a sampling 
mill for sampling all material going to 
the beds. A new 400-k.w. generator was 
installed and two 512-h.p. Altman & Tay- 
lor boilers put in place of the four old 
National water-tube boilers that have 
been in constant use for 10 years. This 
gave the smelter power plant four large 

A departure was made at the smeltery 
when the settlers were lined with silicious 
copper ore, instead of brick. The first 

♦General manager, Tennessee Copper Com- 
pany. Copperliill, Tenn. 

one of these, lined in June, is still in 
good condition. The improved tops for 
the furnaces,' particularly the new cast- 
iron and brick top, proved the correct 
type and three furnaces were equipped 
with the new top and a fourth is being 

Between the smeltery and acid plant, 
the new dust chamber proved a great 
benefit, cleaning the gases of dust and 
doing away with the violent fluctuations 
of temperature and strength of gas so 
noticeable under the old system. Gas 
was turned into this chamber and the 
new Glover towers the latter part of 
June when the first part of the remodeled 
sulphuric acid plant was started. 

New Acil Plant the Largest in the 
The sulphuric acid plant was com- 
pletely remodeled and a second unit, 
larger than the first, completed and put 
in operation. The last four chambers 
completed were started Dec. 6, 1910, and 
the plant now consists of the following: 
Two Glover towers, octagonal, 30 ft. 
across, 50 ft. high; one flue from the 
Glover towers to the cooling chambers, 
10x20x120 ft.; sixty-four cooling cham- 
bers, 10 ft. 10 in. x 10 ft. 10 in. x 70 ft. 
high; eight cooling chambers, 10 ft. 10 
in. x 24 ft. x 70 ft. high; four lead-lined 
fans, each with a capacity of 67,000 cu. 
ft. of gas per min. ; twelve old cham- 
bers, 50x50x70 ft. high; six new cham- 
bers, 50x50x75 ft. high; eight new cham- 
bers, 23x50x80 ft. high; four old Gay- 
Lussac towers, 23x23x50 ft. high; four 
new Gay-Lussac towers, octagonal 19 ft. 
across, 70 ft. high. This, with the neces- 
sary coolers, pumping apparatus and 15 
iron storage tanks with a total capacity 
of 15,000 tons of acid, comprises by far 
the largest plant for acid making in the 

Acid Production Now 14,000 Tons per 

The production of the plant at the 
end of the year was at the rate of 14,000 
tons of 60-deg. sulphuric acid per month, 
which will be increased as soon as the 
two new Gay-Lussac towers, now under 
construction, are put in use. These new 
towers are to be 36 ft. across, octagonal, 
and 65 ft. high and should be completed 
in February, 1911. 

The result of the year's work showed 
that the object for which the acid plants 
were installed was attained, namely, the 
consumption of smoke that damaged the 
timber and farming interests in the vicin- 
ity. This fact was clearly demonstrated 
by the success attending the venture in 
farming made by the Tennessee Copper 
Company on some of Its adjoining lands. 
The year 1911 gives promise of being a 
banner year for this company on account 
of the completion of the many expensive 
improvements in 1910. 

1 Hull. A. I. M. E., NOV., 1010. 



January 7, 1911. 

The Tin Industry in 1910 

Tin mining in the United States in 1910 
continued to be about as inconsequential 
as in previous years. The only really 
noteworthy feature was the serious at- 
tempt to develop an industry, both in 
Texas and in South Dakota. In Texas a 
company under the management of Wal- 
ter E. Koch, a well known mining en- 
gineer, continued the development of a 
mine at Camp Florella. near El Paso, 
and erected a mill and a smelting fur- 
nace. In December a few tons of pig 
tin were produced and shipped to New 
York, and our latest information is that 
the plant is running regularly. Further 
information about the enterprise will be 
found in the article on the mining indus- 
try of Texas, elsewhere in this issue. 

In the southern Black Hills of South 
Dakota, the Pahasa Mining Company, 
which succeeded the old Harney Peak 
Tin Company, was engaged in the open- 
ing and unwatering of old shafts, clear- 
ing out tunnels, sampling, and in a gen- 
eral way studying its properties under 
the guidance of Dr. A. R. Ledoux. Mat- 
ters have not yet reached the point of 
determining the next step. In the north- 
ern Black Hills some interesting develop- 
ments were made by the Tinton Tin Com- 

The Tin Market in 1910 

The domestic market, which is more or 
less dominated by the transactions on the 
London Metal Exchange, has naturally 
followed closely the fluctuations of the 
quotations made in London, at least so 
far as Straits tin is concerned. American 
consumers were entirely at the mercy of 
the London syndicates representing the 
bull 3nd bear parties and, as the bull 
party most of the time had the upper 
hand, were forced to pay top prices. This 
was especially so where spot material was 
concerned, which at all times was closely 
held, and for which heavy premiums over 
the import price were asked. Under these 
circumstances, importations of so called 
impure tin produced in England. China, 
Bolivia, etc.. were quickly taken advant- 
age of in a good many quarters to re- 
place Straits tin. which had heretofore 
heen consumed exclusively. This tin was 
sold at a considerable discount from the 
price of Straits tin. and while its quality 
is inferior, nevertheless it answered the 
■ which it was wanted. Natu- 
rally, those consumers will continui the 
use of impure tin so lonn as they can gel 
it at a discount, and this may have a con- 
siderable bearing on the import of Straits 
fir in the fun 

The year opened with a mar 

ket in London, where heavy transactions 
were consummated at constantly declin- 
ing prices. The lowest point reached by 
the metal in this market was 32 ' _>c. per 
lb. Subsequently considerable purchases 
were made in the London market on the 
part of the largest consumers in this 
country, with the result that prices im- 
proved somewhat and remained on the 
basis of about 32-V.jC. per lb. until the 
middle of February. Then there was a 
vigorous advance in London, and while 
American consumers were not inclined to 
follow the same in making their pur- 
chases for future delivery, their neces- 
sary requirements for spot material had 
to be covered at about 33' 4 c. per pound. 

At the beginning of March the market 
again became lifeless and weaker, and 
when toward the middle of March the 
London quotations declined considerably, 






1 1909. 


January . . . 


32 700 




February . . 


32 920 

August .... 

29 966 




82 108 



34 . 982 




October . . . 






Novem ber. 

30 859 

36 .''IT 







Av. Year. 



Prices are in cents per pound. 

prices in this market were marked down 
to 31 ! 4 c. per lb. The end of March and 
beginning of April again witnessed an ad- 
vance in the London market, which was 
helped to a large extent by the very fa- 
vorable statistics for March, and prices 
advanced gradually to 33J4c. per lb. From 
this level prices declined until they stood 
at 32}ic. per lb. at the middle of April. 
At the lower prices a good deal of in- 
terest was evinced by American dealers 
and consumers, who placed large orders 
in London with a result that the market 
over there became very firm again, so 
that the month closed with tin at 32"s 
to 33c. per pound. 

In May prices moved between 32 \s and 
33','c. per lb., while during June it was 
somewhat lower, closing at about 32j/!c. 
per pound. 

In July the market became dull and un- 
interesting. Transactions at the London 
Metal Exchange broke the record so far 
as their smallness was concerned. The 
lowest point touched was 32c. per lb., 
but at the close the market was somewhat 
firmer at 32 C. per pound. 

In August an advance of the spot quo- 
tation over the future quotation in London 
disclosed the fad that spot supplies were 
cornered not only abroad, but also in this 
market, where the representatives of the 

London interests h:id bought up all 
: -it supplies. The result w as ,i con- 

siderable advance and at the end of th< 
month tin for September delivery wa: 
quoted at about 34' _>c. per lb. The firs 
half of September developed a rampan 
speculation in the London market, es 
pecially in spot tin, which advanced b) 
leaps and bounds, and within a few day: 
showed an increase of £8 over the pric< 
of three months' tin. The middle of th< 
month, however, the corner seemed t( 
have collapsed and quotations quickb 
btoke £9 from the highest point reachec 
in spot tin, while three months' tin onlj 
declined to the extent of £2 5s. The rea 
sons given for this reversal were ver) 
heavy shipments from the Straits and th< 
impending Banka sale. The effect in thii 
market of this speculation for the ris( 
and its subsequent collapse was a de 
cline from the highest quotation of 36^c 
to 34' jc. per lb. At the end of the montl 
prices had become a little better anc 
were marked at 35c. per pound. 

In October a corner in spot tin was 
again instituted and prices advancec 
gradually to 37] _>c. for spot and 37j^c 
for October tin by the middle of th< 
month, but larger offerings from th< 
East brought about a decline to 3634 c 
at the end of the month. 

At the beginning of the month of No 
vember the price stood at 36fic It wen 
as low as 3634c. during the first half o 
the month, but closed firm at 36"sc. pei 

December witnessed a further advance 
in prices. At the beginning of the montl 
quotations stood at 37;4c. per lb. and ad' 
vanced gradually to 38K>c. per lb. by th< 
middle of the month. There were some 
small variations later, but the price stooc 
at 38' j c. at the close. 

Tin Output of Malaya 

(As reported by The Mining Journal.) 





February . . 




67 7:i!) 


61,935 63,131 
62,180 75,890 
65,350 68,627 
70,639 ' 73,560 
56,324 , 68,827 
55,498t 68.316 
56,9351 73,190 
' 81,156 



September. . . . 
i ictober . . . 
1 ><•<<- 1 1 1 1 > * ■ i 

7(1. 70S 

7 1. SIS 
77. 112 





The above figures show the monthly export! 
ol Hu .-iikI i i n ore i iii,. latter being stated a1 
timed metal content) upon which dutj 
is paid to the I'M 8. Government. One ton 
(2240 lb. i 16.8 pikuls. 
1 1 ixclusl \ e "i Pa hang. 
inmiiv revised figures. 

January 7, 1911. 


The Production of Lead in 1910 

The production of lead in the United 
States in 1910 is reported in the ac- 
companying table, the statistics of which 
are based upon reports from all of the 
refiners. Owing to a possible duplication, 
that one producer is unable to determine 
at this time, the total of domestic desil- 
verized may be a little too high. 
rhe totals include not only the lead 
refined from base bullion, but also 
:hat derived from, the scrap and junk, 
:omparatively small in quantity, that the 
•efiners work up along with their primary 
naterial. At the present time it is im- 
)ossib!e to make any distribution of the 
>roduction, according to the State of or- 

(In tons of 2000 lb.) 

mports: 1909. 1910. 

n ore ) , , , in - 47,000 

n base bullion J iii.iuo 57,500 

tefined 3,576 3,700 

Total 1 14,681 108,200 

In ore and bullion 86,077 72,350 

I'm. It can, however, be said definitely 
tiat Missouri strengthened its position 
s the premier lead-producing State, al- 
lough Idaho showed an increase in out- 
ut over 1909. 


concerned. The only possible explana- 
tion is that they were operating on 
charges higher in lead than formerly. 

As to consumption and stocks, no pre- 
cise data are available, this being where 


(IN Tons OF 2000 Lb.) 

Class. 1909. 1910. 

Desilverized 211,499 220,918 

Antimonial (a) 12,730 14,146 

Southeast Missouri (6) 126,784 146,056 

Southwest Missouri 20,489 20,404 

Total domestic 371,502 401,524 

Total foreign 89,681 90,597 

Grand total 461,183 492,121 

(a) Includes all of the antimonial lead, without 
attempt at classification between domestic and 
foreign, (b) Includes the total production of 
works in southern Illinois. 

the mystery centers. At the beginning of 
1910 there was a large stock. During 
the first half of the year this was un- 
questionably reduced to some extent. A 
few weeks ago it was given out that the 
accumulation of the American Smelting 
and Refining Company had come down 
to practically nothing. If it were true 
that the total stock of domestic lead had 
been reduced to a low figure there would 

that the lead market is apt to be a quiet 
affair. It is commonly the case that a 
large business may be in progress with- 
out any surface indications whatever. 
The year just elapsed was no exception. 


New York. 

St. Louis. 











4. DIM 

3 986 
4 . 287 

4 321 
4 . 363 

4 700 
4 618 
4 . 343 

4 4i mi 


4 026 

3 835 

4. 291 


4 215 
4 . 262 

4 . 582 
4 445 
4. 307 
4 . 207 
4 290 
4 289 
4 271 
4 314 

18 438 
13 297 
13 226 
13 031 
12 663 
12 475 

12 7s 1 

13 175 

13 828 
12 641 



September . . 


December.. . 

12 631 

12 513 

12 582 

13 217 

13 107 






12 920 

New York and St. 
London, pounds sterl 

I.ouis. ci'uts per pound. 
lg per long ton. 

January opened with lead selling at 
New York at 4.70c. This could not be 
held, however, in the face of the large 
surplus supply, and the lower offerings 
by independents, the market being dom- 
inated by the accumulation of Missouri 
lead, and the price steadily declined un- 


Jan Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. yov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec 

Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Not. Dec. 

The Engineering $ Mining Journal 

The increase in production in 1910 
;epens the mystery surrounding the 
:onomic position of this metal. The 
rger part of the increase was due to the 

ccording to latest reports obtainable, as com- 
piled by Julius Matton, of London.) 

(In Metric Tons.) 

Country. 1907. 1908. 1909. 

lited States 366,729 316,971 362,955 

ain 186,496 188,062 188,000 

■niiany 134,136 155,954 158,069 

istralia 96,487 119.946 73.600 

'xico 75,000 104,000 115.000 

igland 27,753 29,856 28,358 

tl.v 22,887 26,003 22.183 

ance 24,803 26,1 12 30,000 

lgium 27,455 35.650 40,306 

eece 13,813 14,305 15.301 

istria-Hungary . 15.224 14.213 14.541 

rkey 10,398 11,772 12,128 

nada 17,518 16,560 23,273 

?an 3,075 2,936 3,225 

eden 809 277 166 

BSia 200 200 200 

it h America. . . 102 254 558 

rica and East 

India 2,740 3,553 7,511 

rotal 1,025,625 1,066,624 1,095.374 

nargentiferous lead of Missouri, but in 
silverized lead there was a gain, al- 
)ugh the smelters were operating at re- 
ced capacity insofar as ore tonnage is 

Course of Lead Prices in 1909 and 1910. 

be indicated a consumption that is be- 
yond belief. Lead consumption in some 
lines was indeed very good, but not so in 
all. The manufacturers of white lead, 
who normally consume 35 to 40 per cent, 
of the total pig lead, suffered from the 
high price of linseed oil and do not re- 
port any remarkable prosperity in 1910, 
a? may be seen from the special article 
that follows this. 

It is preposterous to assert that the 
American stock of lead at the end of 1910 
was insignificant. We are inclined to 
believe that it was smaller than at the be- 
ginning, which admission implies a sub- 
stantial increase in consumption, but we 
know of the existence of considerable 
stocks, and we are inclined to think that 
the aggregate is still large. 

til it reached 4 r /^c. in May. Then the 
spring demand made itself felt, and the 
independent surplus having been largely 
absorbed the market advanced to 4.40c, 
the A. S. and R. Co.'s price, at which fig- 
ure it remained until November, when it 
was unexpectedly advanced to 4.50c. The 
latter was the closing price of the year. 

The American Lead Market 
in 1910 

So large a part of the domestic lead 
production goes into consumption under 
time contracts at quotational averages 

The European Lead Con- 

The European lead convention, organ- 
ized in the early part of 1909, continued 
in operation during 1910. This conven- 
tion was organized to obtain a more 
favorable sale of lead output than had 
previously been realized by unrestricted 
competition and the means adopted for 
the attainment of that object was the 
appointment by a number of European, 
American, and Australian lead producers 
of the Metallgesellschaft, Frankfurt-am- 
Main, as their sole selling agent. 

By thus associating for the common 
sale of their productions, the parties to 



the convention intended not only to do 
everything in their power to obtain 
higher prices for their products, but also 
to increase the profits of the sale by 
allotting to the different members of the 
association, according to the geographical 
situation of their works, certain exclusive 
districts for the sale of their output, 
and thereby enabling them to dispense 
with agents in other districts and to save 
costs of transport. 

While the convention comprised such 
important interests as the American 
Smelting and Refining Company (in its 
export business), the Broken Hill Pro- 
prietary, the works of several companies 
in which the Metallgesellschaft is inter- 
ested, and some Spanish producers, a 
good many important European interests 
remained outside, these including the 
Braubach company (trie largest Rhenish 
producer) and Beer. Sondheimer & Co., 
controlling the output of Overpelt 
and contracting for the Rhein- 
Nassau production for several years be- 
sides some other lead. There has 'been 
therefore a good deal of competition in 
the sale of lead in Europe and it is 
doubtful whether the convention has ma- 
terially influenced prices. Satisfaction as 
to its operation has, however, been ex- 
pressed by producers interested, and 
there is a feeling that if it has failed to 
improve the price for the metal, at least 
it has maintained it. Since its organi- 
zation the London lead market has lost 
much of its previous importance and the 
prices quoted on the Metal Exchange 
have perhaps less significance than 

January 7, 19 

to put this paste in a condition for use as 
paint. The effect upon the paint industry 
of an advance of more than 40c. per 
gallon above the accepted normal price 
of linseed oil will, therefore, easily be 
understood. Numerous substitutes of 
more or less value were introduced or 
met increased sale during 1910, but they 
did not, either in volume or efficiency, 
compensate for the scarcity of this 
standard vehicle, and the consumption of 
paint in every form was in consequence 
greatly curtailed. 

Lead Carbonate 

from the lower figure to large consu 
in special cases. This was notably 
of litharge, which recently was contn 
for as low as 5%c, owing to sharp i 
petition for the trade of a particu 
large consumer, but for the most 
manufacturers were not willing to s 
5?4c, and at the current cost of pig 
this is not a price that invites competi 

The Coeur D'Alene Distr 

Special Correspondence 

White Lead in 1910 

However much the manufacturers of 
any paint pigments may have plumed 
themselves upon the importance to the 
industry of their special product, they 
have been taught, during 1910, that all 
pigments are but secondary in conse- 
quence to the vehicle, and that linseed 
oil remains the controlling element, in 
spite of all the scientific and empiric' ef- 
forts that have been made during the last 
quarter of a century to displace it. At 
the time of writing the 1909 review, the 
price of linseed oil was advanced so far 
above the normal range as to be respon- 
sible for an advance in white lead in oil, 
which was recorded as having occurred 
on hec Oil at that time was 

quoted at 05c. per gal. in New York, in 
car lots, and advanced steadily on a 
scarcity of spot stock and the early evi- 
dence of extensive damage to the grow- 
crop from drouth until it reached 
the highest price that 
has been touched in many years. Every 
hundred pounds of pure I i j n 

the paste form in which it is generally 

I a 

As foreshadowed in the 1909 review 
there was a further advance on Jan. 3, 
1910, of ' 4 c. on white lead, both dry and 
in oil, due to the higher cost of pig lead. 
This made the price of standard makes 
of white lead 5\<c. dry, and ToiT /4 c. in 
oil. These prices were nominally main- 
tained until Sept. 16, 1910, when another 
T Ac. was added to lead in oil, as a result 
of the rapid advance in linseed oil, and 
the year closed with 7 % o i 7 y 2 c. the ruling 
prices. So much lead had been placed 
in dealers' hands at the prices current 
before each advance, however, that at no 
time during the year did consumers feel 
the full effect of the advance, and the 
checking of trade was due rather to the 
excessive cost of the oil necessary to 
make paint of the lead than to the cost 
of the lead itself. The volume of busi- 
ness in lead in oil was, however, below 
that of 1909. 

The same was true of dry lead, which 
is largely consumed in the manufacture 
of ready-mixed paints, the cost of oil 
having necessitated so much of an ad- 
vance in the price of those products as 
measurably to check their sale. The 
large consumers of dry lead had their 
requirements for 1910 pretty well pro- 
vided for before the close of last year 
at 5'4c, and while the nominal price 
has been 534c. since the advance in Jan- 
uary, a more common price was 5^<g 
c. with the usual annual reduction to 
b%c. on Nov. 17. This price was con- 
tinued for only a week, during which time 
contracts for 1911 were largely entered 
up. and an advance to 5j4c was an- 
nounced by some of the largest corroders 
on Dec. 2. 1910. Judging by the ex- 
perience of past years, unless there is 
a further advance in pig lead, the sales 
of carbonates during the coming six 
months, at least, will be for the most 
part at 5fgrt7>5j ; cents. 

Lead Oxides 

All consuming industries using linseed 
Oil curtailed their consumption of pig- 
ments, and both red lead and litharge 
red in consequence. There was 
however, little fluctuation in the prices 
Ither material. Red lead in a large 
sold mainly at c. ',,<; t -., an( j 
litharge at 5^@0c, with concessions 

The gloomy reports, that are fn 
circulated, of an early complete fai 
of the Cceur d'Alene mines are not j 
tified by the facts. During 1910 th 
mines yielded 227,580,000 lb. of lead 
7,000,000 oz. of silver. These figi 
are an increase over the production 
1909, but are not equal to the rec 
yields of 1906 and 1907, when under 
stimulus of high prices the mines 
forth their best efforts. At that ti 
speculative interest in development p 
jects gave the district great activity 
only in stock trading, but also in 
starting of a large amount of real, a 
more or less intelligently directed, pn 
pecting and development work, which f 
continued intermittently ever since, 
is unfortunate that this extensive wo 
scattered impartially throughout the d 
trict, has so far resulted in no really n< 
producer of importance. 

During 1910 the Stewart mining co. 
pany and the Caledonia mining compai 
gave important new production but 
each instance from old, heretofore do 
mant properties. Several famous min 
of the district, the Gem, Helena-Frisc 
Tiger-Poorman are bottomed and no 
closed, probably forever. In due cours 
mines now active must go the same wa 
and to keep the district up to the presei 
mark new producers must in like amoui 
be brought in. This is not being accorr 

On the other hand, after 20 years o 
continuous operation, the Cceur d'Alen 
district made for 1910 an excellent show 
mg. Profits dwindle faster than output 
The increased cost of production, highe 
supply costs, deeper mines, lower meta 
markets and decrease in grade of on 
were more serious factors during 19l( 
in cutting into profits than were ore fail- 
ures. These factors will continue to be 
adverse. Several individual mines wiil 
continue to make handsome profits for 
many years, but for the district as a 
whole the top figure for financial return 
has without doubt been passed, and un- 
:ss some new, important, regular pro- 
ducers are added, either by fortunate 
discovery or by development of some 
known and at present unimportant prop- 
erty, the production will by natural laws 
recede year by year from the magnificent 
recent annual outputs. 

January 7, 1911. 



The Yreka district, comprising the 
camps of Wardner and Kellogg, during 
1910 showed better results than any 
other section of the region. The only 
new production came from the Caie- 
donia and Stewart mines. The early ex- 
haustion of the Wardner mine of the 
Federal Mining and Smelting Company 
predicted in the last annual report .if 
that company, is an exhaustion of a por- 
tion of the upper horizon of the mineral 

field of the Yreka district and is not a 
complete bottoming. The Yreka district, 
as disclosed by the bottom levels of the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan mines, shows no 
signs of failure and the output from this 
district can be maintained, barring any 
unforeseen geological conditions to be 
met by further development in depth, for 
many years, while the tonnage developed 
for immediate extraction approximates 
closely to anything in the past. 

The situation is thus one not to cause 
immediate alarm. A district which has 
yielded for over two decades at the rare 
of this one, and the yield from which 
comes from a considerable number of 
different properties will not terminate 
abruptly. The field is large and though 
unsuccessful prospecting has been done 
extensively, there are still reasonably 
good chances that oreshoots, at present 
unknown, will be discovered. 

Southeast Missouri Lead District 

By H. A. Wheeler * 


The output of the Southeast Missouri 
lead belt in 1910 approximated 140,000 
tons of lead, with an estimated value of 
$12,240,000. This record tells its own 
story of a successful year, besides estab- 
lishing a new high mark and maintaining 
its phenomenal growth. This output pre- 
eminently placed it at the head of the 
lead-producing districts of the world, and 
strongly emphasizes the importance of 
low-grade but large orebodies when 
treated by modern methods. While some 
of the mines produce ore that yields 
over 5 per cent, lead, and occasionally 
over 15 per cent., the average yield of 
this district approximates 4 per cent., and 
2 per cent, ore is frequently worked. 
These figures are the results in pig lead, 
after deducting the milling and smelting 
losses, and should not be confused with 
assay reports which are considerably 

About 96 per cent, of the output was 
produced by the five large companies 
that each operate several mines, at Bonne 
Terre or in the Flat River district, St. 
Francois county. 

Madison county, at the southern end of 
the belt, made the smallest output in 
many years, as only one company oper- 
ated throughout the year. Financial 
wounds dating back from the 1907 panic 
resulted in receiverships and the clos- 
ing down of the other three well known 
though not large producers, and their 
troubles are not adjusted. 

Small Mines Poor Producers in 1910 

The innumerable "diggings" and small 
mines in Washington, Jefferson and 
Franklin counties produced but little lead 
in 1910. as the price was not sufficiently 
high to induce prospecting. The Missouri 
"lead digger" is essentially a prospector. 
His daily earnings are liable to range 
from 10c. to S10, but it has averaged too 
near the 50c. mark since 1907 to stimu- 
late digging. He -has temporarily gone 
back to farming, or cutting ties, or is 
working in the large mines in St. Fran- 
cois county, where he can earn from 

*Mininc engineer. 510 Pine street. St. Louis, 

S1.50 to $2.50 per day. But if the lead 
market should advance sufficiently, or 
should some more persistent digger make 
a strike, they would flock back to the 
diggings, take up new leases and again 
become lead-producers of no small im- 
portance when considered collectively. 

Recent Developments in Washington 
and St. Francois Counties 
Boston capital, under the name of the 
Potosi Mines Company, entered the lead 
belt and secured a promising piece of 
property in the Jake Day land, on Big 
river, between the Gumbo and Hunt 
mines of the St. Joseph company. The 
tract contains 357 acres, and a shaft was 
started on the bluff overlooking the river 
that will make a fine gravity site for the 
500-ton mill that is contemplated. The 
same men also secured over 30,000 
acres of valuable mineral land about 
Potosi, Washington county, that has pro- 
duced considerable lead and large 
amounts of barytes from the shallow dig- 
gings. If this new company has the grit 
and success of the Bostonians who set 
aside $500,000 and five years' time to 
test the Tamarack land at Lake Superior 
with a 2500-ft. prospect shaft, it is likely 
to have the honor of being the first to 
prove the disseminated deposits in Wash- 
ington county. 

Prospect Drilling 

Prospecting for new orebodies was al- 
most discontinued in 1910, and the little 
drilling that was performed was mostly 
to guide the mine superintendents in de- 
veloping the mines. It was an unusually 
quiet year for the diamond drills. This was 
due to the high price of carbons, threat- 
ened labor troubles, and the panic of 

The Penicaut, Manhattan and Bogy 
companies, which still require further 
drilling, did not operate a drill, nor did 
outsiders attempt any prospecting. 

The St. Joseph Lead Company 

The St. Joseph Lead company, which 

has paid $7,358,357 in dividends, besides 

putting nearly double that amount of 

profits back into plant, land, railroads and 

improvements, made the largest yield in 
its history. Its production was about 15 
per cent, larger than in 1909, its pre- 
vious high record. The output was ob- 
tained from a daily production of about 
3000 tons of ore derived from seven 
mines. The original or No. 1 mine at 
Bonne Terre, which is over 40 years old, 
is still the principal producer, though its 
large output is mainly coming from the 
deeper levels, or at 300 to 400 ft. The 
Hoffman mine at Leadwood, is developing 
into an important producer, as the ore- 
body is not only large, but exceptionally 
rich. It is on the western edge of the 
lead belt — within two miles of the Wash- 
ington county line — and is one of the so- 
called deep mines, as the shaft is about 
500 ft. deep. It is equipped with a 
modern 1500-ton mill that also handles 
the output of the neighboring Hunt and 
Gumbo mines. 

The centralization that has been in 
progress at Bonne Terre was further ad- 
vanced in 1910 by arranging for the mill 
(No. 1) to be operated by electric motors 
from the central power plant. This will 
permit the shutting down of two large 
Corliss condensing engines, with a sav- 
ing of about 50 per cent, in the fuel bill 
and payroll. The introduction of under- 
ground compressed-air locomotives en- 
abled the hoisting that was formerly done 
through six shafts to be concentrated at 
the mill shaft, which effected a large sav- 
ing in labor and fuel. The erection of a 
central electric power plant with three 
600-kw. motors, operated by gas engines, 
closed down several scattered boiler 
plants. The shutting down of the mill 
engines will concentrate the power under 
one roof for operating all the mines and 
the 1500-ton mill at Bonne Terre, the ad- 
joining railroad shops, the town lighting, 
and the Crawley mine at Flat River, 
seven miles distant. 

Local improvements continued at 
Bonne Terre. which is now one of the 
most attractive, well equipped mining 
towns in the country. The memor- 
ial church which was the gift of the 
late superintendent. Charles B. Parsons, 
was completed in 1910, and it is a gem of 



January 7, 191 1. 

Gothic architecture. A large brick office 
building is under construction to replace 
the present wooden structure. A hospital 
: s being erected that is much larger and 
is a great improvement over the present 
building. A residence, that is typical of 
the success of the company, is being 
built for the superintendent. Roscoe Par- 

The smelting plant at Herculaneum. 30 
miles north of Bonne Terre, where the 
concentrates of the St. Joseph and Doe 
Run companies are smelted, was mater- 
ially improved in 1910. The Savelsberg 
pot-roasting plant, which had previously 
closed down the Freiberg or hand-roast- 
ing furnaces, was replaced by the Dwight 
sintering furnace. The latter is found to 
have a large capacity, two Dwight fur- 
naces having replaced 19 roasting pots, 
with a marked saving in labor and a re- 
duction in the losses. 

A 350- ft. brick stack is nearly com- 
pleted, which will take the smoke from 
the roasting and the five-shaft furnaces. 
The refining plant was also enlarged and 

The Doe Run Lead Company 

The Doe Run company is a junior com- 
pany of the St. Joseph company, having 
been formed in 1887 to operate an iso- 
lated discovery made at Doe Run, in the 
southern part of St. Francois county. A 
small mining, milling and smelting plant 
was erected that produced 4000 tons of 
lead in 1889, although it had to contend 
with hauling its freight three miles to 
Delassus, the nearest railroad point. 
From this modest beginning the com- 
pany h3s steadily grown until its pro- 
duction is exceeded only by the St. Jo- 
seph and the Federal companies. The 
mining operations have been mainly 
transferred to the Flat River district, 
seven miles north, where it is operating 
seven mines, and recently completed 
a 2000-ton mill. F.lectric power is fur- 
nished by a finely equipped central sta- 
tion. The station has four 600-k.w. 
direct-connected gas-engine units that are 
operated by a battery of four down-draft 
producers of the Loomis-Pettibone type. 

The old mill at Doe Run was enlarged 
to 1500 tons, and the Columbia mill was 
remodeled and increased to 600 tons. 
Dividends to date aggregate 82,547,150, 
while a much larger sum has been ex- 
pended out of xbf profits for extensive 
land purchases; new mining and milling 
plants, and for extensive surface im- 
provements. The 1910 yield was consid- 
erably larger than the previous year, 
which had been the best in its history. 
the completion of its fourth unit in 
the new 2000-ton mill at River- 
mines, which was formerly known as 
Central, was put into complete- operation 
gnd the Columbia mill was closed down. 

A shaft was completed to :i new ore 
recently found one mile south of 
trie mine at Doe Kim It resembles the 

latter in being shallow, and the lead- 
bearing limestone rests directly on the 
granite without the usual intervening 
sandstone. This should prove to be a 
profitable mine with its inexpensive 
shafts, small amount of water and close 
proximity to the railroad and old mill. 
The new shaft on the old Donnelly prop- 
erty, near Esther, was completed and 
should become an important ore contribu- 
tor in 1911. 

Desloge Consolidated Lead Company 

The Desloge company continued its us- 
ual policy of saying little, but made the 
largest output in its history. Part of the 
product was smelted in its four small 
Flintshire furnaces, but most of its ore 
was sold as concentrates in the St. Louis 
market. The mill was remodeled and in- 
creased to 1300 tons daily capacity by re- 
placing the Harz jigs by Hancock jigs 
and increasing the capacity of the slime 
department. The ore was supplied by 
three mines, of which its latest, or No. 
6 shaft, on Hoffmann hill furnished an 
increasing quantity of ore rich from a 
depth of 500 ft. This company oper- 
ates its own railroad that connects the 
shafts with the mill. The road also con- 
nects with the Missouri River & Bonne 
Terre Railroad. 

The National Mine 

The mining property of the National 
Lead Company, which is locally nown as 
the St. Louis Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany, had a successful year and pro- 
duced its usual large quota of lead. The 
concentrates were shipped to its smeltery 
at Collinsville, 111., where considerable 
custom business is carried on with Joplin 
and Wisconsin ores. 

A shaft, No. 6, was sunk 565 ft. deep, 
about one mile west of the mill. It was 
so dry that drilling water had to be sent 
down, until the underlying sandstone was 
tapped. This is quite exceptional in the 
F'at River district, as the water is usual- 
ly excessive. In fact, the property was 
purchased at a bargain because the one 
small mine that had been developed was 
drowned out, and it was regarded by the 
local owners as a hopelessly wet mine. 

The 1600-ton mill is supplied with ore 
from three mines, which are connected by 
a trolley surface road. In the recent 
death of H. H. McChesney, a great loss 
was sustained by the local office, as he 
managed the property from its inception 
with marked success. 

The Federal Lead Company 

The Federal company, which is a sub- 
sidiary of the Guggenheim Exploration 
Company, enjoyed a successful year. It 
not only maintained the big output that 
it made in 1909, but slightly increased 
it. As a vigorous, though youthful pro- 
ducer, it is entitled to the highest admir- 
ation, although Iti phenomenal growth 

has been due to the powerful stimulus 
of unlimited capital. 

The No. 1, or Federal 1000-ton mil!, 
was not operated, but the new No. 2 or 
Central mill ran steadily throughout the 
year. The latter has a capacity of 4000 
tons and is decidedly the largest in- 
dividual mill in Missouri. It continued to 
pile up such a mountain of tailings that 
a new tailings elevator was necessary. 
The ore supply was derived from seven 
mines, though the old Central property 
furnished the greater part of the tonnage. 

An effort was made to open up new 
orebodies by prospecting near the Valle 
mines, at the northern edge of St. Fran- 
cois county, and also at De Soto, in Jef- 
ferson county, which is 20 miles north- 
west of Flat river. Drilling is still in 
progress at the latter place, where ex- 
tensive options have been taken, and 
some of the holes have exceeded 1400 
ft., which is the deepest thus far at- 
tempted in the district. 

Madison County 

The Mine La Motte property, in Madi- 
son county, was operated steadily 
throughout 1910 and maintained about its 
usual production. A new shaft was sunk 
near the No. 3 mine and considerable 
prospecting was done with the diamond 
drill. The switch to the Iron Mountain 
Railroad was a great advantage, as it 
did away with three miles of teaming 
that was formerly necessary, and mate- 
rially added to the profits. The new 500- 
ton mill was supplied from five shafts 
that are only 60 to 140 ft. deep. 

North American Lead Company in 
Receivers' Hands 

The North American Lead Company, 
which has been operating as a producer 
of copper, nickel and cobalt, went into 
the hands of a receiver, and was recent- 
ly bought in by the bond holders. There 
have always been doubts as to whether 
the large and costly metallurgical plant 
that it erected was justified, in view of 
the small amount of development work 
and the moderate land holdings. While 
there Is a popular impression that its 
one orebody is nearly exhausted, there 
is little doubt that other orebodies can be 
found by energetic drilling, although this 
may require the acquisition of more land. 
The failure of this company was a heavy 
blow to Fredericktown, as with the clos- 
ing down of the Catherine mine last 
year, the local mines are now idle. 

An effort was made during 1910 to 
re-finance the Madison Land and Mining 
Company, which operated the Catherine 
mine, three miles north of Fredericktown, 
but the deal was not consummated. 

The Hudson Valley Lead Companv, 
which operated a small mill on a lease of 
the old copper mine from the Mine La 
Motte estate, was sold at a receiver's 

January 7, 191 1. 



Aluminum in 1910 

By Arthur V. Davis* 

The volume of aluminum business in 
1910 was less than that in 1909, and from 
the same causes which resulted in a 
diminution of output in all other lines of 
production. In the first quarter of 1910 
the demand was good, even better than in 
any quarter of 1909, but by the end of 
the second quarter of 1910 business re- 
ceded to less than 50 per cent, of the first 
quarter, and has been, if anything, grad- 
ually decreasing since. The demand for 
aluminum in steel for the purpose of de- 
oxidizing suffered a net decrease propor- 
tionate to the decrease in the steel busi- 
ness. The demand for aluminum cast- 
ings, which is largely confined to the auto- 
mobile trade, also fell off in connection 
with the slump in the automobile indus- 
try. A number of aluminum foundries 
shut down and the rest ran with lessened 
output, and the result was that the de- 
mand for ingot for this purpose, as well 
as for other purposes, was so reduced 
that it is this branch of the aluminum 
industry which showed the greatest fall- 
ing off. The sheet and wire business did 
not fall off so much, and some of the 
specialties even improved. 

As a result of the decline in demand 
large stocks of aluminum accumulated 
and are still accumulating. In the hope 
of an improved demand the Aluminum 
Company of America ran its smelting 
plants at nearly full capacity for some 
time, although a substantial amount of 
the aluminum produced had to be stored. 
Now some of the plants have been cut 
back half and unless the demand im- 
proves, still further cutting back will be 

As above noted, however, some 
branches of the business made material 
progress. The use of aluminum, partic- 
ularly aluminum tubing, in paper, chemi- 
cal and other similar lines of manufac- 
turing made a steady growth and seems 
to promise a substantial and lar^e vol- 
ume of business for the future. The use 
of aluminum in extruded shapes has also 
been constantly increasing. This busi- 
ness was started about three years ago 
and though no single line takes a large 
quantity of any one shape, an. increasing 
number of new consumers are constantly 
being discovered with the result that the 
extruded-shapes output is constantly in- 
creasing, and the Aluminum Company of 
America in 1910 installed a separate 
plant of considerable size for this pur- 
pose. The aluminum cooking-utensil 
business was also good. These articles 
seem to have merit and win their way 
despite adverse commercial conditions. 

Although a new sheet-rolling rmll was 
built at Niagara Falls in 1910, it was not 

*Pi-psinVnt. Aluminum Company of Amer- 
ica, no John street, Xew York. 

put into operation on account of the fall- 
ing off in the sheet business, but as the 
mill was built to meet future require- 
ments it is still expected that the time 
will come when this mill will be required. 
The aluminum wire and cable busi- 
ness, of course, followed the electrical- 
installation business. There have been 
comparatively few transmission lines 
financed and built in the last few years, 
and though there was apparently some 
activity in 1909, present commercial con- 
ditions seem to have checked the revival. 

Borax in 1910 

By S. T. Mather* 

No marked change in the borax in- 
dustry in the United States occurred dur- 
ing 1910. The sharp competition be- 
tween the two producing companies was 
keener than ever and the low prices 
which resulted stimulated the consump- 
tion of borax materially. It is estimated 
that the United States is now absorbing 
borax at the rate of about 25,000 tons per 
year, a gain of at least 10,000 tons in 
the last 10 years. 

California continued to be the only 
State in which the crude material was 
mined. The Pacific Coast Borax Com- 
pany, which controls all the principal 
borax deposits in the Death Valley sec- 
tion, drew its supplies from the Lila C. 
mine at the lower end of Death valley, 
from which point the borate of lime or 
colemanite is shipped via the Tonopah & 
Tidewater Railway and the Santa Fc to 
its refineries on the eastern seaboard. 
It was reported that this company is 
planning to run a branch of the Tonopah 
& Tidewater Railway, which is controlled 
by it, to the mines in the upper part of 
Death valley, known as the Monte Blanco 
deposits, as it is said that the heavy 
demands upon the Lila C. deposits will 
make it necessary to tap some of the 
more northern sources of supply in order 
to keep up the rapidly increasing demand 
for the finished product. 

The Sterling Borax Company, which 
controls rich borate mines in the Coast 
range in Ventura and Los Angeles coun- 
ties, devoted all its attention in 1910 to 
its mines at Lang, Los Angeles county. 
Its position was materially strengthened 
by the construction of a narrow-gage 
road from the railway station at Lang 
direct to the mouth of the mine. The 
veins of colemanite are beneath a narrow 
canon and the minine is carried on by 
both shafts and tunnels. Shipments are 
made to the company's eastern refineries 
in Pennsylvania and Illinois. During 
July the Sterling mines were visited by 
the members of the American Chemical 
Society who stopped, in their special 

•Vice-o resident of Thorklldsen-Mather Com- 
pany. Chicago, ill- 

train, on their way to the San Francisco 

The European market was supplied 
principally from the deposits of borate 
of lime in Chile and Peru, although the 
mines in Asia Minor continue to be 
worked. It is estimated that the Euro- 
pean production has reached a total of 
about 50,000 tons. As the United States 
production is consumed entirely in this 
country, while the European refineries 
supply the rest of the world, this indi- 
cates that the United States absorbs 
about one-third of the world's production 
of this commodity at the present time. 

Arsenic in 1910 

The general arsenic situation is chiefly 
of interest as witnessing a shifting of 
trade conditions due to new producers. 
Until a few years ago arsenic was en- 
tirely an imported product and New York 
was the sole distributing center. Later, 
owing to the production of this material 
by the Western smelteries as a by-pro- 
duct, the distributing centers tended to 
move west, although the situation of the 
paris green factories tended to retard this 
movement. Now, these factories too are 
moving West. 

The year 1910 opened with arsenic at 
2^c, and at that price the market was 
lively for a few weeks, but the effect of 
the large production in the West became 
more and more apparent as time went on, 
and the price gradually sank in a contin- 
ued dull market until it is now nominally 
2 1 /":., but this price can sometimes be 
shaded, even in small quantities. There is 
no duty on arsenic or its compounds. 
About 150 tons per annum of red arsenic 
are imported, and probably 50 to 75 tons 
per annum of metallic arsenic and lead- 
arsenic alloys. 

In Mexico, the Compahia Alinera de 
Penoles is working its arsenic plant only 
en the richest flue dusts, and by no 
means up to full capacity. In Canada 
the Deloro Mining and Reduction Com- 
pany, Deloro, Ont. ; the Canadian Copper 
Company, Copper Cliff, Ont.; the Conia- 
gas Reduction Company at St. Catherines, 
Ont., continued to be the sole producers. 
In the United States the Everett smeltery, 
at Everett, Washington, the Washoe plant, 
at Anaconda, Montana and the United 
Smelting Company at Midvale, Utah, are 
the principal producers. 

In spite of the fact that the use of 
lead arsenate as an insecticide is con- 
tinually extending, and with the destruc- 
tion of birds will probably still further 
increase, the outlook is that the arsenic 
market will show further declines rather 
than increases. 

According to information furnished by 
the producers, the total white arsenic pro- 
duction of the United States in 1910 
amouted to 1326 tons, against 1008 tons 
in 1909. 



January 7, 1911. 

The Zinc Industry in 1910 

The production of zinc in the United 
States in 1910 was the largest on record. 
The details, compiled from reports from 
all of the producers, except one small 
concern, whose output we have estimated 
at 5000 tons, are given in the accompany- 
ing table. The deliveries for consump- 
tion were large, and the actual consump- 
tion was undoubtedly larger, the gal- 
vanizers having been heavily overbought 
at the beginning of 1910, and probably 
less so at the end. The stock at smelteries 
at the end of 1910 is estimated at about 
22.800 tons. Of the stock a considerable 
part was bonded spelter. Details of the 
stock cannot be discussed without dis- 
closing individual business. 

It is to be remarked that the decrease in 
deliveries does not necessarily imply de- 
crease in consumption. At the end of 
1909 manufacturers were notoriously 
overbought. We estimated actual con- 
sumption in 1909 at 261,600 tons, includ- 
ing the consumption of reclaimed spelter. 
If we estimate reclaimed spelter in 1910 
at 12.000 tons the deliveries become 270,- 
514 and actual consumption was probably 
in excess of that figure. 

The imports of zinc ore in 1910 were 
about 85,000 tons, against 116,269 in 
1909, as reported by the Bureau of Sta- 

tistics. The exports of zinc ore were 
about 19.000 tons, against 12,456 in 1909. 

(Ix Tows of 2000 Lb.) 

States. 1909. 1910. 

Colorado 6,116 6,352 

[llinois 75.229 mis; I 

Kansas-Missouri 111,808 112,533 

Oklahoma 28,840 34,762 

South and East 44,470 43,s<H> 

Totals 266,462 278,380 


(Ix Tons of 2000 Lb.) 

1909. 1910. 

Stock, Jan. 1 25,000 1 1 ,500 

Production 266,102 278,380 

Imports 9,670 3,380 

Total supply 301,132 293,260 

Exports 2,566 (a) 1 1 ,946 

Sto.k, Dec. 31 11,500 22,800 

Deliveries 287,066 258,514 

(a) Includes 4200 tons of domestic spelter, 
502'.) tons of spelter from ore smelted in bend, 
and 2717 tons of spelter in manufactured articles 
upon which drawback was claimed. 

The particular noteworthy features of 
the zinc industry of 1910 were the aban- 
donment of several works at Iola because 
of failure of gas, the critical position in 
this respect of a number of other works 
in Kansas, the adoption of petroleum as 
fuel at some of them, the inauguration of 

plans for several large works in Illinois, 
the discovery of calamine ore at Lead- 
ville, and the increase in the supply of 
ore from Butte and other Rocky Moun- 
tain points. The Joplin district made 
about the same output of ore as in 1909. 
Wisconsin and Oklahoma suffered de- 

The results of 1910 showed that the 
tariff on zinc ore has not benefited the 
miners, the prices of zinc and zinc ore 
having averaged no higher than formerly, 
while it harrassed the smelters. Thus, it 
has helped nobody and has hurt some 
persons. The year demonstrated further- 
more that a price of less than $40 per 
ton interferes seriously with the produc- 
tion of ore in the Joplin district. 

Toward the end of 1910 people awoke 
to the remarkable situation of the zinc 
industry in that the failure of the natural 
gas in Kansas was likely to result in a 
shortage of smelting capacity. Foui 
works at Iola have already been aband- 
oned and the remainder are not expected 
to do more than live through the winter, 
At several of the other Kansas smelting 
points the situation is critical. Several 
new works are to be built in Illinois, but 
their construction will be a matter of a 
year or two. 

American Spelter Market in 1910 

The year 1910 opened with a record 
production of zinc ore due to the stimulus 
created by the high prices which had been 
prevailing during the latter part of 1909. 
The plenitude of the supply of raw ma- 
terial resulted in exceptionally profitable 
margins for the smelting industry. In 
consequence every available furnace was 
operated at full blast, and the output of 
spelter had reached the highest rate in 
the history of the industry. Already in 
December, the weight of the heavy pro- 
duction began to make itself felt in the 
market, and when shortly after the open- 
the new year the galvanizing de- 
mand fell off, stocks of spelter quickly 
accumulated at the various zinc works. 
A% the smelter- found "no difficulty in re- 
placing current "-pelter contracts by new 
supplier of ore at profitable margins, a 

menl devi 

which brought about a decline in the - hort 
period of two month'-, from 6.05 tf/ 6.07 
at the beginning of January to 5.2! 
at tl. 
At tl 

i and suc- 

cessfully checked the decline. Buying 
from this source stimulated a more active 
inquiry on the part of consumers and a 
sharp rally took place, prices advancing 
by the middle of March to 5.57 ;/• <<> 5.62 y 2 . 
Fundamental conditions, however, had 
not changed, and as soon as the immedi- 
ate buying power had been exhausted, 
the market began to waver, but held at 
about 10c. below the highest point until 
toward the end of April. When the hoped 
for Spring revival in the galvanizing de- 
mand did not materialize, the decline was 
accelerated by the realization of specu- 
lative holdings, until the lowest prices of 
the year were reached about the begin- 
ning of May, quotations standing at that 
time at 4.85@4.90, St. Louis. At that 
level, corrective measures were automati- 
cally forced upon the industry through a 
contraction of the output of ore. particu- 
larly in the West at points where the high 
freight rates to the zinc smelters make 
the mining prohibitive except at a high 
spelter market. A larger .amount of the 
requirements of the smelters had to be 

drawn upon (mm Joplin, and the Smelting 

margins quickly began to dwindle, until i ; 
became for the smelters a case of swap- 
ping dollars. Prices backed and fillec 
within 15iw20c. from the lowest, level un- 
til the middle of August. 

By that time a number of the smelters 
in the gas belt of Kansas had largely re- 
stricted their production, which, due tc 
the failing supply of gas, had been car- 
ried on under great difficulties and large 
expense, justified only as long as the bij 
smelting margin offered a compensation 
Smelters became more reluctant in theii 
efforts to effect sales, and the pressure 
having been taken off the market, a slov 
but impressive advance raised prices t( 
about 5.40, St. Louis, at which figure the} 
luled practically unchanged until Nov. 1 

Coincident with the short-lived reviva 
in all markets, it began to be realized tha 
due to the failing supply of gas in the 
Kansas gas belt, there was no reserve ca 
parity to fall back upon in the event of at 
expansion in the demand, and in anticipa 
lion of such a contingency, the largcs 
buying movement of the year developed 
Btigma of having been silent partners o! 

January 7, 1911. 



unds to 5.85^/5.90 at the end of No- 
mber. The demand was only met to 
e extent of current output and stocks 
i hand, as the smelters expected a 
arcity of spelter during the winter 
rjnths. This put them in a vulnerable 
sition when it turned out that the gal- 
nizers, instead of requiring larger 
antities, were compelled to reduce their 
erations, and that the brass industry, 
lich had been flourishing throughout the 
ar. was also beginning to feel the effect. 
the general contraction. Prices dropped 
' as quickly as they had advanced, and 
i year ends with the market weak at 
i 5.32 : j . 

List of American Zinc Smelters Zinc Mining in Wisconsin 

in 1910 

The accompanying table is compiled 
from the latest available data, most of the 
figures entered in the table having been 
supplied by the respective companies: 

Of the above retorts, 11.104 are owned 
by smelters at Bartlesville, Okla., 25,524 
at Iola, Kan., and 21,248 at other places 
in Kansas. The furnaces of the United 
States Zinc Company at Pueblo, Colo., 
have Rhenish retorts. At all of the others 
the retorts are of the Belgian type. 

At the works of the Lanyon Zinc Com- 
pany at Iola, Kan., the last furnace was 


AT END OF 1910. 





merican Zinc, Lead and Smelting Co 

merican Zinc, Lead and Smelting Co 

Deering. Kan. 
Caney, Kan. 
Bartlesville, Okla. 
Pulaski. Va. 
Chanute. Kan. 
\ltoona. Kan. 
Bruce. Kan. 
< ;a- City, Kan. 
La Harpe. Kan. 
Nevada. Mo. 
CoUinsville, 111. 













K-kerill Zinc Co. (Beer, Sondheimer <S: Co. > . . 


>ckerill Zinc Co. (L. Vogelstein 6c Co.) 

K-kerill Zinc Co. ^L. Vogelstein & Co.) 






Cherry vale, Kan. 
Neodesha, Kan. 

4. MID 


Clarksburg, W. Va. 

Danville. 111. 
Peru, 111. 

Bartlesville. Okla. 
Iola-La Harpe. Kan. 
Lasalle. 111. 
Depue. 111. 
Bartlesville, Okla. 
Palmerton, Perm. 
Bethlehem. Perm. 
Pittsburg, Kan 
(la-. Kan. 













Sandoval, 111. 
Pueblo, Colo. 
Iola. Kan. 
Springfield, 111. 






95,21 ; 

While prices may recede further, de- 
nding upon the return of a normal bus- 
ess situation, an undue decline would 
obably be checked through the relative 
oximity of the export basis and an ex- 

New York. 

St. Louis. 














21 . 425 


bruarv. . . . 

" 5 

- ! 



23 , 1 88 


i . 757 



5 4-7 


23 031 




I .- 




6 134 

5. 191 

4. '.174 



22. loo 



5 128 

■ r > 252 



22 094 



5 152 

5 252 

i iKr_> 

•21 969 


- -• 


" ■" 

.". 129 


ptember . . 


5 . 364 





5 4 7- 

23 -Jin 


\ember.. . 

! 1 


23 188 

24 083 

cember. . . 


5 624 


5 474 



" .- ( . 

5 620 



23 050 

New York and St. Louis, cents per pound, 
ndon, pounds sterling per long ton. 

ptionally strong European position, 
oreover, the market is as yet not ham- 
Ted statistically. Available supplies do 
>t exceed what might be termed a safe 
id normal working stock. Since pro- 
ding new capacity in the coalfield will 
s a relatively slow process, the market 
in reasonably be judged as being sur- 
unded by conditions which will enable 
quickly to respond to favorable devel- 

closed down on Dec. 26. The three works 
will now remain closed indefinitely. The 
American Metal Company will surrender 
its lease of them. 

The United Zinc and Chemical Com- 
pany dismantled its Iola plant. At its 
Springfield plant it added one block of 
800 retorts, and is building two blocks 
comprising 1600 retorts. These will go 
into operation in January and February, 
1911. The Mineral Point Zinc Company 
increased its plant at Depue by one block 
of 600 retorts. The Bartlesville Zinc 
Company added two blocks, comprising 
1 152 retorts. 

Of the old coal smelteries, the Pitts- 
burg Zinc Company closed its plant early 
in 1911. and the Cockerill plant at Ne- 
vada. Mo., also was closed. On the other 
hand the works at CoUinsville, 111., long 
idle, were put once more into operation. 
The Cockerill Zinc Company went out of 
business in 1910, its Altoona works being 
taken over by Beer. Sondheimer & Co., 
and its Laharpe and Gas City works by 
L. Vogelstein & Co., the other plants be- 
coming idle. 

The tin production of Singkep in 1909- 
10 was 6560 Netherland Indies pikuls, 
seainst 6872 in 1908-9 and 6619 in 

By J. E. Kennedy* 

The net tonnage of zinc ore shipped to 
smelteries from the Wisconsin district in 
the first 11 months of 1910 was 55,927 
tons. Approximately 5000 tons were zinc 
carbonate; the remainder was zinc sul- 
phide assaying from 40 to 62 per cent, 
metallic zinc. The production in the 12 
months of 1909. computed from smelter 
receipts, was 69,000 tons. 

Record of Shipment and Prices 

The accompanying table shows the 
shipment by camps up to Dec. 3, of both 
crude and finished concentrates. The 
shrinkage in the net shipment is devel- 
oped at the roasting and separating 
plants. By the process of roasting and 
magnetic separation and also of electro- 
static separation, green concentrates as- 
saying from 10 to 40 per cent, zinc 
are converted into a product testing from 
50 to 62 per cent, metallic zinc. A loss 
exceeding 10 per cent, of zinc content 
is sustained, together with a shrinkage 
of 30 to 90 per cent, in the gross weight 
of raw concentrates as zinc ore. Part of 
the sulphur content goes off in the fumes 
and the residual iron to the dump pile 
in the case of the roaster at Cuba City, 
and the iron pyrites separated as a by- 
product in the case of the electrostatic 
separator at Platteville. The largest 
week's shipments in the period covered 
was 3136 tons of zinc concentrates, as 
sent from the mines direct to the smel- 
teries and to the separating plants, and 
2431 tons of medium- and high-grade 
product as shipped direct to the smelter- 
ies from the mines and from the separat- 
ing plants. 

The top price paid for zinc ore was 
S50 per ton. and the highest base price 
paid for 60 per cent, zinc was S49 per ton, 
recorded in January. The base price 
dropped as low as S38 per ton in Febru- 
ary, May and August, and was below S40 
per ton during eight weeks of the year. 

Field Developments and New Mills 

The zinc-producing area was extended 
to the southeast by the development of 
the Field, Drum, Little Minnie, Lucky 
Twelve and Winskill properties, which 
rank among the best producers in the 
district. Nine concentrators were rebuilt 
and constructed since Jan. 1. 1910. viz., 
the Drum, Little Minnie, Lucky Twelve 
and Schreier, at Benton; the Peaceful 
Valley at Cuba City; the Wallace at 
Highland; the Homestead and Cleveland- 
Klondike at Platteville, and the Unity, at 
Galena; six other concentrators were 
completed in 1910, the construction of 

►Platteville, Wis. 



January 7, 1911. 

which began in 1909. viz.. the Kohinoor 
and Dickson-Oettiker at Platteville; the 
Hinkle at Linden; the Little Four at 
Benton; the Hoosier at Galena, and the 
Kroll. at Highland. 

At Cuba City the Campbell Ore Sep- 
arating Company built a roasting and 
r.iagnetic-separating plant, employing 
some new methods whereby iron sulphide 
is reclaimed as a commercial byproduct. 

At Galena. 111., the Interstate Light and 
Power Company completed a central 
power station of 2500-kilowatt capacity 
and extended 100 miles of power lines to 
furnish electric power to mines through- 
out the southern part of the district. At 
Platteville. a Sutton. Steel & Steele dry- 
process plant was constructed. 


Net to Crude from 
Smelteries, Mines. 1 
Pounds. Pounds. 




Mineral Point 

12,334,800 12.675,500 

638,070 8,104,520 

1,648,912 7. 100.771' 

28,635,505 5,51 1,780 

134,790 2 572,000 

211,164 15,489,522 


812,800 5 738 990 


24,742,350 28,921,658 
9 051 123 12 687 973 

10,490 809 41 ill 285 

Hazel Green 

78,000 23,073,500 
1,486,300 2.531.840 


t ialena 

Council Hill 


607. SOO 


607. SI 10 

1S.17 1.S61 



Total to Dec. 3. 



Includes roasted ore from three mines 

Labor and Wages 

A total of 81 concentrating mills, 1 
roasters and one electrostatic separate 
were in operation at different periods j 
1910. Miners were in good demand 
all times except a few weeks during tl 
early spring, when a number of men le 
for the Black Hills, to work in the Horn 
stake and other mines in place of tl 
Western Federation miners who were ( 
strike. This exodus was due, largely, 
the fact that higher wages could be s 
cured. Drill runners generally recer 
S2.50 per day; helpers, $2.25 per da] 
hoistman, S2.50 to $2.75; shovelers ai 
trammers were paid S2 per day by d; 
wage and from $2 to $5 per day by co 
tract at 5 to 6c. per 1000-lb. can. 

The Joplin District in 1910 

By Jesse A. Zook * 

The year 1910 was ushered in amid fa- 
vorable conditions, which made it seem 
more than probable that a "record break- 
er" was in store. Spelter was above $6 
and weather conditions were such that 
there was little danger of declining prices 
being brought about by a big surplus 
piling up in the producers' bins. By the 
end of January spelter began to decline, 
gradually going downward until in Aug- 
ust it reached S4.90, making it certain 
that the expected record breaker would 
not materialize. 

The year began with the top price of 
zinc ore at $52 per ton. By the third 
wtek in February it had declined to 
$42.50. In March it climbed up to $49 
but settled back to $46 in April 
and remained there during the month. In 
May it declined to $42 and remained be- 
tween that and $44 until September. In 
November it reached $51. 

Lead prices showed more stability, be- 
ginning the year at $58 per ton, but grad- 
ually declining until in May the price was 
M8. In the first week of June $49 was 
paid and the price remained there until 
the third week in August when the price 
began to ascend and reached $58 in No- 
vember. The extremes in the lead ore 
market were $58 in January and $48 in 

It will be noted that the low price of 
the year for both zinc and lead was in 
May. and in that month mining became 
so unprofitable in the sheet-ground dis- 
trict from Oronogo to Duenweg that 
many of the operators closed their mines. 
Throughout the entire Joplin district. 
mines closed down until it was estimated 
that at least one-third of the mill 
rot operating. Many of them remained 


idle for three, four and five months; some 
are now preparing to resume operations. 
Despite the fact that at least a third of 
the mills of the district were out of com- 
mission the weekly shipments of zinc con- 
centrates were around 5500 tons. This 

conclusively proves that most of t 
mines that were idle added only a smi 
part to the weekly production of the di 

Some of the large operators in t 
Webb City sheet-ground district turn 


Zinc Ore (Short Tons). 

Lead Ore (Short Tons). 










Webb City-Carterville. 












































Jasper county ... 



















1 .650 














New ton county. . . 






1.1 13 







Stotl City 

Lawrence county.. 



1 1,993 











5 1 .". 


1 1 


1 15 




3 895 



( Cherokee county. 












:li 1 V 

Mm raj co inty 





1 5,169 

i ,601 









2 1 9 




.Joplin dl trict 






January 7, 191 1. 



their attention to soft-ground mining and 
secured leases in the Neck City camp, 
where there were some discoveries of ex- 
cellent orebodies. Table 1 shows what 
developments were made in that camp 
during 1910, with an increase of 6643 
tens of concentrates over 1909. The ore 
is of high grade, assaying 62 to 63.50 
per cent, zinc, and a production of 300 
to 400 tons is being made weekly. An- 
other new and rich territory is being 
opened up at what is known as Toms Sta- 



Zinc Ore, 

Lead Ore, 




Total Value. 








1 1,573.077 


















3 1.302 

1 1,487,350 





262,5 15 



































Totals . . 




tion, a few miles north of Joplin. Little 
has been added to the production from 
that section, but 1911 promises 
much ore from that territory. The Carl 
Junction camp made a nice gain through 
increased developments in that field. The 
new sheet-ground district west of Joplin 
showed considerable development; several 
new mills were built during the summer, 
but there was not a large increase in pro- 
duction. Jackson, southwest of Joplin, 
just over the line in Newton county, made 
big strides and showed a nice increase 

TRICT (12 Years). 

Zixc Ore. 

Lead Ore. 










1900 • 

852 . 00 
55 . 00 
53 . 50 

$40 . 42 
41 .08 

34 . 36 
44 88 
33 72 
30 . 33 
24 . 2 1 
26 . 50 


60 . 50 
66 . 00 

55 50 


62 00 
60 . 50 
50 . 00 

17 511 

56 . 50 
55 . 00 

$51 98 
51 56 
54 66 
62 12 
45 . 99 
51 .34 

over 1909. More new properties are com- 
ing in now in that field and the outlook is 
good for an increased production in 1911. 
Granby and Spurgeon, in Newton county, 
just about held their own. Aurora, in 
Lawrence county, had a greatly reduced 
production, amounting to 4443 tons, while 
Stott City in the same county shows a 
gain over 1909. Webb City and Carter- 
ville made a big increase during 1910, 
but that is on account of the ore from 
the Prosperity camp being included, while 
in 1909 it was listed as a separate camp. 

The same is true of Joplin and Zincite, 
as will be noted by the table. The Galena, 
Kan., camp took a new life in the last six 
months of 1910 and the camp gives prom- 
ise of returning to the high position it 
once held in the Joplin district. The 
Badger-Peaccck camp showed a big fall- 
ing off and there was little new develop- 
ment in that field. Miami, Quapaw and 
Peoria, in Oklahoma, all show a de- 
creased production. 

There was probably never a time in the 
history of the district when there was so 
much acreage leased for mining purposes 
as during the last six months. The 
principal points of leasing were at 
Carl Junction, Toms Station and Galena. 
The section lying northwest of Neck City, 
along North Fork, also showed much ac- 
tivity along this line. 

New Lead Smeltery 

One of the most important features of 
1910 was the building of another lead 
smeltery. Through the efforts of George 
W. Moore, former mayor of Webb City, a 
man who has been associated with dif- 
ferent zinc- and lead-smelting concerns 


TON, 1910. 







■\ ver- 


$52 . 00 
4-9 . 00 
16 . 50 
46 00 

$45 . 32 
39 47 
39 78 
39 . 35 
37 51 
43 . 10 
43 10 

$58 . 00 
56 . 00 
55. 01) 
50 . 00 
10 (III 
49 00 
49 oo 

51 00 
56 00 

56 00 
58 oo 

57 00 

S57 . 53 
53 . 63 


51 .58 



48, 15 



49 . 79 

5 1 70 

53 76 



54 . 62 
52 . 00 

$52 00 



$58 00 

60 50 

2 50 

51 OS 



54 . 50 



as buyer in this district for years, local 
and foreign capital was interested in 
building a lead smeltery, on the Guinn 
land north of Webb City, in the heart of 
the sheet-ground district. The plant was 
built along modern lines at a cost of 
$60,000, and is capable of handling 500 
tons of ore per week. Associated with 
Mr. Moore in the planning and specifica- 
tions of the plant were R. A. Farnham 
and J. B. O'Reilly, of Galena, Kan., both 
of whom have long been connected with 
the lead-smelting industry. The concern 
is known as the Webb City Smelting and 
Manufacturing Company. The plant is 
expected to begin operations in January, 

In November the United States Mint 
coined 954.250 gold pieces, value $15,- 
400,000; silver, 3,220,000 pieces, value 
$406,000; nickel and copper, 16,743,000 
pieces, value $381,030; total, 20,917,250 
pieces; value $16,187,030. In addition 
there were coined for the Philippines 
425,000 twenty-centavo pieces, and 200,- 
000 one-centavo pieces. 

Lead and Zinc Mining in 
Oklahoma in 1910 

By G. W. Bigham* 

Probably at no time since the discovery 
of lead and zinc in Oklahoma have the 
prospects for increased development been 
brighter than at the close of 1910. Sev- 
eral things aid in making the outlook 
promising. The fuel question is settled 
with thepiping of natural gas to the minv.s. 
Many of the plants already use it for 
fuel, while some have installed modern 
gas engines. A new railroad is about to 
be built connecting the mines with the 
smelteries at Bartlesville, Okla., making 
a short haul for the ore. 

The most important development, 
however, was the fact that the deeper run 
of ore found in the Miami camp 
proved better than was anticipated, al- 
though there is a great deal of water to 
pump. Three shafts are now in the ore 
on the 250-ft. level and three more will 
be down inside of 60 days, and it is the 
prediction of the experienced miners that 
the 250 to 300-ft. run of ore will prove 
the best in the district. 

The value of the lead and zinc sold 
from the Miami-Lincolnville camp be- 
tween Jan. 1, 1910, and Dec. 10, 1910, is 
$680,813. The Emma-Gordon Mining 
Company was the largest producer, yield- 
ing 6,282,990 lb. of zinc ore, valued at 
$69,739 and 1,386,650 lb. of lead ore, 
valued at $35,196. 

The Kansas Mining Company, operat- 
ing the smallest mill in tlie district, made 
an excellent showing. It produced 
2,422,080 lb. of zinc ore, valued at $41,- 
843, and 853,950 lb. of lead ore, valued 
at $23,029. This company took an option 
on the Neel-Freeman mine about two 
miles southwest of the camp and is to 
begin development work at once. 

During 1910 several tailing mills were 
installed to remill the tailings from the 
older mines, and in nearly every instance 
these mills proved a profitable under- 
taking. There were at the close of 1910 
about 35 mining plants in operation in 
the Miami-Lincolnville district. 

Canadian Asbestos 

The merging of most of the important 
asbestos properties in the Thetford- 
Broughton-Black Lake region, of Que- 
bec, into the Amalgamated Asbestos com- 
pany did not lessen operations in the dis- 
trict either of the merged or the inde- 
pendent companies. Many improvements 
were made in the Amalgamated proper- 
ties and much independent exploration 
•was carried on. The failure of the Amal- 
gamated company to completely finance 
its project had the effect of weakening 
its dominant relation to the industry. 

•Vice-president of Bigham Implement Com- 
pany. Miami, Okla. 



January 7, 191 1. 

The Iron and Steel Industry in 1910 

By Frederick Hobart 

As the record of 1909 was one of a 
recovery from panic and depression, 
which subsequent events have proved to 
be too rapid, so that of 1910 has been 
a story of slow decline and gradually 
growing depression. This, we believe, 
will be proved by events to come to have 
been as much exaggerated as was the 
eager anticipation of another boom a 
year ago. The year was marked by 
very large production and by a very large 
consumption. The latter, however, did not 
come up to expectations: large as it was 
— probably in excess of any previous 
year except 1907 — it did not quite equal 
the preparations made to supply it. The 
consequence was overproduction, and this 
was severely felt, especially toward the 
close of the year. Each year for many 
years the history of the iron trade has 
been the repetition of some past and per- 
haps forgotten year. In some respects, 
however. 1910 was exceptional; and it 
was so largely because the trade is now 
consolidated so largely in the hands of 
a few leaders, and most of them are so 
deeply impressed with their own power 
that they failed either to study the records 
of the past — or if they did. to interpret 
them rightly. 

Iron Ores 
The production and consumption of 
iron ore for two years past are estimated 
as in the accompanying table: 

1909. nun. 

170, 206 I. 

- 00,000 I. 

3.150.000 3,325.000 I. 




Total pro- 
dui ' 

Add ii: 

' 1.295.206 I. 1,208,337 
■ ill 2,670,000 : 


-'of, I. 2,181,926 


1 I. 255,068 

521,000 950,000 I. 129,000 



1,206 I- i .:■■ 
The production of ore was a little 
above that of 1909, although the anticipa- 
tions of a much greater output which 
entertained in the earlier part of the 
not realized, owing to the de- 
clining activity of the furnaces in the lat- 
er mo- ;r. The Lake Super- 
ior district, which supplies the raw ma- 
terial for Bl r cent, of our make 

of pig iror :ted helow. 

production, notwithstanding some draw- 
backs. ?nd ther ne additi- 
the producing 

dack ■■■ plain di 

large producers, and some new mines 
were opened, while arrangements were 
made to reopen some of the old mines in 
the Western Berkshire region. The New 
Jersey mines kept up their output, and 
the same can be said of the Lehigh Valley 
and Cornwall districts in Pennsylvania. 

In the table the increase in stocks is 
that visible only, including the increase 
on Lake docks and at a few other points. 
The stocks in furnace yards are not re- 
ported and it is almost impossible to es- 
timate them. It is probable that those 
stocks were rather lower at the close of 
1910 than at the opening of the year. 

the upper Lake docks, by ports; rail 
shipments for 1910 being estimated. 


1908 1909. 1910. 

Escanaba 3,351,502 5,748,042 4,959,869 

Marquette ... 1.487,487 2,909,578 3,248,930 

Ashland 2,513,670 3,834,286 4,093,822 

Two Harbors.. 5 702,237 9,181,132 8,271,169 

Superior 3,564,030 6,540,505 8,437,261 

DulUth 8,808,168 13,470,503 13,609,155 

Total by 

water. ... 25,427,094 41,683,599 42,620,206 
By rail 587,893 903,270 850,000 

Total 26,014,987 42,5S6,869 43.470,206 

The distribution by ranges in 1910 is 
not yet complete. Escanaba and Mar- 















11. oss 






197,95 i 

6.309.5 is 




























259 448 

1 638 795 






1 329 997 






an 414,491 






A beginning was made in the develop- 
ment of the iron ores of eastern Texas. 
Some mines are being opened and a rail- 
road is under construction to give them 
an outlet to a Gulf port. No commercial 
production was made in 1910, however, 
the onlv shipments being some small 
lots for testing at Eastern furnaces. 

Lake Superior Iron Ores — In the state- 
ment of the railroads the deliveries of 
iron ore to the Lake docks for the sea- 
son of 1910 are reported as below: 


Port and Road: Tons. Cent. 

Escanaba, Chi. & N. W. , .. 3,697,773 8.6 

Escanaba, Chi., Mil. a.- St. P. 1,262,096 3.0 
Marquette, L. Sup. & tsh- 

peming 1,865,724 1 .3 

Marquel te, Duluth, s. Shore 

& At .'.. 1,383,206 3 2 

Ashland, Chi. & N \\ 3,387,916 7 9 
id, Minn., Sault Ste. 

M. & \t 705,906 1.7 
. Duluth & [roil 

8,271,169 19 1 

Duluth. Dub. Missabe a \ 13,609,153 31 8 

Superior, Great Northern .. 8,437,261 19 8 

Total, Mich & Minn 42,620 


I 16,096 8 

12,786,300 100 

This shows an increase of 882. 363 
tons Over the railroad statement for the 
previous si 

The shipments and receipts of Lake 
Superior ore an. strictly kept at the docks 
and are carefully collected and compiled 
by the Iron Trade Rev it te. and from thai 
v.c take the following figures. 
The Rrsl table gives the shipments from 

quette are the shipping ports for the 
Marquette and the Menominee ranges: 
Ashland for the Gogebic. Two Harbors 
takes the ore from the Vermillion range 
and a part of the Mesabi; while the 
docks at Superior and Duluth are sup- 
plied entirely from the Mesabi range. 
The rail shipments come from all ranges; 
they go to Zenith furnace at Duluth, to 
the furnaces at Marquette, Gladstone, St. 
Ignace and other points in Michigan and 

The season shipments to furnaces from 
Lake Erie ports, to which about 80 
per cent, of the Lake ore goes, and from 
which it is distributed, were as shown in 
the second table. 

1909. 1910. 

Stocks on docks, May l... 8,441,533 5,444,080 
Rece pts for the season. . . 33,672,825 33,498,455 

Total 12,11 1.35s 38,942,535 

Shipments to furnaces.. . . 33,148,569 29. 515.651 

Dock stocks, Dec. 1 8,965,789 9,426,881 

In 1909 stocks on docks Dec. 1 were 
524,256 tons more than on May 1 ; in 
1910 the increase was 3,982,801 tons, al- 
though the December total increased 
only 161,092 tons. 

Tlie third table shows the season re- 
ceipts and the stock remaining on docks 
Dec. 1 for three years past, at the various 
Lake Hrie ports. 

Deliveries to Lake Michigan ports, 
which are fully reported in 1910 for the 
first time, were: South Chicago, 5,080,- 

January 7, 1911. 



79; Gary, 1,775,880; Indiana Harbor, 
37,172; Milwaukee, 121,446; minor 
arts for northern Michigan charcoal fur- 
aces, 186,907; total, 7,452,084 tons, 
dding this to the Lake Erie receipts 
lakes a total of 40,950,539 tons, leaving 
,669,667 tons, delivered to Lake Super- 
ir ports and to Canadian pons. 

The season prices of Lake Superior 
re on Lake Erie docks were as follows: 
essemer ore — base 55 per cent, iron 
nd under 0.45 phosphorus— S5 per long 
>n for Old Range and $4.75 for Mesabi; 
onbessemer ores — base 51.5 per cent, 
•on— S4.20 for Old Range and $4 for 
lesabi. There prices apply to not more 
lan 20 per cent, of the ore mined. The 
;st is from mines owned by the Steel 
lorporation and other large steel com- 
anies, and the price to them is a matter 
f bookkeeping, the real charge being 
le costs of mining and transportation. 
b the prices given above the cost of 
•ansportation from Lake docks must be 
dded to get the cost of the ore at fur- 
aces; this will run from 50c. to SI per 
m. according to the situation of the fur- 

Imports and Exports — In the latter part 
f 1909 some good contracts were made 
or delivery of foreign ore to Eastern 
urnaces. These were not all fully car- 
ied out, partly because the supplies were 
ot needed, and in some cases because 
tie ores did not come up to the standard 
xpected. Cuban ores imported go for 
tie most part to two or three large steel 
ompanies which control mines in the 
sland; though there is some surplus for 
ale to outside users. In the table the 
eceipts for December are estimated. For 
he 10 months for which we have full 
eturns the imports included 1,251,960 
ons from Cuba, 401,612 from Spain, 
:09,017 from Sweden, 140,040 from Can- 
da, and 216,859 from other countries — 
nuch of this from Newfoundland. The 
mports were the largest ever recorded 
n a year. 

Exports are chiefly of Lake Superior 
ire to Canadian furnaces. 

Pic Iron 

The production of pig iron was at its 
highest early in 1910, when the blast fur- 
laces were turning out iron at the rate of 
51,600,000 tons a year. Month by month, 
lowever, the rate fell off, especially dur- 
ng the last half of the year, and in De- 
:ember the make was at the rate of about 
51, 500 ,000 tons yearly. Notwithstanding 
his recession, the total reached the high- 
:st point ever reported. 

The following table shows the produc- 
ion by half years for three years past. 

1908. 1900. 1910. 

First half 6,918.004 11,022,346 15.012,392 

Second half .. . 9,018,014 14,773,125 12,283,200 

as are the totals for 1908 and 1909; for 
the second half they are estimated on 
the basis of the monthly reports of the 
capacity of the active furnaces. The 
figures are, in long tons: 

The increase of 3,990,046 tons in the 
first half of 1910 changed to a decrease 
of 2,489,925 in the second half; the total 
showing a gain over 1909 of 1,500,121 
tons, or 5.8 per cent. If we take the sec- 
ond half of 1909 and the first half of 
1910, we find that in the 12 months ended 
June 30, 1910, our furnaces made the 
great total of 29,785,517 tons— by far the 
greatest output ever recorded in 12 
months, being nearly 4,000,000 above the 
high record made in the calendar year 
1909. This total was still below the ca- 
pacity of the furnaces, which could, on 
demand, turn out oer 35,000,000 tons in a 

Assuming that the production of the 
second half of the year was approxi- 
mately on the same lines as that of the 
first half, the division of the output ac- 
cording to the uses for which the iron 
was intended was approximately as fol- 

1909. 1910. Changes. 
Foundry and 

forge 6,386,833 6.161.021D. 225,812 

Bessemer 10,557.370 11,482.948 1. 925,578 

Basic 8,250,225 9,007,200 I. 756,975 

Charcoal 376,003 403,898 1. 27,895 

Spiegel and 

ferro 225,040 240,525 1. 15,485 

Total 15,936,018 25,795,471 27,295,592 

For the first half of 1910 the figures are 
:hose collected and published by the 
American Iron and Steel Association — 

Total 25,795,471 27,295,592 I. 1,500,121 

It is probable that the final returns will 
make some changes in these figures; es- 
pecially in the quantity of basic iron. The 
production of pig iron in the United 
States for 10 years has been as follows, 
in .long tons: 

1901 15,878,35411906 25,307,391 

1902 17,821.307 1907 25,781,381 

1903 18,009,259 1908 15,936,018 

1904 16.497.003 1909 25,711,846 

1905 22,992,380 1910 27,295,592 

As compared with 1901, the gain last 
year was 11,417,238 tons, or 71.9 per 

An incident of the decline in business 
of the latter part of the year was a large 
and important increase in the stocks of 
unsold or unused iron held by makers. 
No returns of stocks are made, and it is 
possible only to estimate them. From the 
best data available it is believed that 
these stocks were about 400,000 tons at 
the beginning of 1910, and at the close of 
the year they had grown to about 2,100,- 
000 tons; an increase of 1,700,000 tons. 
Of these stocks probably less than 300,- 
000 tons were held by the steel compan- 
ies, which make iron for their own use, 
leaving 1,800,000 tons in the hands of the 
merchant furnaces. The merchant com- 
panies, which sell their iron in the form 
of pig. make about one-third of the iron 
produced, or 9,000,000 tons last year; so 
that they were carrying on Dec. 31 about 
one-fifth of their yearly production. This 
is a heavy burden and there is no wonder 
that it brought about low prices and a 
pressure to sell. Over 300,000 tons is 

held in the South, almost all of it being 
foundry iron; the remainder is divided 
into foundry, basic and forge, with some 
bessemer pig. The large steel companies 
had a surplus from their own furnaces, 
and bought very little bessemer iron from 
outside producers. 

To offset this, it is well known that 
stocks in consumers' yards are unusually 
small. The policy of buying for imme- 
diate use has been followed for months 
by both large and small users of pig iron; 
and probably there has been no time in 
recent years when the quantity in the 
yards of foundries and the smaller basic- 
steel makers has been so small. The 
consumers have been confident in their 
position, sure that they could get the iron 
when they needed it, and probably at 
lower prices; and they have transferred 
the burden of carrying stocks from their 
own shoulders to those of the makers. 

The curtailment in output in the last 
quarter of the year was much greater at 
the steel-works stacks than at the mer- 
chant furnaces. The steel companies ad- 
justed their make closely to current de- 
mands, while many of the merchant com- 
panies ran along in hope of a turn, natu- 
rally hesitating to incur the expense in- 
volved in blowing out a stack, unless it 
was forced upon them. They have waited 
long after the fact of overproduction had 
been impressed upon them. 

The consumption of pig iron in the 
United States in 1910 was approximately 
as follows, December exports and imports 
being estimated : 

Production for the year 27,295,592 

Imports 237,0(10 

Total supplies 27.532.592 

Exports 120,000 

Increase in stocks 1,700,000 

Total deductions 1,820,000 

Approximate consumption 25,712.592 

This consumption for the year was ap- 
proximately 639 lb. per capita; a decrease 
of 4 lb. as compared with the previous 

Steel Production 

There are no data on steel production 
during 1910 as yet available. Based on 
consumption of pig iron, however, the 
total steel output for the year may be 
roughly estimated at 24,750,000 tons, of 
which 9,650.000 tons were bessemer, 14,- 
950,000 tons open-hearth and 150,000 
crucible and special steels. For finished 
steel also no accurate figures are avail- 
able. The business in structural steel 
was large; there was also a heavy make 
of bars and plates, while the sales of 
pipe, wire, nails and other construction 
materials were large. In foundry trade 
cast-iron pipe was an important factor. 
During the second half of the year rail- 
road buying was light; but railroad or- 
ders no longer hold the predominating 
position in the trade which they once had. 

The United States Steel Corporation 



January 7, 1911. 

continued to be the most important fac- 
tor in the industry, making about 60 per 
cent, of the finished steel. In the decline 
of production in the last quarter of the 
year the independent companies probably 
reduced their output in smaller propor- 
tion than the Steel Corporation. 

Changes and Consolidations 
There were few important changes in 
1910 in the way of consolidations or the 
organization of new companies. There 
was talk of a general merger of Southern 
iron companies; but it finally resolved it- 
self into a consolidation of two smaller 
concerns, the Woodward Iron and the 
Birmingham Coal and Iron companies. 

In new works the chief additions made 
were at the Steel Corporation plants at 

Gard, Ind., and Birmingham, Ala. The 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company and the 
Bethlehem Steel Company also made ad- 
ditions to their plants. 

Labor conditions were generally quiet 
and while there were local disturbances, 
there were no important strikes. The 
Steel Corporation established a system of 
pensions for employees disabled by rea- 
son of old age or accidents. There were 
no reductions of importance in wages, and 
their level showed no great changes. 

Imports and Exports 
Iron and Steel — Exports and imports of 
iron and steel in the United States for 
the 1 1 months ended Nov. 30 are valued 
as below by the Bureau of Statistics of 
the Department of Commerce and Labor: 

1909. 1910. Changes 

Exports $142,005,148 $182,979,193 I. $40,366,1 

Imports 27,079,199 36,267,677 I. 9,188,4' 

Excess, exp. $115,525,949 $146,702,522 I. $31,176,5' 

The increase in exports was 27.5 pe 
cent. Rails and structural steel wei 
large items in this gain, as was also mi 
terial for the Panama Canal constructioi 
The increase in imports was 33.9 p« 
cent.; billets, heavy steel scrap and tit 
plates being large items. 

The exports of iron ore for the 1 
months were 453,443 tons in 1909, an 
038,578 in 1910; an increase of 185,1c 
tons. Imports of iron ore were 1,472 
348 tons in 1909, and 2,417,321 in 19K 
an increase of 944,973 tons. The oi 
movement is referred to elsewhere. 

Iron and Steel Markets in 19K 

By Frederick Hobart 

As a rule the existence of a large con- 
sumptive demand is the cause and occa- 
sion of active and rising markets. In 
1910 this rule was nullified by two 
causes. Consumption of iron and steel 
pioducts was large throughout the greater 
part of the year, though there was some 
falling off toward its close. Large as the 
demand was. however, it failed to reach 
the level of the great production which 
was started in the second half of the pre- 
ceding year. There was undoubtedly an 
overproduction, which resulted in an ac- 
cumulation of unsold stocks which acted 
as a depressing weight on the market, 
when its existence became generally 

recognized. This was especially the case 
with pig iron, where the blast furnaces 
continued to turn out metal in excess of 
the demand, and where curtailment in 
output was slow and irregular. In finished 
steel the adjustment of supply to demand 
was much closer, and sharp reductions 
were the rule during the third quarter of 
the year. 

The close adjustment of the steel trade 
to immediate demand is shown by the 
statement that at the close of the year 
the Steel Corporation was operating its 
mills at about 55 per cent, of their ca- 
pacity, and the leading independent con- 
cerns to between 60 and 65 per cent. This 

capacity is greater by 25 to 30 per cer 
than that of 1906-7; and there is litt 
doubt that the total actual consumptk 
of 1910 was but little behind that of tho: 
two boom years. Notwithstanding tl 
increase in pig-iron stocks, of which ! 
much has been said and written, the a] 
proximate consumption in 1910 as show 
elsewhere in this article, was 25,712, 0( 
tons, or 4000 tons more than in 1909. 
The conditions are well expressed 
the local reports which follow. These i 
elude Pittsburg and Birmingham, the tv 
chief primary markets; Chicago, tl 
chief distributing point in the West; at 
the local markets on the Seaboard. 

Pittsburg Iron and Steel Market! 

By B. E. V. Luty 

The year 1910 was one of almost con- 
tinual decline in production and prices. 
In the retrospect it is obvious that the 
movement in the second half of 1909, 
following the great break in prices, was 
tie. Prices during that period 
were advanced too rapidly, and buyers 
bought for forward delivery too freely. 
The two went together, for each burst of 
buying encouraged the mills to put up 
prices, and each advance in prices en- 
couraged buyers to contract for addition- 
al tr-nnat" 

At the beginning of 1910, however, this 

was not realized. There were those who 

•ice- to advance farther and 

demand to experience additional enlarge - 

• IV emer build Penn 

rnent. This, however, did not occur. In 
spots pig iron had weakened slightly in 
the two closing months of 1909, and 
before the following February was out 
noticeable declines had occurred. Fin- 
ished products soon began to follow suit. 
Wire products weakened slightly in Feb- 
ruary, and in April a well defined weak- 
ness appeared in plates and shapes. 
Some other commodities suffered occa- 
sional shading. 

It will probably never be known with 
certainty whether the actual ultimate 
consumption of the country decreased 
during the first half of HMO. It is true 
tl)-.- railroads sharply curtailed buying 
early in April, but that left large orders 
for bridge material, cars and locomotives 
still on books, and the actual consump- 

tion of steel in filling them hardly d 
creased before July 1 at the earlies 
In other directions there were no sigi 
of actual reduction in ultimate consum] 

The course of production, nevertheles 
was one of decline after February, th 
decline being rather rapid during Apt 
and May. There are good grounds fi 
concluding that the rate of actual ull 
mate consumption underwent some ii 
crease during the first half of 1910, ar 
that the decline in production simply re] 
resented the working off of contracts ar 
orders placed during the excitement i 
(he late months of 1909, the mi 
terial being largely put in stoc 
by jobbers, manufacturing consume 
and others. 

January 7, 1911. 



The position in midsummer was that 
A-hile the mills had accumulated no 
stocks, having regulated production to 
shipments, there were large stocks in 
)uyers' hands. The industry faced cur- 
ailment of output until these stocks 
;hould be worked off, whereupon an in- 
:rease in demand upon the mills could 
easonably be expected. The event was 
lot in conformance with these expecta- 
ions, for production and shipments were 

markable record, seeing that no calendar 
year had shown as much as 26,000,000 
tons, although 1906, 1907 and 1909 had 
all exceeded 25,000,000 tons. Output in 
the second half of 1910 was about 12,- 
300,000 tons, making 27,300,000 tons for 
the year. While this made a new record 
for a calendar year, the largest output 
for 12 consecutive months was slightly 
in excess of 29,800,000 tons, and was 
made from Aug. 1, 1909, to July 31, 1910. 


Pic, Iron. 





\ wi.s. 



No. 2 


Beams Plates. 


Sheet 9 
N'o. 28. 





is. .'7 


17 21 
It) 'J ) 


1 7 . 50 
1 7 . 02 
1 5 . 50 
1 5 . 2.-i 
1 4 . 65 
14 65 

45 . 55 
42. '.)."> 
4 1 . 20 
4 1 . 35 
40 45 


-'5 B5 

25 . 00 

_'.-, 00 
24 . 25 
23 65 
23 . 25 
23 00 


1 55 
1 . 55 
1 55 
1 . 50 
1 .45 
1 .40 
1 .40 


1 . ~>~> 
1 . 55 

i . :>:> 

1 . 54 
1 . 50 
1 .40 
1 . 38 


1 IS 

1 .45 

1 45 
1 .45 
1 . 45 
1 .43 
1 . 45 
1 40 


2 40 
2 40 
2 31 
2 25 
2. 15 
2. 18 
2 1 5 


1 .83 

1 80 


1 80 



1 80 







1 65 


1 60 


Year, 1909. 




1 5 . 83 


25 . 20 

24 . 58 








Prices of pig iron, ferromanganese and billets are per ton; of steel products, per pound; of nails 
>r keg of 100 lb. 

airly well maintained during the third 
uarter and then, when the country was 
radically bare of stocks of finished 
roducts, demand underwent a great de- 
rease, so that during the fourth quarter 
roduction was rapidly decreased. 

If our conception is true, actual con- 
umption of iron and steel increased dur- 
ig the late winter and early spring and 
as heavy during the summer, but ex- 
erienced a very sharp decrease in the 
losing months. 

The light railroad buying has been held 
irgely responsible for the slump in de- 
land. This cannot be proved, for the 
jnsumption of railroad material has 
een relatively light since 1907 and 
lere is no ground for inferring that the 
lilroads will ever again take nearly as 
irge a percentage of the total iron and 
eel output of the country as they did in 
le years 1905-6-7. Railroad purchases, 
jch as they might have been, were 
rgely held up after April 1 on account 
f the refusal of the Interstate Com- 
erce Commission to allow advances in 
eight rates, at least without exhaustive 

ebruary Pic-iron Production at Rate 
of 31.600,000 Tons Per Annum 

Production in pig iron reached a rate 
i 31.600,000 tons per year in February, 
MO, this being the high point in all his- 
ry. The average rate from Oct. 1, 
K)9, to April 1, 1910, was 31,000,000 
ns, and the actual output in the twelve- 
onth ended Tune 30, 1910, was very 
ose to 30,000,000 tons. This was a re- 

At the close of the year pig iron was 
being made at the rate of between 21,- 
000,000 and 22,000,000 tons annually. 

The steel works, which make about 
two-thirds of the total pig iron, regulat- 
ed their output closely to their require- 
ments, and did not accumulate pig iron, 
unfinished steel or finished steel. The 
merchant furnaces, which made about 
one-third of the total pig iron, or in the 
neighborhood of 9,000,000 tons, probably 
accumulated over 1,000,000 tons, thus 
practically doubling their stocks, enter- 
ing the new year with stocks amounting 
to more than three months' run at the 
reduced output. 

Finished-steel prices declined irregu- 
larly, but rather steadily, during the first 
seven months of the year, but after Aug. 
1 suffered little if any decline. It was 
not generally understood that a "con- 
trolled market" was reestablished about 
that time, but such must have been the 
case. At the close of the year it was 
patent that a "controlled market" was 
in existence, and no effort was made to 
deny it. 

Monthly prices of leading products at 
Pittsburg are shown in the accompanying 
table. The price of bessemer-steel rails 
has not changed since the advance from 
S26 to $28 in the spring of 1901; but in 
opening order books for 1911 the rail 
mills changed the basis to 1.25c. per lb., 
which is the exact equivalent of S28 per 
gross ton. As specifications have been 
made more and more rigid, the quality of 
rails has been improved in the past few 
years, which is held equivalent to a slight 
reduction on the base price. 

The Alabama Iron Market 

By L. W. Friedman 

The year just closed showed a larger 
production of pig iron, so far as Alabama 
is concerned and perhaps the entire 
South, than any twelvemonth heretofore. 
The year, though, has not been as pros- 
perous as former years; in fact the aver- 
age has not even been fair. There will 
be found on furnace and warrant yards 
the first of the new year, when inven- 
tories are completed, more than 300,000 
tons of pig iron. The quotations for 
the product during 1910 have not been 
high, $12.50^/13 per ton, No. 2 foundry, 
being a maximum, while a quantity of 
iron was sold on a basis of SlO.lS^iW 
per ton, No. 2 foundry. 

The production of pig iron in Alabama 
during 1909 amounted to 1,763,617 long 
tons. For the year 1910 it was 1,918,000 
tons, showing an increase of 154,383 

Steel operations during 1910 in the 
Southern territory were better than dur- 
ing the previous year. The plant of the 
Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Com- 
pany at Ensley had a fairly good year, 
though the demand for rails fell off 
toward the latter part of the year. Im- 
provements were made at the rolling 
mills of the company at Bessemer, which 
permit the make of a larger quantity 
of steel; plates, bars and angles were 
in good demand. 

All things considered, the Southern 
Iron and Steel Company did fairly well 
during 1910. The new rod, wire 
and nail mills, after they were started 
up, increased their make right along, 
the steel plant adjoining being kept in 
operation throughout the better part of 
the year. 

Southern cast-iron pipe plants melted 
a larger amount of pig iron than ever 
before in a twelvemonth. While the 
profits were not large, there was a steady 
operation and a large consumption of 
iron. Foundries and machine shops did 
fairly well only during 1910. The home 
consumption, in other words, was not bad, 
though not altogether up to expectations. 

The Seaboard Iron Markets 

Special Correspondence 

The seaboard markets include Philadel- 
phia, which is also to some extent a pri- 
mary market for a considerable district in 
eastern Pennsylvania; and New York, 
which supplies an active consuming dis- 
trict in New York State and New Eng- 
land. In raw iron and half-finished ma- 
terial the Seaboard is a large consumer 
of foundry iron, taking also forge and 
some basic, but little bessemer pig. It is 
a buyer of steel billets, of bars and plates 



January 7,- 1911. 

and an important market for structural 
material. An important part of the struct- 


Dec. l».». 






X foundry. 

Phila., ton 


$15 50 


$3 . 50 

No. I' Soul hern. 

N '> .. ton 

is 75 

15 .">0 


Basic. Phiia.. ton . 

1 1 75 



Open-hearth, sea- 

board, ton 


24 50 



Finished iron 

and - 

Refined iron bars. 

tidewater, lb . . . 


1 35c. 


. 0.30c. 

!>ar<, tide- 

water. Hi 


1 .56c. 


0. 10c. 

Tank plates, tide- 

water, lb 


1 56c. 


0. 15c. 

- and angles, 

' ater. lb . . 

l 71c. 



0. 15c. 

nails, title- 

water, keg 



$0. 15 

Old Material: 

Old iron rails. 

Phila.. ton 


sir. oo 


$3 50 

Old rar wheels. 

Phila.. ton 




4 . 50 


Phila.. ton 




4 . 50 

ural business, however, is done through 
the large contracting and fabricating com- 
panies, which buy their rolled steel rather 
in Pittsburg than in New York or Phila- 
delphia. An important part of the trade 
i:i finished material is done through the 
large jobbing houses. 

Pig Iron — The opening of the year 
found consumers of pig iron pretty well 
stocked up through the heavy buying of 
October and November. After a quiet 
January business revived, and takings, 
of both foundry and basic, continued on a 
fair scale well through the first half of 
the year. In midsummer buyers began to 
be impressed with the belief that the 
merchant furnaces had been running on a 
higher scale than was warranted by the 
demand. Color was lent to this be- 
lief by some pressure to sell, es- 
pecially from Southern makers, and 
the general opinion found expression 
in limited buying, based upon immediate 
needs. This was further helped by the 
financial conditions, the continued de- 
clines on the stock exchanges and the 
limitations on accommodations by many 
of the banks. There was some doubt, 
also, as to crop conditions; but the re- 
moval of this doubt later made little dif- 
ference in the character of the buying. 
Except in a few short periods of panic 
and general depression, there have been 
few — if any — times when the stocks of 
pig iron carried in consumers' yards were 
so small as in the fourth quarter of 1910. 
The result was a gradual and continuous 
fall in prices of pig iron. 

The accompanying table shows the 
prices of leading grades of pig iron and 

of finished iron and steel at tidewater 
the close of 1909 and 1910, with t 
changes during the year. 

Finished Material — Throughout t 
year structural steel was the leader in t 
market. Not only were many large buil 
ing projects forward in the larger citi 
throughout the East, but there was 
steady growth — as in several years past 
in the use of steel beams in the constru 
tion of smaller buildings. This is pan 
the result of stricter building and fi 
laws, and partly of the increasing cost 
lumber, especially of the heavier beai 
used in the lower stories. Another sour 
of building demand is found in the use 
concrete structures, and this has increas 
so much that several of the larger coi 
panies have installed special mills i 
rolling the forms of bars used in rei 
forcing concrete. 

The course of the market in finish 
products has been generally downwai 
though the decline was not so great 
proportion as in pig iron. Moreover it 
to be noted that during the last quarl 
the market was controlled — at first quii 
Iy, then openly. It is also to be noted tl 
during December the larger fabricati 
companies in the East have been biddi 
for contracts at prices which involve 
considerable further reduction in pric 
of steel. 

The Chicago Iron Market 

By E. Morrison 

Tith a record of gradually lowering 
prices from its beginning to its end, the 
year 1910 was a disappointment to those 
optimists who looked for a maintenance 
of the conditions that existed at the close 
of 1909. The volume of iron sold, how- 
ever, was large and the year was un- 
marked by any violent disturbance of 
business. Overproduction, or a belief in 
it. accounted for the lowering of prices 
as the year advanced and for the re- 
luctance of consumers to contract for 
much iron on the old plan of buying six 
to eight months ahead. Believing that 
there had plainly been overproduction, 
the melter concluded to go slowly and 
for the greater part of the year he 
bought not more than three months 
ahead. This condition was aided by fur- 
nace agents, who refused to accept cur- 
rent prices for deliveries far ahead, on 
the theory that the market was bound 
to turn in their favor. 

rd of the year 
is peculiar. In previi the heavy 

buying of one or a few large interests, 
''*• point in prices, turned the mar- 
ket upward. The few largi 

:• in 1910, did 
nothirv art In other words the 

average buyer of foundry iron, on whose 
needs the Chicago market chiefly de- 
pends, refused to be led into plunging 
by these examples. Seeing more iron 
ahead than the furnaces could easily 
dispose of, he held off from purchasing, 
with the result that he got lower and 
lower prices. 

January opened with Northern No. 2 
iron selling at S 1 9 r " ' 19.50 and Southern 
at S18.35fr/ 18.85 ($14@14.50, Birming- 
ham).. Sales of pig iron were light, in 
striking contrast to the large sales of 
railroad and structural materials and 
other finished goods. The few buyers of 
pig iron were contracting for deliveries in 
the second half of the year. In February 
finished materials sold heavily with 
something of a struggle among buyers 
for the available stocks. In March sales 
ol pi« iron became so small that North- 
ern and Southern sank 75c/" SI from 
the January quotations. 

The situation was better for the local 

Northern furnaces than any other among 

ilers, for in March they were well 

sold up for the first half and the Southern 

I had much iron to dispose of. 

As the weekfl went on there came Fur- 
Ions. Northern reached $17 

ir May, $16.50 in July and $16 in Oct 
ber. At the last -named quotation 
stayed until the end of the year. Sout 
crn's decline was more rapid. It fell 
$16.85 by the end of March, $15.85 
June 1, and $15.35 early in Augu 
continuing at this point until Decembe 
when sales were made at 25c. less. 

The highest prices of both Northe 
and Southern occurred thus in Janua 
and the lowest in December. Late 
May about 60,000 tons was sold in lar 
lots and in June there were further sale 
some of 10,000 to 15,000 tons each. T 
average buyer kept to his policy of bu 
ing a few hundred tons for early delivei 
Inquiries became numerous, however, f 
first-quarter needs of 1911. The fu 
naces refused to take offers of $11.5 
Birmingham, on such deliveries. Quot 
tions, as they gave them (and as th< 
are generally given in this review), pe 
tained to deliveries not more than thn 
to four months ahead. The furnac 
weakened from this position by July, b 
by that time the melter had become le 
inclined to buy, for the drift of the ma 
\ el was plainly in his favor. 

By the middle of August nearly a 
melters had covered their requiremen 

January 7, 1911. 



or 1910 and inquiry about 1911 deliveries 
ecame active again. Late in the month 
0,000 to 50,000 tons were sold to a lead- 
ig plow factory for first-half require- 
lents. This also caused many other 
nquiries about large tonnage but few 
ales. In October and November other 
arge sales were made, but they were 
solated cases. November developed a 
arge tonnage record, but this was due 
lmost wholly to a large accumulation 
f small sales. Neither seller nor buyer 
ared, up to the close of the year, to 
ontract for second-quarter or first-half 
eeds on terms satisfactory to the other 
arty. The last half of the year found 

waiting spirit expressed constantly by 
oth buyer and seller. 

Highest and lowest prices for the year, 
ompared with similar figures for 1909, 
re given in the accompanying table: 

Sales of iron and steel products were 
large throughout the early part of 1910 
and continued large in some lines, 





est . 

est . 

est . 

Lake Superior 

Northern No. 2 

Southern No. 2 

Bar iron 

♦Structural ma- 



1 6 li 

1 78c 



1 . 30c 

1 . 10c 

$20 . 00 


1 . 65c 

1 . 88c 



15. 10 
1 35c 

1 58c 

* Beams and channels, A in. to 15 in., and 
angles, 3 in. to 6 x ', in. or heavier. 

though not the leading ones, until the 
close of the year. The failure of the 
railroads to purchase largely is held to 

by some observers of the market to have 
caused the steady decline in prices. 
Structural materials sold heavily through- 
out the year and at the close many build- 
ings requiring large tonnage were pro- 
jected. The price of structural material 
at the beginning of the year was 1.780/ 
1.88c; in July it became 1.580/ 1.63c, 
which continued until the close of the 
year. Bar iron sold in January for 
1.780/ 1.88c, dropping to 1.73@l,78c. 
in March, 1. 50 0/ 1.60c in April, 1.45 
@ 1.50c. in June and to its low record for 
the year, 1.350/ 1.40c, in October, this 
last quotation continuing into December. 
Lake Superior charcoal iron had a 
slighter though steady decline, bringing 
$19.50^/20 in January, $190/19.50 in 
March, $18.500/ 19 in May and $18@18.50 
from the middle of October to the end 
of the year. 

The Lake Superior Iron Country 

By Dwight E. Woodbridge * 

The year 1910 was an unfortunate 
ne for Lake Superior iron-ore miners, 
^hen they made their plans for develop- 
ient and exploitation preparatory to the 
hipping season of 1910, affairs in iron 
nd steel were booming and their sales 
I'ere large, their prices were good and 
teither buyer nor seller was insisting too 
losely on penalties nor expecting to en- 
orce them. Before the season of navi- 
;ation had opened there was a change, 
he slump had come, and buyers were 
ooking for opportunities to abrogate 
heir ore contracts, providing they could 
tot secure postponements in deliveries 
or a year or more. 

All this made a new set of conditions 
or those who had planned stripping and 
ither development on the basis of what 
ales they supposed they had closed, and 
he difficulties of financing such improve- 
tients were serious. Independent mining 
ompanies were especially affected. 
Tiese people see no probability of im- 
irovement during 1911. Shipments of 
he year were large — slightly in excess 
if those for 1909, while furnaces were 
unning under check for most of the sea- 
ion, and ended the year with a decided 
Irop in active melting capacity. Nearly all 
he independent furnaces are loaded up 
vith more ore than ever before at the 
lose of navigation, more not only actual- 
y but relatively to the annual consump- 
ion. It is generally understood that 
he United States Steel Corporation will 
nake shipments during next year 
tbout the same in volume as in 1910, 
hough no definite statements have been 
nade, or can be for some time to come. 

♦Mining engineer, Dulurh, Minn. 

New Developments 
Developments of the year have been 
marked by the usual changes and better- 
ments. Exploration on the Cuyuna range 
has continued on a very considerable 
scale; a new district is being shown in 
the Marquette region; exploration on the 
Vermillion range has taken a new lease 
of life and is progressing under heavy 
expense and at many points; the Steel 
Corporation, that some time ago took 
over practically all the ore-bearing for- 
mation in the Baraboo district of south- 
ern Wisconsin, has spent a large sum 
there and is carrying on extensive opera- 
tions; the great ore-beneficiating works 
of the Oliver company, at Coleraine, have 
started extensive and successful opera- 
tions; various mechanical refinements 
looking toward the shipment of a higher- 
grade product are being considered ser- 
iously by many companies, and mining 
methods show the gradual change for the 
better. That has continued for a long time. 

Cuyuna Range 

Throughout the year many drills were 
working on the Cuyuna. While some 
ore was shown it is incontrovertible that 
results have not been as great as expect- 
ed. Some well known mine operators of 
the region go so far as to say there 
was no ore found during the year that 
could be sold in the market. While 
this is probably an exaggeration, the fact 
remains that the amount of merchantable 
ore so far found, aside from what is be- 
ing opened by the Roeers-Brown Ore 
Company, is quite disappointing. To be 
sure, some sales of properties have been 
made, at good figures and at minimums, 
indicating the belief in a large tonnage, 

but it is one thing to explore a piece 
of land for the seller, and quite another 
to check it by other series of holes, from 
the standpoint of the buyer, both parties 
being all the time honest and fair in their 
procedure. Probably no Lake Superior 
ore can be sold today that is not guar- 
anteed at 50 per cent, natural iron and 
low phosphorus, and this 50 per cent, 
natural will mean about 56 per cent, iron 
dried at 212 deg. There may be a mine 
or two of that class of ore on the Cuy- 
una, but if more I do not know of them. 
When one recollects that drilling opera- 
tions have been continual there for the 
past six or eight years, with as high as 
100 drills busy at times, the results ap- 
pear rather meager. The territory that is 
found to show an attraction by dip- 
needle work is continually increasing, 
and there may be important finds outside 
of that area already partially drilled, while 
there is abundant room within the ex- 
plored region for more mines of large 
tonnage. Doubtless explorations will 
continue there for years, and it will not 
be possible to attempt for a long time 
any definite statement as to tonnage on 
the range. Holes have shown ore as- 
saying as high as 68 per cent, iron and 
down to 0.12 phosphorus, which is ex- 
ceptionally good, but the total tonnage of 
such ore is very slight. 

Marquette Range 

In the Negaunee district and elsewhere 
on the Marquette range, explorations 
were attended with good results, and the 
development of mines found in the past 
two or three years by drill operation has 
proceeded steadily. It is safe to say that 
never in its history was there so great a 

. ; : 


January 7, 1911. 

tonnage as now developed on that range, 
nor were the prospects for a still greater 
addition so bright. The old Volunteer, 
long bandied about as of no value, is now 
a bessemer mine, with more than a mil- 
lion tons in sight. It is all an interesting 
commentary on the strength and per- 
sistence of orebodies in a field whose 
geological characteristics are deep- 
seated, permanent and healthy. 

Vermillion Range 

Subsequent to and consequent upon the 
successful outcome of work at Section 30, 
Vermillion range, exploration in that dis- 
trict received a tremendous impetus. Per- 
haps in no pan of the Lake Superior region 
is exploration so costly or so difficult, 
and nowhere is the use of the diamond 
drill less to be recommended. For these 
reasons progress has been slow, and I 
doubt if any company operating there is 
able to state definitely that it has a mine. 
One concern claims to have developed a 
very considerable tonnage of gold-bear- 
ing porphyry that assays from $1 to $80 
per ton, but parties unconnected with this 
company have little positive information 
as to its results. It is improbable that 
all, or the major share, of companies now 
drilling and sinking on that range will 
find mines, but it seems reasonable to 
expect that properties of value may be 
developed there as the result of the pres- 
ent campaign. Much of the work has 
been conducted with a disregard for geo- 
logical indications that is startling and 
almost unthinkable, but this criticism 
may be made of work in any mining field. 

The Baraboo Range 

Hundreds of thousands of dollars have 
been expended during the year in the 
Baraboo region, by the Oliver Iron Min- 
ing Company, and the tonnage of medium 
nonbessemer ore there, suitable for use in 
furnaces belonging to interests associated 
with the mines themselves, has been ma- 
terially increased. 

The Mesabi Region 

Work of the year in the Mesabi region 
has been unproductive of good ore, and 
what has been found is mostly in small 
deposits. The so called "Hill deal," made 
between the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion and the Great Northern Railway, in 
has been unsatisfactory to the les- 
see company, so far as known, in that the 
tonnage developed in addition to that 
shown prior to the execution of the lease 
than anticipated. Royalty rates on 
this ore. for the base of 56 per cent. iron, 
will be 98.0c. a ton in 191 1, and the mini- 
mum tonnage that the Steel Corporation 
will be compelled to turn over to the 
Great Northern road will amount to 3,« 
750,000 tons this year. (,500,000 tons in 
1012. In order to deliver so much to the 
road the Oliver Iron Mining Company has 
been busy opening and developing mines 
or Hill lands, and now ral of 

them already shipping or about ready for 
the coming season of navigation. In order 
to care for the ore from other mines with 
which it has hauling contracts and this 
Oliver ore, the Great Northern will add 
to its dock and track facilities during the 

The above brief and cursory summary 
of exploratory and development opera- 
tions on the various ranges about Lake 
Superior indicates that new discoveries of 
merchantable ore have been trifling in the 
past year, perhaps less than in any cor- 
responding period since the discovery of 
the Mesabi range in 1890. 

Concentrating Ores 

Successful inauguration of washing 
sandy west Mesabi ores by the Oliver 
Iron Mining Company at Coleraine in the 
great works erected there last year, began 
in the spring of 1910. This result, while 
fully expected, was most gratifying to 
those who had made an expenditure of 
millions in preliminary development and 
ore-land purchases. It has called atten- 
tion of other consumers to the benefits to 
be derived from the use of beneficiated 
ores from the Mesabi, and several inde- 
pendent concerns are now making esti- 
mates of washeries for eliminating free 
sand and of drying works for driving off 
excess moisture in these ores, prior to 
their shipment from mines. But however 
interesting these experiments may be, and 
how well they may show on paper, it is 
a fairly safe bet that no independent com- 
pany operating on the Mesabi will actu- 
ally install such works. In the first place 
the tonnage of washable ore held by any 
company aside from the Oliver is too small 
to permit the expense of suitable plants 
at available locations; and in the second 
the cost of drying Mesabi ores, together 
with the expense of arrangements that 
must be provided for protecting dried 
ores in transportation, will be found pro- 

Mining Improvements 

The concrete shaft is an uptodate 
equipment of a permanent character that 
was not considered necessary in the earl- 
ier days, but for two or three years it 
has found favor, and in 1910 the Founda- 
tion Company sunk no less than 10 of 
these shafts. One of them, at the Morton 
mine, near Hibbing, is circular, 21 ft. in- 
side diameter, with walls of reinforced 
concrete 4 ft. thick, and was bottomed on 
a ledge at the depth of 185 ft., making it 
by far the most pretentious job of the 
sort ever carried out in the Lake country. 
Similar though smaller, shafts have been 
sunk during the year at the Scranton, 
Woodbridge and Marble mines on the 
Mesabi, the North American on the Ver- 
million, two mines on the Cuyuna and 
several in the Menominee and Marquette 
districts. At the Biwabik mine, Mesabi 
range, there is a large amount of very 
hard ore, high in iron and phosphorus. 

that has been left along the north wall of 
the deposit, as it could not be handled by 
shovels and would not be taken by fur- 
naces in its original condition. What is 
said to be the largest ore crusher in ex- 
istence, a gyratory of 500 tons per hour 
capacity, is now being installed at the 
mine for reducing this to convenient 
shipping size. 

Grading Ores 

Grades of Lake ore shipped show a 
continued tendency toward reduction of 
iron content. This is due in part to the 
increasing proportion of total tonnage 
mined by furnace concerns, in part to an 
earlier policy that took the high grades, 
in part to the fact that newer mines are 
not so rich in iron as the early discover- 
ies. One does not necessarily criticize 
them by stating that early miners took 
high grade; the necessity- of securing a 
market for Mesabis, financial require- 
ments that compelled operators to earn 
the money with which to pay for mines 
out of the mines themselves, and at once, 
and the pressure from furnaces, all com- 
bined to force a sort of robbery of high 
grade that is not now much in vogue. 


As I said before, indications are for a 
slight diminution of product from Lake 
Superior this year. With 25,000,000 tc 
30,000,000 tons of ore on docks and in 
furnace yards at the close of the year 
and with active capacity at low ebb and 
no expectation of immediate betterment ir 
the situation, 1911 might be well toward 
its end before newly mined ore would be 
required by the furnaces. But the wise 
policy of maintaining large reserves, oi 
carrying forward organizations and keep- 
ing men and equipment employed, wil 
doubtless make of 1911 an average year 
It is expected that United States Stee 
Corporation mines on all ranges . wil 
maintain their production about as dur- 
ing the past season; at any rate there is 
so far no sign of curtailment. Naturally 
ore-carrying roads are not materially in- 
creasing facilities, for they were all pre 
pared, at the beginning of navigation las 
year, to handle a tonnage much greatei 
than they were given. The Duluth, Mis 
sabe & Northern is now equipped for the 
delivery at Duluth in a season of naviga 
tion of 16,000,000 tons of ore; in 1910 i 
moved 13,600,000 tons. Aside from some 
double tracking, etc., for the Great North 
em and some additional rolling stock anc 
a steel shipping pier to replace a worn 
out wooden dock for the Duluth & Iroi 
Range road, railway betterments for the 
ore trade are exceedingly slight. The 
same is true of ore ships; with a capacit) 
afloat that can move with ease 50,000,00( 
tons in the season, new contracts at Lake 
yards are trifling, and only for mining 
companies whose policy is to gradually 
equip themselves to handle all theirs ir 
their own ships. 

January 7, 1911. 



Chronology of Mining for 1910 

In the following summary, important 
events are recorded under date of hap- 
pening so far as known; but in some 
cases the dates represent the time of 
publicity rather than of occurrence: 


Jan. 1 — Floods destroyed 100 miles of 
the Salt Lake-Los Angeles railroad in 
Nevada, greatly impeding mining. 

Jan. 8 — Fire destroyed warehouses and 
stores of Dolores company at Madera, 
Chih., Mexico. Loss, $100,000. 

Jan. 13 — Pearl Consolidated mine, 
Idaho, sold to J. H. Harper of Spokane, 
Wash., for $225,000. 

j an . 14— Payment in full of 500,000 
pesos made by Marcus Daly estate for 
Cinco Minas property in Jalisco, Mexico. 

Jan. 15 — Homestake mine resumed par- 
tial operations with nonunion men, the 
principal mines of district adopting card 

Jan. 23 — Mill of Wasp mine at Lead, 
S. D., burned. Loss, $97,000. 

Jan. 26— Payment of 9,000,000 pesos 
made by the Camp Bird, Ltd., of London, 
for the Santa Gertrudis mine in Hidalgo. 

Jan. 2G — E. A. Wall's injunction 
against Utah Copper Company dissolved 
and absorption of Boston Consolidated 
by Utah Copper Company consummated. 

Jan. 29 — A fire damaged the shaft of 
the Goldfield Consolidated at Goldfield, 
Nev., to the extent of $60,000. 

Jan. 31 — Explosion in coal mine at 
Primero, Colo., results in large loss of 
life. — Directors of Nevada Consolidated 
Copper Company vote to submit pro- 
posed merger with Utah Copper Com- 
pany to a vote of the stockholders. 


Feb. 1 — Explosion in Browder mine of 
Elk Valley Coal Company near Drakes- 
boro, Ky.; 34 killed. — Fire destroyed tip- 
ple and shaft buildings at Scholl Broth- 
ers' mine near Bartonville, 111. 

Feb. 2 — Explosion at Palau mine, Las 
Esperanzas, Coah., Mex.; 68 killed. 

Feb. 5 — Explosion at Ernest No. 2 
mine of the Jefferson & Clearfield Coal 
and Iron Company at Indiana, Penn.; 11 

Feb. 7 — Property of Cockerill Zinc 
Company passes imo charge of its bond- 

Feb. 8 — Explosion in the mine of the 
Stearns Coal Company, Stearns, Ky. 

Feb. 17 — Strike of the engineers' union 
at Butte, Montana. 

Feb. 25 — Arguments in the Trust suit 
against the anthracite-coal-carrying com- 

panies were closed in the U. S. Circuit 
Court in Philadelphia, and the court took 
the case under advisement. 

Feb. 26 — Ina'an tariff increase on sil- 
ver from 5 per cent, to four annas per 
oz. (about 16 per cent.) announced. 

Feb. 27-28 — Avalanches at Mace and 
Burke, Ida., caused large loss of life. 


March 1— Judgment of $2,464,660 en- 
tered against Lanyon Zinc Company and 
an order of foreclosure granted to Trust 
Company of America, the trustee for the 

March 2 — Explosion of powder maga- 
zine in Alaska-Mexican mine, Treadwell, 
Alaska; 37 killed. — Homestake mine, 
South Dakota, announced full resump- 
tion after strike of Nov. 23, 1909. — 
Floods in Nevada stopped railroad traffic 
and interfered with ore movement. 

March 4 — Skookum camp, 20 miles 
north of Roslyn, Wash., wiped out by 

March 6 — Fire destroyed No. 1 bunker 
of the Nay Aug Coal Company, near 
Scranton, Penn.; loss $60,000. 

March 7 — Strike of engineers in Butte 
(Mont.) mines ended. 

March 12 — Seven miners killed by gas 
explosion in No. 3 shaft of the Lehigh 
& Wilkes Barre Coal Company. 

March 16 — The Government filed suit 
against Anaconda Copper Mining Com- 
pany to compel it to abate alleged smoke 

March 17 — Prairie Oil and Gas Com- 
pany advanced price of crude oil in the 
Midcontinental field, the first advance in 
three years. 

March 23 — Collapse in price of shares 
of-Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelt- 
ing and Power Company. — Anaconda 
Copper Mining Company increased capi- 
talization to 6,000,000 shares, or $150,- 
000,000, to absorb Amalgamated Copper 

March 24 — Commonwealth mill, 
Pearce, Ariz., burned; loss $150,000. 

March 26 — Montezuma Mines Com- 
pany, of Costa Rica, filed petition of 

March 28— The Butte & Superior Cop- 
per Company purchased the North Butte 
Extension property at Butte. 


April 1 — All of the organized coal 
workers of the Eastern and Central coal- 
fields quit work. — Wages of iron miners 
in Lake Superior region increased by U 
S. Steel Corporation from 6 to 8 per cent. 

April 4 — Mount Hope washery near 
St. Clair, Penn., burned. 

April 9 — Fire at Consolidated mill, 
Goldfield, Nev., destroyed refinery, con- 
veyer and trestle to mill and damaged 
20 stamps, causing cessation of all mill- 
ing operations for seven days. 

April 10 — Application for receiver for 
Mitchell Mining Company, owning La 
Dicha mine, Guerrero, Mexico. 

April 11 — Property of Lanyon Zinc 
Ccmpany sold at sheriff's sale, and bid in 
for $265,550 by the bondholders. 

April 13 — Shipping from open pits be- 
gan on Mesabi range, Minnesota. — U. S. 
Steel Corporation advanced wages of its 
200,000 employees. 

April 14 — Ten men killed in Santa 
Gertrudis mine, Pachuca, Mex., by fail- 
ure of air compressor to supply ventila- 

April 16 — Consolidated Arizona com- 
pany resumed smelting at Humboldt, 

April 20 — British Columbia Copper 
Company secures practical control of the 
New Dominion Copper Company — Merger 
of Dominion Iron and Steel and Dominion 
Coal companies approved at joint di- 
rectors' meeting. — Beer, Sondheimer & 
Co., take over Altoona works of Cockerill 
Zinc Company under lease. 

April 21 — Forty-one men killed by ex- 
plosion in coal mine at Mulga, Alabama. 

April 22 — Mine explosion at Amster- 
dam, O., kills 18 men. 

April 25 — Compromise effected between 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan and Federal com- 
panies, the latter relinquishing the Last 
Chance mine in Idaho in exchange for 
27,000 Bunker Hill shares. 

April 24 — Accident, caused by a cave, 
in the Camelia mine, Pachuca, Mex., 
kills seven miners. 

April 30 — Coal strike practically settled 
in Indiana, Ohio and Pittsburg. 


May 1 — Nevada Consolidated listed on 
New York Stock Exchange. 

May 5 — Explosion in the Palos coal 
mine at Birmingham, Ala., killed 83 

May 12 — -Explosion in the Wellington 
coal mine near Manchester, England, 
killed 136 miners. 

May 14 — Announcement that Anacon- 
da had acquired the copper mines and 
works of W. A. Clark, at Butte. 

May 16 — The President signed the Bu- 
reau of Mines bill. 

May 17 — A. Y. & Minnie surface plant 
at Leadville burned. Loss $25,000. 



January 7, 1911. 

May 21 — Mogollon mill at Cooney, 
New Mex., destroyed by fire. 


June 8 — Five killed by falling cage at 
Richmond mine of the Thomas Iron Com- 
pany, at Dover. N. J. 

Jane 13 — Black Mountain mine, at Cer- 
ro Prieto. Son., Mexico, closed because 
of exhaustion of ore. 

June 15 — Fire destroys surface plant 
of Fmpire State property. Cripple Creek, 

June 16" — Arizona-New Mexico state- 
hood bills passed by Congress. 

June 17 — Announcement of proposed 
issue of S2.500.000 bonds by Utah Cop- 
per Company, to build a railroad from 
Bingham to Garfield. 

June 20 — Receiver appointed in Ari- 
zona for the Cieneguita Copper Com- 
pany, of Sonora. 


July 1 — Bureau of Mines established 
with George Otis Smith, director of the 
Geological Survey, as temporary head. 
Bully Hill smeltery, Shasta county, Cal., 
closed by order of Federal forestry 

July 3 — Surface plant of Vulcan Sul- 
phur Company, Vulcan, Colo., burned. 

July 5 — Suit involving Creede, Colo., 
mines, decided by Supreme Court after 
1 1 years' litigation. 

July 6 — Water in the Comstock mines 
of Nevada lowered to 2502 ft., the low- 
est point since the flood of 1885.— Verdict 
against George D. Barron, of New York, 
for -^ 1 1,529,542 rendered in Mexican 
courts, the case growing out of the nego- 
tiations involving the Teziutlan copper 
mine, in Puebla, but not involving the 
Teziutlan Copper Company. 

July 7 — The Mines Company of Amer- 
ica absorbs the El Rayo and Dolores 
companies in Chihuahua, and acquires 
the La Dura mine, in Sonora, and in- 
creases capital to $9.000,000— The Chino 
Copper Company let a contract for a 
3000-ton mill to be erected in Silver City 
district. New Mexico. 

July 8 — Nevada "wildcat" mining law 
sustained by the State Supreme Courr. 

July 14— Apex and title suit against 
Tuolumne Copper Mining Company 
brought by the North Butte company. 

July 15— Washoe sampling mill, Butte, 
Mont., burned: loss. $75,000. The Ken- 
non Coal Company's power plant at 
Flushing. W. Va.. burned. 

July 19 New Portland cyanide mill at 
Crf??!* Creek started. 

July 25— Smelting begun at Tooele 
plant of International Smelting and Refill- 
I ompany. 

July 26 Utah Copper Company an- 
nounced its decision to curtail produc- 

tion because of unsatisfactory market 


Aug. 1 — Copperton mill, Bingham 
canon, Utah, closed permanently. — Strike 
of coal miners of the Southwest declared, 
affecting 38,000 men. — Inauguration of 
plans for copper curtailment by Ana- 
conda, Cole-Ryan, P. D. & Co., Utah- 
Nevada and Rio Tinto interests. 

Aug. 2 — Explosion in coal mines of 
the Cerro de Pasco company in Peru 
kills 60 men. 

Aug. 5 — Fire destroyed tipple and 
power house of Pennsylvania Coal and 
Coke Company, at No. 9 mine, near Cres- 
son, Penn.; loss, $100,000. 

Aug. 6 — Balaklala smelting plant at 
Coram, Cal., closed to await completion 
of Cottrell apparatus for eliminating 
smoke difficulties. 

Aug. 10 — Fire does surface damage of 
$100,000 at Best & Belcher mine, Com- 
stock lode, Nevada. 

Aug. 12 — A fire at the Granby mine in 
British Columbia destroyed buildings 
valued at $70,000. 

Aug. 13 — Midget-Bonanza mill, Crip- 
ple Creek, Colo., struck by lightning and 

Aug. 20— U. S. Land Office ruled that 
lands in the oilfields cannot be patented 
unless discovery precedes location. — 
McCabe and Gladstone properties in Ari- 
zona sold to F. M. Murphy, $150,000. 

Aug. 21 — Forest fires in the Northwest 
States damaged mines and mining towns. 
Wallace, Idaho, being partly destroyed. 

Aug. 24 — United Zinc and Chemical 
Company ceases smelting at its Iola plant. 

Aug. 29 — Associated Oil Company 
bought the McMurray and Hoeppner 
holdings in the Midway, California, field 
for $3,000,000. 


Sept. 1 — Announcement of the aban- 
doning of Le Roi mine in British Col- 
umbia by the London company. 

Sept. 4 — Wage agreement between 
Southwestern coal operators and miners 

Sept. 5 — Joseph A. Holmes appointed 
director of the Bureau of Mines. 

Sept. 9 — Phelps, Dodge & Co., Inc., ac- 
quire a large stock interest in the Rock 
Island railway. 

Sept. 10 — Wage agreement between Ill- 
inois coal operators and miners closed. 

Sept. 14 Completion of transfer of 
Cumberland-Ely mine to Nevada Consol- 
idated Copper Company. 

Sept. 19 In Wales, 250,000 miners 
went on strike. 


Oct. l Announcement of the discovery 

of important bodies of oxidized zinc ore 
at Leadville, Colo., mines. 

Oct. 3 — Explosion at Palau coal mine 
Las Esperanzas, Coah., Mexico, kills 
more than 70 miners. 

Oct. 5 — American Metal Company 
takes over works of Lanyon-Starr Smelt- 
ing Company at Bartlesville, Okla. 

Oct. 8 — Explosion in coal mine a 
Starkville, Colo., 60 killed.— Five killec 
in Rebaje shaft of Sirena mine at Guana 
juato, Mexico, by a slide. — First ship- 
ment of asbestos from the Wyoming dis 

Oct. 10 — Fire destroyed the Magn: 
Charta mine buildings at Butte, Mont. 

Oct. 15 — Announcement of sale of th< 
Hidalgo Mining Company properties, in 
eluding the railroad, at Parral, Chih. 
Mexico, to an American syndicate headec 
by A. J. McQuatters for $1,500,000.- 
Cottrell fume process inaugurated a 
Coram, California. 

Oct. 18 — Four miners killed at Cleve 
land Cliffs' North Lake iron mine nea 
Ishpeming, Mich. — Explosion in Sigfriei 
potash mine, at Sarstedt, Prussia, kills P. 

Oct. 31 — Announcement of the sale o 
the Sinaloa smelting concession to Pa 
cific Smelting and Mining Company o 
New York. 


Nov. 1 — Zinc smelters in Kansas an< 
Oklahoma begin to receive calamine fron 

Nov. 6 — Explosion at Lawson mine, o 
the Pacific Coal Company, at Blacl 
Diamond, Wash., kills 15 and does $250, 
000 damage. 

Nov. 7 — Fire destroys plant of Penn 
sylvania Coal Company, at Jamestown 
Ark.; damage, $100,000. 

Nov. 8 — Explosion in Mine 3 of thi 
Victor-American Fuel Company, De 
lagua, Colo., kills 45. 

Nov. 12 — Renewal of the Europeai 
spelter convention, which with some mod 
ifications is extended from Jan. 1, 1911 
to April 1, 1914. 

Nov. 18 — Newhouse tunnel, at Idahi 
Springs, Colo., completed; length, 21,96: 
ft. — Roosevelt deep-drainage tunnel 
Cripple Creek, Colo., taps water from E 
Paso shaft. 

Nov. 20 — Serious political disturbance 
break out in Mexico, preceded by anti 
American demonstrations in Mexico City 
and Guadalajara. 

Nov. 26 — Ten miners killed by explo 
sion in Providence, Ky., coal mine. 

Nov. 28 — Compromise announced ii 
the North Butte-Tuolumne apex am 
title suits, at Butte, Mont. — Explosion ii 
the Jumbo asphalt mine, at Durant, Okla. 
kills 13. 

Nov. 30 — Montgomery-Shoshone mine 
at Rhyolitc, Nev., closed pcrmanentl] 

anuary 7, 1911. 



:r exhaustive exploration by drilling. — 
se of navigation from Lake Superior 
i and copper mines. — President 
mghton, of Utah Consolidated, an- 
inced that redetermination of ore re- 
yes of Highland Boy mine showed 
n to be less than half of what was 


)ec. 4 — Fire at Copperhill, Tenn., de- 
iyed about 100 houses of miners. 
lee. 7 — Consummation of purchase of 
perty of the J. C. Trees Oil Com- 
• in Louisiana by a subsidiary of the 
ndard Oil Company at price reported 
>e ST. 000,000. 

)ec. 9 — Announcement of purchase of 
;e tract of Texas iron lands by 

Charles M. Schwab and associates. — Ex- 
plosion in mine of Western Canada Col- 
lit-ries Company at Bellevue, Alberta, 
killed 31 men. 

Dec. 10 — Federal suit brought against 
Southern Pacific to recover 6000 acres of 
oil land in Kern county, Colo., worth 

Dec. 12 — Second "harmony" dinner of 
copper producers. 

Dec. 14 — Explosion in the Green mine 
of Bend & Bruce Coal Company at Ta- 
coma, Va., killed 22 men. 

Dec. 15 — Balaklala smeltery at Coram, 
California, closed down to make further 
adjustments to overcome smoke difficul- 
ties. — Explosion in Leyden coal mine at 
Leyden, Colo.; 12 killed. 

Dec. 16 — Rail mill at Gary, Ind., the 

largest of the U. S. Steel Corporation, 
closed on account of slack business. 

Dec. 19 — Explosion in Middleton mine 
of Consolidation Coal Company, near 
Fairmont, W. Va., killed two men. 

Dec. 21 — Explosion at Little Hulton 
colliery, near Bolton, Eng., killed 360 

Dec. 24 — Four men killed at New River 
collieries, Eccles, W. Va., by falling 

Dec. 27 — Boston & Montana company 
dissolved after voting to exchange its 
shares for those of the Anaconda com- 

Dec. 31 — El Paso Tin Mining and 
Smelting Company announced this month 
first shipment of tin bars from property, 
near El Paso, Texas. 

/lining Company Dividends in 1910 

he tables published herewith show 
dividends paid in 1910 and to date 
a number of the principal mining, 
allurgical, holding and industrial com- 
ies in the United States, and by min- 
companies in Canada, Mexico and in 
itral America. The foreign compa- 
i listed are mostly those in which 
erican capital is heavily interested, 
als of such a list necessarily cannot 
regarded as complete, as there are 
ly very profitable close corporations, 
dividends of which are not published, 

other companies are omitted for 
ious reasons. However, the figures 
it to indicate the immense import of 

basic industry. Ninety-five operat- 

mining companies in the United 
tes paid a total of 556,508.205 in 
dends in 1910; 47 metallurgical, in- 
trial and holding companies in the 
ted States paid a total of 5140,244,508 

30 foreign mining companies paid 


l comparison of the tables herewith 
:n and the similar ones published a 
r ago in the Journal will show that 
ly more mining companies throughout 

States paid dividends in 1910 than 
909, and that those companies whicn 
1 in both years, as a rule paid more 
ing 1910 than they did during 1909. 
support of this last statement may be 
d the fact that five principal gold- 
ing companies in the United States 

Alaska that appear in the tables for 
i years, paid in 1910, 511,472,746, as 
inst S7,357,016 in 1909, an increased 
ribution of S4,l 15,730. Considering 
it of the largest copper companies 

paid in both years, it is seen that 

total for 1910 is SI 3,798,572. which 

re is 55,723,440 larger than the total 

in 1909 (58,075,132). The four 


Name of Company and 

Acacia, g 

Adams, s.l.c 

Alaska Mexican, g 

Alaska Tread well, g. . . . 

Alaska United, g 

Am. Zinc, Lead & Sm. . . 

Anaconda, c , 

Argonaut, g 

Arizona Copper, pf 

Arizona Copper, com . . . 

Atlantic, c 

Bagdad-Chase, g., pf . . . 

Bald Butte, g.s 

Baltic, c 

Beck Tunnel, g.s.l 

Bingham-New Haven, c 

Boston-Sunshine, g 

Boston & Montana, c. . . 
Bull., Beck & Champ., g 
Bunker Hill Con., g . . . . 
Bunker Hill & SulL.l.S.. 
Butte & Ballaklava, c. . 

Caledonia, l.s.c 

Calumet & Arizona, c. . . 
Calumet & Hecla, c . . . . 

(amp Bird, g.s 

Centennial-Eur., l.s.g.c. . 

Center Creek, l.z 

Central Eureka, g 

Champion, c 

C. K. &N.,g 

Cliff, g 

Colo. Gold Dredging. . . . 

Colorado, l.s.g 

Columbus Con., g.s 

Commercial Gold 

Con. Mercur, g 

Continental, z.l 

Copper Range Con., c. . 

Creede United, g 

Cripple Creek Con., g. . . 

Cumberland Ely, c 

Daly Judge, s.l 

Daly West, s.l 

De Lamar, g.s 

Dr. Jack Pot Con., g . . 

Doe Run, I 

Elkton Con., g 

El Paso, g 

Federal M. <v Sm., com 
Federal M. & Sm., pf. . . 

Findley, g 

Florence, g 

Frances Mohawk, g 

Free Coinage, g 

Frontier, z 


Gold Coin of Victor. . . . 

Gold Dollar Con., g 

Gold King Con., g 

Gold Roads 

Gold Sovereign 





w is. 






1,438,988 S 1 

80,000 10 

180,000 5 

200,000 25 

180,200 5 

80,120 25 

6,000,000 2."> 

200,000 5 















1 .300.000 












285.5 10 


1 ,000,000 





1 ,300,000 


ISO. (!()() 


















































Dividends Paid. 




. 35 




3 1 5 




4 . 00 

6 '90 



6! io 


S 3 12.000 








2.1HMI, OHO 




To Date. 



SO, 000 







2 1.500 














1.35 1.6 is 












1 13, 150,000 







80,000 Oct. 





21 1,053 



I. an st. 





Oct . 







Sept . 









Oct . 

Sept . 

5,547,152 Dec 

2,70 1.1.- 
1.3S9.0 15 

6.01 1,250 



5 Mi. 000 

ISO, 000 

74.3 10 Dec. 

2,000,000 Aug. 

1.350.000 Feb. 
02.500 I let. 

1,234,808 Dec 

150.000 Nov. 

30,000 Nov. 
































'1 1 






5 0.01 
1 00 


0. 10 




1.1. 1 

o 24 
o 15 
o oo' 


il I 

o 10 

o 30 

. 00i 

1 50 


1 50 
1 r:, 
o 01 
0. io 


1 oo 

5 00 

io 00 




January 7, H 

principal lead companies in the United 
States paid a total of 52.841.696 in 1910, 
as against S2. 435.301 in 1909, this being 
an increase of $406,395. On the other 
hand the three largest silver companies 
paid $325,000 more in 1909 than last 
Juring which $1,912,500 was paid. 
This was notwithstanding the fact that 
the Tonopah Mining Company increased 
its dividend and Tonopah-Belmont again 
entered the list. The great fall was in 
the record of the Silver King Coalition, 
which company was in litigation 
throughout the yeat and only paid one 
dividend in January. 

Record of Individual Companies 

Of the individual companies the rec- 
ord cf the Goldfield Consolidated Mines 
« tny is most noteworthy. This com- 

pany increased its dividends from 83,909,- 
616 in 1909 to 57,117,696 in 1910, which 
is rrobably the largest sum ever paid by 
any gold mine in the world for a single 
year. The Homestake, Alaska-Treadwell, 
Anaconda, Boston & Montana, North 
Star. Copper Range, United Verde, Utah 
Copper and Wolverine continued their 
remarkable disbursements 

The individual companies grouped un- 
der the heading of "Industrial, Metallur- 
gical and Holding Companies" exhibited 
little change in their records for 1910 as 
compared with those for 1909. There were, 
however, increases in a general way 
throughout the whole list, and in several 
cases large bonuses were declared by 
the companies, as for instance in the 
case of the International Nickel Company 
on its common stock, General Chemical 
on its common stock, etc. In this class 
a number of the companies are worth 
special mention. The enormous sums 
paid by the Standard Oil (538,000,000) 
and United States Steel Corporation (527,- 
36 on common stock, and $26,219,- 
676 on preferred stock) serve to indicate 
the immensity of the business of these 
corporations. Of the mining holding 
companies, Phelps, Dodge & Co., with a 
record of 55,392,152, and Amalgamated 
with $3,077,756, for 1910, are to be 
noted. The American Agricultural 
Chemical Company, Virginia-Carolina 
Chemical Company and the General 
Chemical Company each paid the usual 
large totals in dividends. Of the coal- 
mining companies. Consolidation Coal 
Company of Maryland, with 51,141,480 
paid in dividends in 1910, Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation with $1,031,744 and 
Pittsburg Coal with 51,485,048 are 
worthy of note. 


The Mexican mining companies ex- 
hibit the usual creditable record, four 

7 1.252 

paid in 1010. The foreign companies, 

.r. which have attracted the great- 

••-.•ntion in the United State are 

those opcratinr 


Name of Company axd 

Coh lcn Cycle, g 

Golden .Star, g 

Goldfield Alamo, s.l .... 
Goldfield Comb. l'i a., g. 

t ioldfield Con., g 

Grand Central, g 

< Iranite, g 

Hazel, g 

Hecla, 1.8 

Hercules, l.s 

Homestake, g 

Horn Silver, c, s.c.z.l . . . 

Imperial Copper 

Iowa. g.s.l 

Iron Blossom, s.l .si 

Iron Silver, S.l.g 

Jamison, g 

Jerry Johnson, g 

Kendall, g 

Kennedy, g 

King of Arizona, g 

Liberty Bell, g 

Little Bell, l.s 

Little Florence, g 

Lower Mammoth 

MacNamara, s.g 

Mammoth, g.s.c 

Mary McKinney, g 

May Day, g.s.l 

Mohawk .Min. Co 

Montana-Tonopah, .-.g. . 

Mountain, c 

National, g 

Nevada Con., c 

Nevada Hills, g 

New Century, Z.l 

New Idria, q 

North Butte, c 

North Star, g 

( )lil Dominion M. & Sm. 

I )phir. s.g 

i >n>\ Hie I hedging 

I isceola, c 

i isceola, l.z 

Parrot, c 

Pearl Con., g 

Pharmacist, g 

Pioneer, g 

I laiteville, l.z 

Portland, g 

Quartette, g.s 

Quincy, c 

lied Metal-, c 

Republic, g 

Rochester l.z 

Pound Mt., g 

St. Joseph, 1 

shannon, c 

Shat tuck-Arizona, • . . . . 

Silver Hill, s.g 

Sii\ er King Coal., l.s . . . 

Sioux Con., l.s.g 

Skidoo, g 

Smuggler, l.s./. 

Snowstorm, eg 

Standard Con., g.s 

St ratton's Ind., g 

St rong, g 


Sw ansea, s.l 

Tamarack, c 

Tennessee, c 

Tomboy, g.s 

i onopah-Belmonl , s.g . . 
Tonopah of New, s.g . . . 

I I mopah Extension, s.g 
Tonopah Midway, s.g. . . 

Tri-Mountain, c 

I nele Sam, g.s.l 

i nited < topper, < om. . . . 

imied Copper, pf , 

tinted, z.L, com 

i niti d, 8.1., |it 

d (Crip. Ck.) g 

ed < llohe, i 

I nited \ erde, c 


Utah, c 

Utah Con., c 

Valley View, g 


\ indicatoi Con. . 

w a p No. 2, 8 

\\ ui ei Ine, c 


"i .mi . i ( Ion ,8.1.8 








S. D. 
















( al. 





















I lah 



S. D. 






1.. -.oo, 000 
922. OOO 













1,1. -.1.200 








1,. -.oo, 000 














1.000, 000 
1,. -.00,000 








1,. -,00.00(1 
I ,11(1(1.000 












1 ,000.000 


I 1 7. 000 

(id, OOO 

I ,500,000 




■ iOO 000 













0. 1( 


0. 10 




Dividends Paid. 





) . 1 2 


. 20 




1 .00 

. 02 i 

6 ! 6i 

2 . oo 


o. 15 
1 .50 














. 60 


1 . 20 
2 30 

















["otal 56,508,205 

0. 15 

1 . :,'.) 
















112. 500 

To Date. 










o 08 






10 1 ,3.00 



0. 15 
. 05 




. 1"2 



225, 000 

1, -.00,000 





3 00 

o 50 

2 1 

II ill 




2 10,000 



lo 00 




0. 13 

























Sept . 














573, 30C 



































9,389,000 Jan. 
3,061,989 Dec. 
1,417,000 Jan. 
1,383,036 Dee. 
9,343,250 Jan. 

2 45, 000 June 
6,876,603 Nov. 

181,422 Dee. 

87 .500 T'eb. 

1,891,526 Aug. 

179,500 June 
8,677,080 < tat. 

1430,00(1 Sept. 

19,440,000 Dee. 

3,500,000 Dec. 

85,000 Nip . 

136,947 Jan. 

328,104 Sept. 
7,358,357 Dec. 

450,000 July 

1,050,000 Jan. 

81,000 I ime 

{1,659,885 Jan. 

752,928 Oct. 

100,000 Julv 
2,235,(100 NOV. 
1,005,0(10 Aug. 
5,194,130 Dec. 

180.000 Now 
2,275,000 July 

100.000 Now 

329,500 Mar. 
9,420,000 July 
2,606,250 Jan. 
2,473,500 June 

968, 003 Jan. 
6,850,000 Jan. 

283,030 Vie. 

250. oik i ran. 

800,000 \pr. 

395,000 Dee. 

5,962,500 Aug. 

1,500,000 May 

27 190 Oct. 

312.782 Jan. 

1 10,435 Jan 

379,500 July 
26,947,000 Dec. 

323,ooo Feb. 
6 799, 1 50 l tac 
6,900,000 Jan. 

2 10.000 



2 10,595 



I, IP, ,685 Oc1 
182,500 Jan. 

1,0(1 l.s, I 

2. !()(), OOO Dee. 











'1 1 
'1 1 





'1 1 







' I i 
' Id 
'1 1 
' IC 



Includi - 'oo ooo i, funded on stock 

nuary 7, 191 1. 




Name of Company 
and Situation. 

lgamated, c 

Ag. Clielll., pf . . . . 



Sin. & Hef., com.. 
Sm. A: ReL. pf . . . 
Smellers, pf. A . . . 
Smellers, pf. 15. . . 

rlcan Coal 

e Coalition, c 

una Steel 

ral C. & C, com . . 
ral C. & C, pf . . . . 

olidated Coal 

olidation Coal .... 

ible Steel, pf 

ral Chem., com. . . 

ral Chem., pf 

:ral Dev.tCo 

Celllleilll Expl 

'1 Nickel, com. . . . 

•'1 Nickel, pfd 

••1 Sm. & Kef 

& Clf. C. & I., pf.. 
gh Coal & Nav.. . . 
onal Carbon, pf . . . 
onal Lead, com . . . 

onal Lead, pf 

Dominion, c 

i. Salt 

ps, Dodge & Co. . . 

iburg Coal, pf 

liontas C. C, pf ... 
lblic I. & S., pf ... 
[-Sheffield, com . . . 

(-Sheffield, pf 

dard Oil 

is A: Pacific Coal.. . 

Metals Selling. . . . 
. Steel Corp., com. 

. Steel Corp., pf . . . 

Sin., Uef. ArMin., com. 
Sm., Kef. &Min,. pf 
Bar. (Tern., com . . . 

Car. Chem., pf 

wick I. & S 

tmoreland Coal . . . . 


V. S. 

V. S. 
C S. 
U. S. 
U. S. 





U. S. 

v. s. 
r. s. 
U. s. 

u. s. 

r. s. 
v. s. 

U. S. 
N. Y. 
N. Y. 
U. S. 
W. Va. 



U. S. 
U. S. 
V. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
r. s. 
U. s. 

u. s. 

U. S. 
Penn . 


Dividends Paid. 




50, 000 












2 1 1 ,305 















3,602,81 1 

1:86,04 1 

279,8 1 1 


Si oo 

















































l ,50 
1 .00 
2 . 50 

215 00 




■31 .00 





3 . 50 

1 .00 

6 . 00 

wS . 00 




20 . 00 

5 . 2. 



3 . 50 


.8 . 00 


2 . 50 


83,07 7, 














wl ,633 















,00 i 

,-1-1 ' 

,7 18 




,71 1 
,2 15 
, 1 52 









To Date 





5,2 10, 

7 ,857 






J- 17,876 


1 1,(151 


884 Nov. 
590 Oct. 

'10 S'l ;,() 











9 12 






























.1 HI 








11 IS 






















( >ct . 




















•1 1 
'1 1 





















(I 10 


1 .00 
1 .75 
1 50 
1 . 25 
1 .50 

1 . 25 
1 . 50 

1 .25 
1 .50 
2 . 50 

J .50 
I . 50 
2 . 50 
1 .75 
1 .75 


1 .75 

1 . 25 
1 . 75 
1 50 
1 . 25 
1 .75 
o sT 1 . 
. 40 

1 1 of these companies which appear in 
the dividend tables for 1909 and 1910, 
it is seen that the record of dividends 
paid in 1910 is S183/798 less than 
those paid in 1909. The total for 1910 
is S5,849,336, as against S6,033,134 in 

The Cement Industry 

v Plus 15'; stock dividend July, 1910. w Includes 2 per cent, accumulative. October, 1910' 
ock dividend 86,130,000 March, 1909. y Stock dividend $2,866,950 January, 1910. z ta- 
li 1. dividend 10 per cent., March, 1910. 

Notwithstanding an advance of 10c. 
per bbl. by the Licensees' Association in 
July and an unquestionably better de- 
mand, the condition in 1910 was such 
that only the best-equipped plants could 
show even a moderate profit and none 
of them much in the way of dividends. 
This was manifested by the passage of 
their semi-annual dividends by several 
important companies i.i December. In 
this connection, the directors of the 
American Cement Company made the 
following statement: 

"It is not a case of a single plant in 
the industry being unable to make 
money. The American Cement Com- 
pany is affected by the same conditions 
that have affected every plant in the 
industry. As is well known, several com- 
panies have been obliged to close their 
plants during 1910, and a change of 
management and control was made in 
the case of the largest company." 

The advance of 10c. in July made the 
price of Portland cement, $1.25 per bbl. 
of 400 lb. gross at the mills correspond- 
ing to about 90c. net. The average value 
of portland cement, at mills, during re- 
cent years has been approximately as 




Dividends Paii 





To Date. 


Name of Company 
and Situation. 







>aro, g.s 

N. S. 
N. S. 
B. C. 
15. C. 
Ont . 

B. C. 

C. A. 


























1.68.-,, ;,00 







. 50 

4 . 85 






24 25 















. 30 
4 . 00 
2 . 50 

. 09 

1 . 37* 
4 , 68 
3 00 



. 03 

21 .00 

1 .00 









1 19,372 













Nov. '10 
Feb. '11 
Nov. '10 

Jan. '11 
Jan. '11 
Jan. '11 
Aug. '10 
Julv '10 
Dec. '10 

Jan. '11 
Jan. '11 
Dec. '10 
Jan. '11 
Dec. '10 
Dec. '10 
Jan. '11 
Nov. '10 
Dec. '10 
Jan. '11 
Jan. '11 
Dec. '10 
Jan. '11 
Sept. '10 
Sept. '10 
Apr. *10 
Jan. '11 
Dec. '10 
Jan. '11 
Nov. '10 
Jan. '11 



m Reserve, s 

res, g.s 

linion Coal, com. . . . 

union Coal, pf 

Estrellas, g.s 

ro, g.s 

jranza, s.g 

najuato D., pf., s. . . 
lev (iold 

. 22* 
3 . 50 

2 . 00 

3 . 00 

tose Con., s 

loi No. 2, g 

<y Tiger Com., g. . . 

is Co. of Am 

'. <fe Hond. Ros. . . . 

ssing, s 

lies, s.l.g 

grina M. & M., pf . . 

it of Way Mines t s. • 


0. 10 

. 05 
0. 15 
. 30 

1 56 
3 . 50 
. 02 





1899 $1.4311905. . 

1!ioo 1.09 1 1906. .. 

1901 0.99 1907. . 

1902 1.21 1 1908. . 

1903 1.24 1909... 

1904 0.88 1910... 

, 1.13 
, 1.11 
, 0.85 
, 0.85 
, 0.90 

t Previous to January, 1910. $324,64*. 

Cement manufacture, like other in- 
dustries has suffered from over pro- 
duction. The statistics for 1910 will 
probably show a further increase, but 
fortunately the shipments also increased. 
In the Lehigh Valley district but little 
improvement over 1909 was experienced. 

At the very end of December the sud- 
den dissolution of the Association of 
Licensed Cement Manufacturers was an- 
nounced followed immediately by a cut 
of price to 85c. per bbl., net at the 

At the end of 1908, the latest time 
for which statistics upon this point are 
available, there were 112 cement plants, 
of annual capacity of 85,000,000 bbl., in 
the United States. Since then there has 
been an addition to the number, in 
spite of the deplorable condition of the 
trade. The production in 1909 having 
been only 61,300,000 bbl., it is obvious 
that this industry has experienced the 
same over-extension as have the iron 
and copper and many others. 



January 7, 1911. 

Changes in Iron and Steel Makin 

By Bradley Stoughton * 

During the year 1910 three important 
innovations in blast-furnace practice made 
progress. The first is the establish- 
ment of the "thin-lined blast furnace" as 
an industrial factor of real importance. 
Experiments with such a furnace by the 
United States Steel Corporation had 
been in progress for more than a year, 
but in 1910 for the first time the success 
of these experiments was established, and 
the use of the thin-lined furnace, cooled 
outside from top to bottom by means of 
circulating water, has been increasing. 

The second innovation of importance is 
the use at a Belgian blast furnace of air 
enriched with oxygen, instead of install- 
ing the costly apparatus required for dry- 
ing the blast. J. E. Johnson, Jr., pointed 
out some time ago that the use of oxygen 
for this purpose would have many advan- 
tages, but the cost has been against the 
adoption of this suggestion. Every year, 
however, the cost of oxygen has been de- 
creasing, and it has now reached such a 
low price in Europe as to make this pro- 
cess feasible. The last innovation is 
merely an innovation as far as America 
is concerned, as it has been in practice 
for some years in Europe: the agglomer- 
ation of flue-dust on a large scale. This 
has now been taken up by the United 
States Steel Corporation, and the sinter- 
ing process under the Grondal patents is 
to be employed. In Germany, where ag- 
glomeration of flue-dust, ores, 'etc., has 
made more progress than anywhere else, 
and where they briquet 500.000 tons of 
flue-dust annually, the press processes, 
using generally some binder also, are 
most commonly employed, as the sintering 
process is somewhat more costly. Amer- 
ican iron makers, however, prefer the 
product of the sintering process, on ac- 
count of the compactness of the briquets. 
In this same connection it is worthy of 
note that the briquetting of cast-iron bor- 
ings for melting in the cupola is now 
being employed in this country, follow- 
ing again the European practice. 

I) plex Steel Processes 

There are already well established two 
or three types of duplex process; namely, 
a combination of bessemer with open 
hearth, a combination of bessemer with 
electric furnace, and a combination of 
irth furnace and electric- 
furnaces. The Dominion Iron and Steel 
( i Scotia, ifl now install- 

ing furnaces for a triplex process employ- 
on rolling basic open- 
hearth furnace, then a basic bessemer 
converter and finally a 50-ton basic open- 

hearth furnace. The first open-hearth 
furnace is used to desiliconize the liquid 
pig iron from the blast furnaces, a little 
scrap and limestone being added to the 
charge. The desiliconized metal is then 
dephosphorized by about five minutes' 
blowing in a basic bessemer converter — 
the pig iron contains about 1.50 per cent, 
phosphorus — and finally the metal from 
several of these bessemer converters is 
put into a 50-ton open-hearth furnace, 
where it is purified as desired and recar- 
burized in the ladle in the ordinary way. 
It is believed that the final furnaces in 
this triplex process will be able to make 
60 to 70 heats per week, as compared with 
18 to 20 heats for an ordinary 50-ton 
open-hearth furnace. 

Open-hearth Steel Progress 
Louis M. Atha, superintendent of the 
Titan Steel Casting Company of Newark, 
N. J., has been using a waste product 
of the oil retorts, known as "carbo," or 
oil-retort carbon, which contains about 
99 per cent, pure carbon and is very 
slow in burning. He finds that an open- 
hearth charge can be made up without 
pig iron, provided a certain amount of 
this carbo, preferably in the powdered 
form, is mixed with it, as it burns so 
slowly that there is opportunity for a 
good deal of the carbon to become dis- 
solved by the metal and thus prevent 
superoxidation, which occurs when one 
tries to melt down steel in the open- 
hearth furnace without pig iron. This pro- 
cess has been patented and put upon the 
market in the year 1910, and is already 
spreading rapidly. N. S. Maccallum, sup- 
erintendent of open-hearth furnaces of 
the Phoenix Iron Company, has been ex- 
perimenting for some years with a pro- 
cess of tapping the steel from an open 
hearth furnace through a bifurcated spout 
into two ladles at once, with the object of 
increasing the charge of the furnace, 
without at the same time putting an ad- 
ditional burden on the mechanical hand- 
ling of the product. He is thus able to 
make a 50-ton furnace take about 100 
tons of metal, with consequent decrease 
in the cost of operation. 

In some of the European open-hearth 
furnaces the ports, instead of being 
water-cooled, as is becoming more com- 
mon in the United States, are made so 
that parts that suffer from melting down 
can be quickly changed when worn out 
without putting the furnace out of com- 
mission or disturbing other parts of the 
brick work. Other developments in 
Europe arc changing the shape of the 
five bricks bo that the dust will 
not collect on them and clog them up so 

soon, whereby some furnaces are said 
make many thousand heats before the r 
generators have to be torn down. A moc 
fication of the Bertrand-Thiel process nc 
in use at the Hoesch works. This co 
sists of charging magnetite, scale ai 
lime into the open-hearth furnace ai 
then pouring 20 to 22 tons of liquid p 
iron from a mixer on top of it. At t 
end of two or three hours the metal a 
slag are poured into a ladle, the latl 
being allowed to overflow from the t 
and sold as fertilizer, as it contains 20 
25 per cent, phosphoric anhydride. T 
metal is then poured back into the ft 
nace on top of a fresh charge of ore, lit 
and scrap, and in about two hours mc 
the refining is complete. In the first j 
riod of this process, the greater part 
the phosphorus and almost all of I 
silicon and manganese are removed, 
gether with about one-half of the c 
bon. In the second period the carbon 
brought to the desired point and 1 
purification from phosphorus complete 

Rolling Manganese Steel 

The Potter patents for the rolling 
manganese steel, especially in the fo 
of plate, were published in August, 19: 
they involve mixing the steel from 
basic open-hearth furnace with mol 
ferromanganese in an acid-lined lac 
under a layer of acid slag. The mixti 
should be at 1400 to 1450 deg. C, i 
is held in the ladle until it is cooled 
about 1375 deg. C, in order to all 
the metal to be deoxidized and purifi 
The ingots are then teemed and are 
lowed to cool be.ore stripping until tl 
are transferred to a soaking pit i 
heated to 1175 deg. C, or somew 
higher, reduced to 1100 deg. C. and tl 
permitted to rise again to about 1125 d 
C, taken from the soaking pit and f 
subjected to light mechanical work 
the surfaces, before the full pressure 
rolling is applied. 

Miscellaneous Developments 

The Carnahan patents for the manui 
■Hire of American ingot iron were publis 
during this year, and it is seen that 
American ingot iron is a dead-soft op 
hearth steel, in which the purification 
been carried much further than is o 
narily employed. The superoxidatiot 
then reduced by means of silicon, and 
gases in the steel are removed by 
addition of aluminum in the mold. 

Attempts made in the United State; 
heat open-hearth furnaces with coke-o 
gas have not met with success so 
although this process is very satis' 
torily performed in Europe. Sue! 

January 7, 191 1. 



method has, however, been definitely de- 
termined upon at Bethlehem, where a 
large plant of retort coke-ovens is now in 
process of erection. 

The Goldschmidt thermit process was 
developed in a number of ways during 
1910 and especially in welding the rails 
up around the head as well as the flange 
and web, which is said to give a much 
superior result. 

The manufacture of titanium steel rails 
has been largely increased and the use 
of titanium in iron and steel foundries 
has begun on a really commercial basis. 

Electric Furnaces 

In the electric manufacture of iron and 
steel the year 1910 witnessed the first 
genuine success, from a commercial 
standpoint — if we may judge from pub- 
lished results work was done in ore 
smelting, compared to which previous ef- 
forts are more in the line of experiments; 
and we may say that both in California 
and Sweden the process is now being 
carried on as an industrial operation with 
satisfactory results. 

In the refining of steel in the electric 
furnace, progress was rapid, and the 
five large furnaces operating in this 
country were active. The rights to tne 

Heroult process in America have been 
purchased by the United Steel Corpor- 
aiion, which had two 15-ton Heroult fur- 
naces operating throughout the greater 
part of the year, one refining metal from 
(the bessemer converters at South Chicago, 
and the other refining metal from the 
open-hearth furnaces at Worcester, Mass. 
The number of steel furnaces is to be 
increased by the addition of a Roechling 
& Rodenhauser induction furnace at a 
steel-casting plant in Pennsylvania. 

Some Commercial Happenings 

From the commercial standpoint much 
interest attaches to the meeting, during 
the autumn, of the American Iron and 
Steel Institute, which was attended by 
some of the best known iron and steel 
masters of England and Europe. Besides 
discussing many matters of importance 
from the commercial and industrial side 
of the industry, the institute also visited 
a large number of works and did much 
to establish cordial international relations 
among all those interested in iron and 
steel manufacture. 

A second innovation from the com- 
mercial side is the decision to quote the 
price of steel rails hereafter on the basis 
of 100 lb. instead of the long ton. This 

change is for the purpose of making the 
price of rails readily comparabl : with 
that of other steel products, which are 
quoted on the 100-lb. basis. 

Iron-ore Supplies 

The year 1910 witnessed the beginning 
of several changes in the matter of iron 
ore which may have far-reaching influ- 
ence. Among the more important of 
these was the increased importation of 
iron ore on the Atlantic coast, which 
seemed likely, at one time, to become 
very large in amount but was temporarily 
reduced by the falling price of pig iron 
and consequent decrease in smelting. The 
same conditions affected the increased 
mining of iron ore in the East. The year 
also witnessed for the first time im- 
portations of Chinese iron ore on the 
Pacific coast, and the first considerable 
shipment of iron ore from Texas. A 
great deal of attention was attracted by 
the efforts of the Republic of Brazil to 
interest, first European and later Amer- 
ican, capital in the exploitation of what 
are said to be tremendous deposits of 
Brazilian iron ore. It is the desire of 
the Brazilian authorities to see an iron- 
smelting industry established on a firm 
basis in that country. 

The Metallurgy of Copper in 1910 

By Arthur L. Walker * 

While no startling or radical improve- 
ments in the metallurgy of copper were 
made during 1910, important develop- 
ments took place, some of which can be 
briefly reviewed as follows: 

Reverberatory Practice 

The increased tonnage of fine copper 
concentrates which will be treated in the 
new copper smelteries in Utah, Nevada 
and Arizona, necessitating the use of 
reverberatory furnaces to smelt this pro- 
duct, means that the importance of this 
class of smelting compared with blast- 
furnace practice is increasing. Any im- 
provement therefore which can be ef- 
fected in reverberatory practice is of 
growing importance. The new reverbera- 
tory furnaces which are being built are 
of practically the same size as those con- 
structed by Mr. Mathewson at Anaconda, 
some years ago, and at present appar- 
ently a furnace having a length of 105 
to 115 ft. is as long as can be economi- 
cally operated. 

It was formerly considered difficult to 
run copper reverberatory- furnace slag as 
high in silica as blast-furnace slag, and 
the practice at Humboldt, Ariz., indicated 
that when the slag was allowed to run 

•Professor of metallurgy, Columbia Uni- 
versity. New York. 

over 38 or 40 per cent, silica, the duty 
or the tonnage of the reverberatory fur- 
nace was much decreased. Recently in re- 
verberatory smelting, however, slag was 
made running as high as 45 per cent, 
silica, at the Garfield plant in Utah, and 
as high as 43 per cent, silica at the Step- 
toe plant in Nevada, the results being in 
every way satisfactory. The reason for 
obtaining such results with these highly 
silicious slags is supposed to be due to 
greater care in mixing and preparing the 
charge, and in having plenty of draft. 
The advantage of being able to make a 
reverberatory-furnace slag running 45 
per cent, instead of 38 per cent, silica, 
which was considered fair practice only 
two or three years ago, is great, reduc- 
ing materially the operating expense and 
cost of flux. 

At Cananea 1 an improved method of 
claying reverberatory furnaces was prac- 
tised, which was suggested by Mr. Gmah- 
ling, and installed under the supervision 
of Mr. Shelby. It consisted of having 
small holes through the roof of the fur- 
nace directly above, and on a line with 
the side walls, through which holes fett- 
ling material was charged into the fur- 
nace, building it up as a bank along the 

■Exg. and Mix. Joubn., Feb. 5, 1910: Mines 
anil Method*, March. 1010. 

walls at the slag line. It was then 
tamped down with an iron tamping bar 
so that it could not float away, and by 
this means the side walls were pro- 
tected from corrosion at the matte line, 
reducing the cost of repairs on the fur- 
nace greatly. These holes are about 5 in. 
square, spaced 18 in. center to center, 
and are, therefore, close enough to dis- 
tribute the fettling material to any point 
desired. When not in use the holes are 
closed with firebrick and covered over 
with fine material. 

Collection of Flue Dust 

While metallurgists have for many 
years taken steps to collect a large por- 
tion of the flue dust carried off in the 
furnace gaces, it has only been recently 
that the importance of this subject has 
been fully appreciated. In former years 
flue dust was considered to have small 
value, on account of the difficulty of re- 
working it. Now with the improved ap- 
pliances for handling and preparing fine 
material for smelting, and the decreased 
cost of retreating this material, the ques- 
tion is of greater importance. This is 
especially the case when it is expected 
to smelt concentrates running 20 to 40 
per cent, in copper and the flue du->t 
carried off in the gases from the furnaces 



January 7, 1911. 

in which these concentrates are to be 
treated is of such value that an extensive 
plant for the purpose of saving this dust 
is warranted. 

Experiments made at the Tyee smelt- 
ery. Ladysmith, B. C, and recently com- 
municated by Thomas Kiddie in the 
Transactions of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers, are interesting. For a 
period of two years, when the velocity of 
the gases in the flues was 1200 ft. per 
min., the recovery of flue dust amounted 
to 2 per cent, of the ore smelted, while 
in another period of two years, with a 
velocity of 420 ft. in the flues, the re- 
covery was 3.1 per cent. In the same 
communication. .Mr. Kiddie also states 
that at another plant where practically 
the same change was made in reducing 
the velocity of the gases, the recovery of 
flue dust was increased from 2.9 to 4.3 
per cent, or 50 per cent. In none of these 
experiments, however, were records made 
of the amount of flue dust passing out 
of the flue in the gases. 

Flue Dust Deposits Quickly from 
Slow-moving Gases 

At the Copper Queen smeltery, Doug- 
las. Ariz., careful tests were made to de- 
termine, not only how much flue dust 
can be collected in the flue by reducing 
the velocity of the gases, but also how 
much dust or fume is still in the gases 
after they leave the flues. George B. 
Lee. superintendent, stated- that the re- 
sult of these experiments showed that 
if the velocity of the gases through the 
fiue did not exceed 150 ft. per min. 
(which may be somewhat increased if 
wires or screens were placed in the flue), 
practically 80 per cent, of the dust in 
gases was caught in a flue 100 ft. long 
(and of this 80 to 90 per cent, in first 50 
ft.), the remainder being caught in a bag- 
house. This indicates clearly that by 
properly reducing the velocity of the 
gases, all of the dust which can be caught 
by settling will be recovered in a com- 
paratively short flue, and that a baghouse 
is necessary to catch the finest particles 
which cannot be caught by a settling 
chamber. Mr. Lee found that, of the 
heavier particles of dust that settled in 
the chamber itself, approximately 90 per 
cent, passed a 200-mesh screen. 

At the Great Falls plant of the Boston 
& Montana companv. provision was 
made to recover flue dust from furnace 
Rases by the friction system, using wires 
instead of Freudenberg plates. Charles 
W. Goodate states that in their elaborate 
flue system desicned to reduce the gases 
to a velocity of not greater than 500 ft. 
per min.. nearly one and one-quarter mil- 
lion of dust-arresting wires will be used. 
Extensive tests were made before install- 
ing the wire system, which showed that 

10 1010 

the wires gave nearly as high an effici- 
ency in dust recovery as the plates, and 
with much less friction resistance to the 

The great importance of collecting flue 
dust was carefully borne in mind in the 
construction of the new copper smeltery 
at Tooele, blown in during 1910, where 
the main dust chambers were so designed 
that the velocity of the gases will not be 
over 300 to 400 ft. per min., depending 
on the temperatures, and this was for a 
plant where the material treated is com- 
paratively low grade. 

Smeltery Smoke 

The seat of the campaign against 
smeltery smoke and fumes was trans- 
ferred from the Salt Lake district, Utah, 
to Shasta county, California, and as a 
result the smelteries situated in that lo- 
cality were compelled to take active 
measures to prevent any possible damage 
from their smoke. At the Mammoth Cop- 
per Mining Company smeltery, near Ken- 
nett, a baghouse was installed for the 
purpose of filtering the fumes, using the 
system patented by the United States 
Smelting Company, and inaugurated at 
the Midvale smeltery in Utah. At the 
latter it was necessary to inject zinc 
oxide as fume into the gases for the pur- 
pose of neutralizing the SO., so that the 
gases could be passed through the bag- 
house without injuring the bags and also 
that no sulphuric acid escape. At the 
Mammoth smeltery, however, there is suf- 
ficient zinc already in the fumes to neu- 
tralize the SO.n. With the installation of 
the baghouse at the Mammoth smeltery, 
the question of filtering fumes from cop- 
per-smelting furnaces seems to have been 
more thoroughly solved, but it is stated 
that the capacity of the present baghouse 
is insufficient to take care of the gases 
from the entire furnace plant. 

At the Balaklala smeltery in the same 
district, it is intended to overcome the 
trouble by the use of the Cottrell system 
which has been tried experimentally at 
the Selby plant near San Francisco for 
several years and the experiments pro- 
nounced successful. In this system, by 
the use of a direct current, electric sparks 
are discharged between plates in the flue, 
sulphuric acid and the solids in the gases 
being deposited out. Fifteen thousand 
volts are used, but the power required is 
small and it was estimated from data 
obtained in the experimental plant that 
15 h.p. will furnish electric discharges 
sufficient to knock down all of the sul- 
phuric acid and solid matter contained in 
the fumes resulting from roasting and 
smelting 400 tons of ore per day. The 
process was installed at the Balaklala 
smeltery for the purpose of treating all 
of the fumes from the smeltery and ac- 
complishing the results just mentioned. 
At the present time, it promises to be 

successful and the final outcome will be 
watched with a great deal of interest. 

Copper-converting Operations 

The experiments carried out by the 
Peirce-Smith Converter Company with 
their basic converters were so successful 
that during 1910 arrangements were made 
to install this type of converters at sev- 
eral of the new smelteries which were 
or are being built in Nevada and Arizona. 
This new process of converting is ap- 
parently on a firm footing and offers sev- 
eral advantages when compared with 
acid-lined converters for treating copper 

In this type of converter, the lining is 
magnesia brick and with one lining more 
than 1000 tons of copper can be produced 
from 35 to 40 per cent, matte without 
extensive repairs/ The lining expense is, 
therefore, reduced to a minimum, and 
the usual plai t necessary for lining con- 
verters is done away with. The tuyeres 
in these converters have been the subject 
of much attention, as this was the weak 
point in all former experiments with ba- 
sic-lined converters. In the Peirce-Smith 
converter, the tuyeres are so arranged 
and designed that they will last for a 
production of as much as 2000 tons of 
copper, and sometimes even more. There 
is also a reduction in the crane work as 
the usual handling of converter shells is 
done away with. Silicious ore to flux the 
iron in the matte need not be as high in 
silica as is required for the lining of the 
ordinary converters, but an ore contain- 
ing from 40 to 50 per cent, silica and up- 
wards can be used as flux and charged 
into the converters by itself. 

An improvement made at the Tooele 
smeltery in Utah consisted in running the 
matte from the reverberatory furnaces di- 
rect to the converters in launders which 
are nearly 80 ft. long and on an incline 
of about 7 per cent. No trouble was ex- 
perienced in keeping these launders free 
and open, while the handling of matte 
by cranes and transfer cars and the re- 
working of matte skulls in the usual man- 
ner were avoided. 

Copper Refining 

During 1910 the copper-refining plant 
of the American Smelting and Refining 
Company at Maurer, N. J., changed the 
size of its anodes from 2x3 ft. to 3x3 ft., 
following the practice which was intro- 
duced at the Chrome, N. J., plant of the 
United States Metals Refining Company 
by Mr. Prosser a few years ago. The 
advantage of handling large anodes in 
units has been fully recognized, and with 
the reduced value of blister copper in 
gold and silver in recent years there is 
less danger of loss due to the slime from 
the anodes lodging on the cathodes; hence 
it is now possible to use larger anodes. 

»Bno. ami Min. Joubk., Mar. 12, loin. 
June 'jr.. 1010. 

January 7, 1911. 



In the future, the question of large 
modes and also of larger tanks should 
receive careful consideration in the build- 
ng of new copper refineries or in ex- 
ending any of those which are now in 

Leaching Processes 

iroposed fo 
ire and rrn 
nade during 
hows that 
/hich coppe 
racted from 
ne built by 

many processes have been 
r leaching copper from its 
my experiments have been 
the last 30 years, the record 
the only leaching plant in 
r has been successfully ex- 
its ore in America was the 
James Colquhoun about 25 

years ago, at the plant of the Arizona 
Copper Company at Clifton, Ariz., which, 
on account of local conditions, has been 
operated successfully for many years, 
using sulphuric acid manufactured on the 
ground as a solvent and scrap iron to 
precipitate the copper from solution. Dur- 
ing the last few years experiments have 
been made by the Cananea Consolidated 
Copper Company, at Cananea, Mexico,' 
and by the Ray Consolidated Copper 
Company, at Kelvin, Ariz.,'' using ferric 
sulphate as a solvent. In both cases, the 

'Minis and Methods, Sept.. 1910. 
i Mines and Methods. Oct., 1910. 

experiments indicated that the cost of 
conducting a leaching operation on this 
basis would be so great that its success 
would be more than doubtful. However, 
there is a large field for a leaching pro- 
cess which can recover the copper from 
the low-grade ore obtained from the si- 
licious porphyry deposits with less loss 
and at no greater expense than that which 
is involved at the present time in using 
the system of concentration, where fully 
one-third of all the copper in the ore 
mined is lost and subsequent smelting of 
the concentrates. It is a difficult proposi- 
tion but one which is attracting consider- 
able attention at present. 

Dredge Installations During 1910 

By John Tyssowski 

There were 24 new gold dredges, of 
hich definite information is available, 
i.ilt and installed in North America dur- 
lg 1910. The distribution of these in- 
flations was: Alaska 9, California 8, 
lontana 2, and Georgia, Idaho, Nevada, 
outh Dakota and Yukon Territory one 
ach. These dredges represent a digging 
opacity of approximately 2,745,000 cu.yd. 
er month. The accompanying table 
lows, in most cases, the place in which 
le dredges were installed, the number in 
ach State, the bucket capacity in cubic 
ards and the name of the operat- 
ig companies. This information is ac- 
urate, having been verified by the va- 
ous manufacturers of dredges, and is 
smplete as far as installations of any 
'agnitude are concerned. The Union Iron 
forks and Risdon Iron and Locomotive 
forks of San Francisco, The Bucyrus 
ompany of South Milwaukee, Yuba 
onstruction Company, Marysville, Cal., 
larion Steam Shovel Company, Marion, 
., and- Stearns-Rogers Manufacturing 
ompany, of Denver, built and installed 
Did dredges in North America in 1910. 

Type of Dredges Being Installed 

In general, the dredges installed in 
)10 were stronger and larger than the 
der ones which they replaced or sup- 
emented. For the most part the dredges 
•e to be operated by electricity where 
ich power is available. In some par- 
:ular cases, however, gasolene- or 
eam-driven machinery is necessary, as, 
if instance, in some parts of Alaska 
id Nevada. Most of the boats were pro- 
ded with spud anchorage, close-con- 
:cted bucket chains (except for the 
Tall dredges built for Alaskan use which. 
e usually provided with open-connected 
lains) and belt-conveyer tailings stack- 
s. The tendency toward the building of 
iats of large c^p^oity was marked. 

The Seward Peninsula 
Dredging in the Seward peninsula 1 is as- 
suming vast proportions and although the 
operating season is exceedingly short it is 
very profitable providing dredging opera- 
tions are well managed and the dredge 
equipment is of the best design and con- 
struction. Many of the dredges for Alaskan 
use are provided with gasolene-drivc-.i 

using crude oil as fuel it is expected to 
obtain a saving of one-third in the cost 
of fuel. The dredges for Alaskan use 
built by the Union Iron Works of San 
Francisco were provided with open-con- 
nected buckets of 2y> cu.ft. capacity. The 
machinery of these dredges is driven 
by gasolene engines. These boats were 
designed to dig to a depth of 16 ft. The 

NOliTII ami: 



Operating Company. 




Alaska (9): 

Seward Peninsula 

Sewell Alaska Mining Co. 
Arctic Cold Dredging Co. 
Northern Dredge Build, and Const. Co. 

Wild (loose Mining and Trading Co. 

Marysville Dredging Co. 

Natomas Consolidated of California. 
Yuba Consolidated Goldflelds. 



Seward Peninsula 


Solomon River, S. 1 J 

Solomon River, S. P 

Otter Creek, S. P 

Seward Peninsula 



California (8): 

16 miles east of Mi 



Foresl Hill 


I tammonton 



Georgia ( 1 ) : 


Idaho (I): 

Idaho City 

Montana (2): 


Magpie ( lulch 

Boston Idaho Cold Dredging Co. 

Poor Farm Placer Mining Co. 
Magpie Development Co. 

Castle Creek Dredging Co. 
Canadian Klondyke Mining Co. 

Nevada (1): 

South Dakota (1): 


Yukon Territory (\) . . . . 


machinery. A number of the dredges in- 
stalled by the Risdon company employ 
coal and generate steam in water-tube 
boilers using compound-condensing en- 
gines. In small boats of this type that 
dig 1400 cu.yd. per day, about 3 r << tons of 
fair coal is burned per 24 hours, but by 

^'Dredging Conditions on the Seward Pe- 
ninsula." by G. B. Massey, 2d. Bng. and Mix. 
.Toiijx.. Oct. 29, 101D. 'p. R50. 

hulls being 60x30x4 ft. 6 in. in dimension 
and the total power equipment provided 
85 horsepower. 

The dredge for the Wild Goose Mining 
and Trading Company is for use at 
Nome. This dredge digs to a depth of 15 
ft. and draws 3 ft. 4 in. of water. Its 
revolving screen is 4 ft. 6 in. in diam- 
eter and 23 ft. long. A belt conveyer 28 
in. wide and 55 ft. long between centers 



January 7, 1911. 

of pulleys is used for the disposal of tail- 
ings. Water is supplied from one 10-in. 
centrifugal pump. The digging ladder is 
of the latest type and the main drive of 
the same general description as used in 
the largest California dredges, driving 
from both ends of the upper tumbler 
shaft. This shaft is a nickel-steel forging 
9 '• . in. in diameter. Buckets consist of 
high-carbon base castings, one piece, 
pressed-steel hood and a manganese lip, 
1 in. thick and 8 in. wide. 

California Installations 

According to U. S. Mint and Geological 
Survey figures, from 1S9S to 1908, dredg- 
ing operations in California produced 
$25,277*877. Of this Butte county con- 
tributed 515.049.946, Sacramento 83,920,- 
231 and Yuba 55.151.242. In 1908 there 
were 65 dredges operating in the State 
from which a production of 86,538,189 
was recorded; in 1909. 64 dredges pro- 
duced 86.870.000. The dredging industry 
employed about 940 men in 1908 and 
about 932 in 1909. Nine new dredges 
we _ e added to the equipment of the Cali- 
fornia" dredging companies in 1908, five 
in 1909 and eight in 1910. Of the 
dredges installed in 1910 the Yuba No. 
13 of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields 
and the Natoma No. 8 of the Natomas 

i the Construction of California 
Dredges," by John Tyssowski, Km;, and Mix. 
. Oct. 15, 1910, p. 765. 

Consolidated of California were the larg- 
est. These two dredges were similar in 
many respects. The interesting dimen- 
sions of the Yuba No. 13 dredge are: 
Digging depth, 60 ft.; hull, 155x58 ft. 8 
in. \ 12 ft. 6 in.; ladder, length 129 ft., 
depth 10 ft.; stacker, length 140 ft., depth 
7 ft.; conveyer belt, 42 in. wide; screen, 
9x50 ft. 6 in.; area of gold-saving tables, 
8000 sq.ft.; total power equipment, 720 
h.p. These large dredges were supplied 
with two 14-in. centrifugal pumps and 
one 5-in. pump. The machinery weighs 
about 1,600,000 lb. without motors. The 
weight of the digging ladder and sus- 
pension tackle alone is greater than of the 
entire machinery for a 7K>-cu.ft. dredge 
of the same type. Seven hundred and 
thirty thousand board feet of lumber were 
used in the construction of the hull. 
Buckets are close connected. 

The Siskiyou dredge, although only of 
5 ] j cu.ft. bucket capacity, is a thoroughly 
uptodate machine. The No. 3 and No. 4 
boats of the Marysville Dredging Com- 
pany have buckets of 8 x / 2 cu.ft. capacity. 
These dredges dig to a depth of 40 ft.; 
the hull dimensions are 37x102x8 ft. 8 
in. and the motors total 227 J^ h.p. Buck- 
ets are close connected. 

Large Dredges for Montana and 

Yukon Territory 
The new dredges for Montana and Yu- 
kon Territory have buckets of 16 cu.ft. 

capacity. This is the largest yet installet 
The Yukon boat is designed to dig to 
depth of 45 ft.; the hull is 50x130 ft. 
the ladder, 97 ft. long; stacker, 115 ft, 
and there are 71 buckets in the chaii 
The main-drive motor on this dredge i 
300 h.p., supplied with alternating cui 
rent at 220 volts, 60 cycle and thrc 
phase. The dredge of the Poor Fan 
Placer Mining Company, installed at A 
der, Mont., digs to a depth of 55 ft.; tt 
hull is 58x150 ft.; digging ladder, 115 \ 
long; stacker, 130 ft.; and there are £ 
buckets in the chain. The gears on a 
the machinery in these dredges are pn 
vided with cut teeth. 

Other Installations 

The dredge installed near Lovelock 
Nev., digs to a depth of 20 ft. below wi 
ter line. The main-drive engine on th 
dredge is a 100-h.p., multiple-cylinde 
marine-type, gasolene engine and sep 
rate engines are provided on the centi 
fugal pumps, lighting system and winche 
The dredge is equipped with patent r 
volving screen and gold-washing appar 
tus and a stacker made up of an endle 
chain of buckets. 

Besides the dredges installed in Nor 
America, the Bucyrus, Yuba Constructs 
and New York Engineering compani 
built dredges for use in the Columbia 
Republic, India and Siberia. 

Review of Cyanidation in 19K 

By Philip Argall * 

There were no startling advances in 
cyanidation to chronicle for 1910, but 
rather a steady advance along all me- 
chanical lines and as usual no real chem- 
ical progress; the year, it is true, has not 
bten free from the ubiquitous process 
tinkers with their alleged improvements 
and modifications; their creations, how- 
ever, as in the past, have fallen still-born 
on an expectant world or died in the 
hands of their progenitors. 

Cyanidation has within a few years 

steadily driven amalgamation to the rear, 

has almost everywhere displaced the 

Patera process, and has annihilated the 

wonderfully ingenious and time-honored 

patio process so peculiarly applicable to 

Mexican ores and climate. The cyanide 

has therefore risen from a tailing 

annex in which the refuse from the mill 

•!ven a final treatment irrespective 

•cal condition, to be the main 

millin: : 'hat gold and silver 

ire now usually prepared, not for 

amalgamation, concentration or for the 

older Hxiviation processes, but preferably 

for cyanidation I uently in a re- 

view, however short, of this process to- 
day, one must commence with the prepa- 
ration of the ore. 

Preparation of the Ore 

Evolution in South Africa is toward the 
use of heavier stamps, coarser crushing 
in the batteries, and tubing the coarser 
sands. The advantages of the heavy 
stamp are summed up by its able pro- 
tagonist, W. A. Caldecott, as follows: 
"(1) Reduction of the initial capital ex- 
penditure in erecting, say 200 stamps at 
1750 lb. with accessories, in place of 280 
stamps at 1250 lb. each. (2) Reduction 
in size of mill building almost propor- 
tionate to the lesser number of stamps. 
(3) Thirty per cent, less shafting, belts 
and other moving parts to maintain. (4) 
Thirty per cent, less labor required for 
dressing plates, lubricating moving parts, 
changing screens, and other work inci- 
dental to milling operations'. 

The forecoing might be summarized as 
n brief for larger consolidated units, less 
COStly to erect and man, but presumably 
nf the same mechanical efficiency as the 

[ \i \l.. V..I 10, p 71 

lighter stamp, the weight of reciprocatii 
metal being the same in either case. N. 
Caldecott, while limiting the maximu 
diameter of the feed to 1^4 in. s state 
"the heavier the stamp, the coarser tl 
pieliminary breaking admissible, and vi 
versa." In other words, the heavier stan 
is made to do the work usually assigm 
to rock breakers and rolls in some of tl 
best plants on this side of the ocean, 
have long held that the modern practi 
of increasing the weight and range of r 
duction of the stamp is wrong: "That 
attempting to do the work of rock brea 
ers or rolls with a stamp, no matter wh 
its weight, the result will invariably be 
more expensive plant and one of impain 
efficiency, as measured by the weight 
rock crushed per horsepower-hour." 

New City Deep Mill Equipped with 
2000-pound Stamps 

The tendency in South Africa is, ho^ 
ever, in the other direction and so we fii 
the new 200-stamp mill of the City De< 
mine, Johannesburg, equipped with 200 
lb. stamps in units of 10, each unit ope 

•Eso. \m> Miv Joi i:\ .. May 11, 1005. 

January 7, 191 1. 



ated by a 50-h.p. motor. It is significant 
to note that bearings are placed between 
each stamp stem, 1 1 in all, to support the 
cam shaft, lessen vibration, minimize 
breakages and incidentally increase lubri- 
cation and maintenance cost. There are 
nine tube mills 22x5K> ft. in this equip- 
ment, each operated by 100-h.p. motors. 

Single- vs. Double-stage Crushing 
Still a Debatable Point 

The new Randfontein Central mill is 
supposed to follow more conservative 
lines; it consists of 600 stamps of 1650 
lb. followed by 16 tube mills 22x5K> ft. 
each, for a capacity of 150,000 tons per 
month. The stamps are operated in 
groups of 10, by 40-h.p. motors, the 
driven pulley set in the center between 
the 5-stamp mortars to reduce torsional 

Hlavy Stamps Call for Coarse Screens 

Mr. Way considers that the investiga- 
tion of the Mines Trial Committee proved, 
"that maximum mechanical efficiency 
when using heavy-weight stamps is only 
obtained by crushing through correspond- 
ingly coarse screens. .... The econo- 
mic limit of the weight of these stamps, 
leaving out mechanical difficulties, ap- 
pears to be reached only when they en- 
croach on the province of the jaw breaker 
or gyratory crusher, with which they can- 
not compete either mechanically or eco- 
nomically." He appears to favor finer 
preliminary breaking and lighter stamps 
and believes it is open to question 
whether in some recently equipped mines 
the economic limit has not been exceeded 
in the over-anxiety of the designers to 


Name of Company. 

New Kleinfontein 

Companies Using Tube Mills: 

Simmer & Jack 

Knights Deep 

Wit. Deep 

Simmer Deep 

East Hand Proprietary Mines . 

Rose Deep 

Simmer & Jack East 

Village Deep 

Lnipaards Vlei Estate 

Village Main Reef 

Robinson Deep 

Ferreira Deep 

New Modderfontein 

Crown Mines 

Knights Central 

Robinson G. M 



Nourse Mines 

New Goch 

Van Ryn 

Geldenhuis Deep 

New Reitfontein 

West Hand Consolidated 

Cinderella Deep 

Meyer & Charlton 

Roodeport United 

Durban Roods Deep 


New Ilerioi 

Tons Milled 
per Month. 





Costs per Ton Milled. 



9 . 6S4 
3 10.783 
3 9 . 437 
3 . 552 
6 . 456 



1 . 607 
1 1 . 350 



Oil. 982 

1 5.581 
5 . 657 
6 . 886 
6 . 09 


<J 1 75 




6 . 894 

4 10.291 

5 1 . 372 
5 3.62 
5 6.175 
5 6.731 
5 7.277 
5 7 . 865 
5 7.911 
5 8.638 
5 8.695 
5 9.133 
5 10.437 
5 11.294 
5 11.625 

1 .922 
3 .577 




6 11.041 

7 2 
7 3 
7 9 



















1 50 

















stress in the cam shaft, not usually a 
natter of much moment, but with heavy 
stamps little can be overlooked. Both of 
:hese great mills are based on step re- 
luction, rock breakers, stamps and tube 
nills or as designated in Rand practice, 
single- and double-stage crushing, the 
)reliminary breaking not being con- 

While the ore in the latter process 
s invariably reduced finer tending 
io doubt toward a higher extraction, 
fet on the point of single- or double- 
stage crushing metallurgists are not 
agreed even in. Rand practice. E. J. Way 
lolds that where a product is required 
ivith say 10 to 14 per cent, coarser than 
50 mesh, the best and cheapest practice 
s to use fine screens in the mortar boxes 
ind do without tube mills, but if a finer 
product is required he favors stamp-and- 
:ube-mill units. 

reap the benefits claimed to accrue from 
the use of the tube mill. He believes this 
impression is borne out by the reduction 
costs of the mines using tube mills as 
compared with the cost of New Kleinfon- 
tein, where crushing by the single-stage 
method is in use, and submits the accom- 
panying instructive table of milling costs 3 . 

Tube Mill Needs a Coarse Feed for 
Maximum Efficiency 

Caldecott, however, maintains that, 
"The greater the force of impact per unit 
area, the coarser the screen required for 
maximum efficiency," hence heavy stamps 
must have coarse screens or larger heads, 
he further maintains that the coarser pro- 
duct delivered by the heavy stamp in- 
creases the efficiency of the tube mill, due 
to the fact that such coarse particles — 

.passing 0.27-in. aperture screens — pro- 
vide work to be done by the falling peb- 
bles throughout the full length of the mill, 
whereas with finer feed many particles 
are early reduced to the required size and 
the pebbles near the outlet of the mill 
are not supplied with sufficient coarse 
particles to secure their full crushing effi- 
ciency. He stoutly maintains that the 
heavy-stamp and tube-mill combination is 
the best arrangement for the economic re- 
duction of Rand ores to the desired fine- 
ness, the largest proportion minus 90 
mesh (0.006-in. aperture), and that in 
view of the present practice discussion of 
the possibilities of lighter stamps is 
largely academic. C. O. Schmitt refer- 
ring to the work of the Mines Trial Com- 
mittee with stamps weighing 1400 lb. 
crushing through 3 mesh (0.27-in. aper- 
ture) for a duty of 15.1 tons per stamp 
day shows that the product of 17 stamps, 
256.7 tons, was easily reduced to the re- 
quired fineness by one 22x5!/> tube mill. 
That in further crushing experiments 
made at his suggestion seventy-five 1640- 
lb. stamps crushing through 0.125-in. 
apertures in conjunction with four 
22x5K>-ft. tube mills gave a duty of 16.7 
tons per day, he further compares' on 
the basis of above experiments 75 stamps 
and four tube mills with 75 stamps and 
one tube mill in favor of the four-tube 
combination in capital expenditure, 30 per 
cent.; ordinary working cost, 17.5 per 
cent."'; ordinary working cost plus capi- 
tal expenditure 23.7 per cent.; cost alone, 
15.5 per cent ,; . 

Fines Should Be By-passed around 

E. H. Johnson reports an instructive 
test whereby ten 1634-lb. stamps and one 
standard tube mill crushed 261 tons per 
24 hours-, all but l / 2 per cent, of the pulp 
passing 0.006-in. screen aperture; con- 
suming 150 h.p. of which the stamps used 
45, the tube 105. The duty is therefore 
145 lb. per horsepower-hour. As com- 
pared with single stage, all stamp work, 
Johnson claims an increase of 32 per 
cent, in horsepower efficiency and 31 per 
cent, in grinding efficiency. This excell- 
ent result was obtained by equipping the 
stamps with screens of 0.284-in. aperture 
and by-passing the fines in the stamp 
feed, suitable for tubing, direct to the 
tube mill, thus eliminating from the stamp 
any semblance of fine-crushing. Johnson 
adds, "As a factor in gold-ore reduction, 
I am of the opinion that we are only just 
beginning to realize the possibilities of 
the tube mill. It has been too tenderly 
treated in the size of ore particles fed to 

s Trans., I. M. M., Vol. 10, p. 120. 

*Journ.. S. A. Asoc. of England. Vol. 15, 
No. 5. 

"Including labor (white and colored), pow- 
er, mercury, shoes, dies, screens, pebbles, lin- 
ers, lighting, water, maintenance and general 

"Capital charges on the basis of 7 per cent. 
Interest plus 3 per cent, for redemption of 



January 7, 191 1. 

it up to the present, and its gluttony for 
work has not been properly appreciated ." 

American Practice Does Not Favor 
Heavy Stamps 

The question of heavy versus light 
stamps, or in fact any stamp at all, is still 
an open one in this country; it is gen- 
erally conceded, however, that the 2000- 
lb. stamp has probably reached, if it has 
not exceeded, the economic limit of a 
cam-operated machine, and encroached 
on the field of the steam stamp. 

NX'hile watching stamp development 
and performance in the greatest goldfield 
in the world, where the largest and lat- 
est mills are operated under, perhaps, the 
best conditions and controlled and di- 
rected by a galaxy of metallurgical talent, 
one is not favorably impressed by the 
working cost. Take, for example, the last 
seven mills on Mr. Way's table, averag- 
ing about 14.000 tons per month, as more 
nearly representing the tonnage of some 
of our larger mills, we find the average 
milling cost is S1.95. varying from S2.ll 
with a monthly turnover of 11,583 tons, 
to SI. 78 with a turnover of 17,672. Ad- 
mitting that it is seldom possible to com- 
pare the working costs in different min- 
ing districts with any marked accuracy, 
I will merely say, if this is the best at- 
tainable with modern stamps and tube 
mills on free-milling ore, those who have 
favored step reduction in rolls. Chilean 
and tube mills have no cause for worry. 

Maximum Efficiency of Stamps Found 
in Reducing from \U to % Inch 

In the article previously quoted I en- 
deavored to show, as long ago as May, 
1905, that stamps were not efficient in the 
field of either coarse or fine crushing, 
and that their economic range had not 
been determined. Thanks to the work of 
the Mines Trial Committee and the able 
researches of Mr. Caldecott and others, 
wc now know that on Rand ores, tube 
mills give maximum efficiency when fed 
with ore passing 0.27-in. screen aper- 
tuies, the maximum battery feed is 
placed at less than 2-in., thus establishing 
the economic range of modern 1350- to 
2000-lb. stamp operating on Rand ores 
from, say, 1 ; in. to 'A in., a seven to 
one reduction against the 100 to one of a 
tew vears ago. This, in my opinion, is 
one of the best and cleanest vindica- 
tions of the correctness of successive 
comminution against one-stage ore re- 
duction that has yet appeared. Having 
thus established the range of the stamp 
it remains to be seen if other machines 
will not reduce ores from 1 ■' to ' \ in. 
equally as well, if not better; my personal 
opinion is rolls would prove superior, a 
possibility no' overlooked by Caldecott; 
or rolls and fast-running Chilean mills 
vould make a good combination. In the 

ijr,tirn f'tu-m. Met .'irid Ml n Boe of B. A , 
• I Of) 

former, the steps would be, rock break- 
ers, rolls and tube mills, while in the lat- 
ter Chilean mills would come before the 
tube mill, a combination preferable where 
concentration is an essential part of the 
process. Either scheme would be much 
cheaper in initial cost than gravity 
stamps, much more compact and of high- 
er mechanical efficiency. South African 
metallurgists were slow in taking up tube 
milling, yet the work accomplished by 
it under their direction, particularly with 
54 -in. feed, has placed the mining world 
under lasting obligations. These en- 
gineers have effectively exploded the 
time-honored fallacies that stamps are 
fine crushers and that amalgamation 
must begin in the mortar and be com- 
pleted on plates in front of it, thus sim- 
plifying the process of ore reduction, and 
leaving to the realms of debate and fu- 
ture research, the comparatively simple 
problem: Required, the best method to 
reduce ore to H in. for tube-mill feed? 

Fast-running Chilean Mills Favored 
in United States 

Fast-running Chilean mills are held in 
high esteem in the United States and 
their use is extending. Six-foot mills 
running 33 r.p.m. on Cripple Creek ores 
will reduce four tons per hour, 60 per 
cent, of which will pass 150 mesh (0.03- 
in. aperture), the feed being previously 
rolled to pass 3/^-in. aperture. Ball mills 
so successful in dry milling, have not 
proved efficient in wet practice, the wear 
of the balls, plates and screens, heavy in 
dry milling, becomes prohibitive in the 
wet process. Grinding pans are little 
used today in the United States, the land 
of their development, nor has their use 
extended in Australia, where they were 
brought to a high state of efficiency as 
fine grinders in competition with tube 
mills; where amalgamation is a feature of 
the process as at Kalgoorlie, the pan is 
undoubtedly the machine required, but 
in straight fine-grinding one hears little 
now of competition between pan and tube 
mill. Apart from the fine iron dissem- 
inated in the pulp produced from pans, 
which, to say the least, is not desirable in 
cyanidation, the pan requires more atten- 
tion than the tube mill and its range of 
ore reduction is much less. It is, however, 
extensively used in Kalgoorlie for grind- 
ing and amalgamating roasted ores. 

Recent Tube-mill Developments 

An important improvement in South 
African tube mills is to drive from the 
discharge end, leaving the working 
(feed) end free from gearing and drive 
obstruction. The tube mill developed in 
the cement industry is not efficient, wh.n 
n red by the work done per horse- 
power, as is well shown by a recent im- 
provement introduced in the same indus- 
try wherebv. I am credibly informed, the 
capacity of a tube is doubled by the con- 
sumption of hut 22 per cent, additional 

power. The improvement consists in re- 
placing part of the flints by steel cylin- 
ders ' 2 in. diameter bv about 1 inch in 
length; these are placed in a separate 
compartment at the discharge end of the 
mill. The invention has not, to my 
knowledge, been tried in wet milling. It 
will be noted that the change substitutes 
rolls for spheres, which latter can only 
crush at points in contact, while the rolls 
should crush along their entire face lines 
against points, thus enormously increas- 
ing the crushing or grinding surface. This 
invention also introduces step reduction 
in the tube mill. 

Steel Shafting Used in Tube Mill for 
Crushing Surfaces 

Another machine now being built in 
Denver, the Marathon tube mill, has a 
corrugated lining of hard iron and is 
partly filled with steel shafting, each 
piece practically the full length of the 
mill, giving a multiple-roll effect. It is 
claimed to be an exceedingly fine grinder; 
working tests are, however, lacking. 

Battery Amalgamation Displaced by 
Table Amalgamation 

Amalgamation in South Africa is now 
removed from itsold position in front of the 
battery; the amalgamating plates being 
assembled in a separate building where 
the precipitator boxes are also housed, 
thus all the gold handling is done in one 
place, away from grease and oil and, pre- 
sumably, under ideal conditions. Shak- 
ing amalgamation plates are favored in 
some mills. On this side there is no par- 
ticular change to note. Some of the large 
United States and Mexican mines have 
abandoned amalgamation, for one cause 
or another, sometimes for plate troubles, 
where cyanide solutions are used in the 
battery, and sometimes, it must be admit- 
ted, to guard against theft. In other cases 
it has been hard to decide if the saving 
by amalgamation was worth the cost, in- 
asmuch as the gold would be eventually 
caught in the cyanide plant. Unless the 
gold is coarse, and easily caught, less 
than 20 per cent, saving by amalgamation 
is seldom worth the labor and expense 
incident to that process. 

Does Concentration Pay? 

Concentration is also in varying es- 
teem, having been abandoned in several 
mills and taken up anew in others. Where 
a fair proportion can be obtained as a 
concentrate, difficult to cyanide, it is usu- 
ally good practice to remove it either for 
sale to smelteries or to work up in the 
mill. In either case a rebellious sub- 
stance is removed, thus shortening the 
cyanidation of the bulk of the ore, while 
when treated separately in the mill the 
concentrate can be given such special 
treatment as the case requires, fine grind- 
ing, stronger solution, or longer treat- 
ment, one or all, thus cheapening the en- 
tire prrress. 

January 7, 1911. 



Crushing and concentrating in cyanide 
solution is now standard practice in many 
places where gold-silver telluride ores 
are treated; as for example in 
West Australia, in Mexico and Tono- 
pah, Nev., and at Cripple Creek. In 
the latter district about 18,000 tons per 
month of sulpho-telluride ores varying 
between S3 and S3. 50 per ton are now 
treated by this method in the mills of 
Stratton's Independence Limited and the 
Portland Gold Mining Company. 

Dry Milling 
The reduction of ore in the dry state 
is usually necessary in roasting-cyanide 
plants, the first of which, the Metallic 
Works, was erected at Florence, Colo., in 
1895, following a series of roasting ex- 
periments on a working scale. At Kal- 
goorlie, about 70,000 tons per month are 
treated in the cyanide-roasting plants, 
the greater part crushed in Krupp ball 
mills, which have been brought to a high 
state of efficiency and are giving ex- 
cellent service. The Griffin mill is also 
in use there, but the ball mill has the 

Cripple Creek Practice Divided be- 
tween Ball Mills and Rolls 
About 45,000 tons of Cripple Creek 
ore are prepared for roasting every month, 
about half by ball mills and half by rolls; 
the ball mills crush through about 3/16- 
in. aperture, the ore is ground fine in 
Chilean mills after roasting. The roll 
plants crush to 12 mesh (0.042-in. aper- 
ture), the ore is then roasted, chloridized 
in barrels, ground in tube mills, and the 
residue from the barrels cyanided. These 
mills were, of course, built for the chlori- 
nation process, but in time it was found 
the tailings could be cyanided at a profit 
and the cyanide annex, when added, al- 
lowed much poorer and cheaper work to 
be done in the roasting and chlorination 
departments. About 6000 tons per month 
of semi-oxidized ore are prepared by roll 
plants for direct cyanidation each month 
in the Cripple Creek district and mostly 
cyanided in leaching tanks. 

Treatment of Ore after Roasting 

After roasting, the ores are invariably 
wet ground in cyanide solution usually 
in amalgamating pans. This is the stand- 
ard practice in Kalgoorlie, through which 
about 30 per cent, of the gold is re- 
covered in amalgam. In other places the 
gold is caught in blankets together with 
the heavier minerals or partly roasted 
sulphides and the blanketings only ground 
and amalgamated in pans. After roast- 
ing, then, both processes are wet and the 
subsequent treatment similar. 

This is necessary even in the all-slime 
plants, in order to return the sands to 
the tube mill. Cone classifiers are ex- 
tensively if not exclusively used abroad. 
In North America, however, drag sep- 
arators of various types have been long 
in use. followed by the much superior 

spiral or helical classifiers. These give 
a clean separation not more than 6 to 
10 per cent, slime in the sand or sand in 
the slime, ore that will pass 150 mesh 
(0.003-in. aperture) being designated 
slime in our practice. I have had spiral 
classifiers in use for about three years 
that deliver clean sand 5 in. above the 
receiving point and the clean slime 6 in. 
below it; one of the most perfect acting 
and least expensive machines, both in 
first cost, maintenance and operation, that 
I ever had the pleasure of using. Such 
a classifier meets all requirements. A 
clean separation of the slime from the 
sand is essential to good extraction and 
rapid leaching in the tanks. The slime- 
free sands can be sluiced direct from 
these classifiers to the leaching tanks 
and with a small quantity of solution will 
fill perfectly without mechanical dis- 
tributors or manual labor at the tanks. 

All-slime Processes Now Losing Favor 
Sand treatment is occasionally by agi- 
tation but usually by simple percolation 
in tanks. The all-slime method is not ex- 
tending as rapidly as it did; there is a 
general return to sand treatment; fine 
grinding is expensive. 

Slime treatment is invariably by agita- 
tion. The only agitators worth considering 
are in my opinion the Pohle air lift and 
the large-volume slow-running centrifu- 
gal pump; other forms of mechanical 
agitators are not worth considering. By 
slow-moving centrifugal pumps I mean 
one speeded to overcome the hydraulic 
head which is seldom over 3 ft., including 
friction, whereas one usually finds cen- 
trifugal pumps used for agitation, run- 
ning at a speed equal to a head of 40 to 
60 ft. The Pohle air lift, however, is the 
best form of agitator, first I believe ap- 
plied to this work by Brown, in New 

Questionable Whether the Pachuca 
Tank Is an Improvement 
The tall, Brown (Pachuca) tank is, 
however, of no special advantage; almost 
any shaped tank with a conical bottom 
will do equally as well. I prefer tanks 30 
ft. in diameter with peripheral overflow. 
These can be used at will for either set- 
tling, or agitating by means of the air 
lift. I believe it is a mistake to carry 
the discharge of the air lift to the top 
of the tank and prefer discharging 8 or 
10 in. below the surface of the liquid, 
placing a perforated conical distributor 
over the discharge to direct the flow from 
the air lift toward the periphery of the 
tank. In this way two important ad- 
vantages are obtained: (]), the air escap- 
ing from the lift keeps the upper portion 
of the charge in violent agitation, giving 
far better aeration than is obtained in 
the Pachuca tank, from which the com- 
pressed air escapes into the atmosphere 
and is lost; (2), the sandv portion of 
the charge escaping from the lift falls on 
an apron, directing it also toward the 

periphery where, settling rapidly, it is 
again taken up by the air lift. In this way 
the sand receives brisk agitation and 
it usually needs such treatment. It mutt 
not be inferred that I advocate treating 
sands and slimes together, I refer only to 
the sandv portion of the slime charges. 
No inconvenience has occurred through 
the apparent separation of sand and slime 
in this system of agitators 

Pachuca Tank Useful in Giving Scope 
to Would-be Inventors 

The tall, slim Pachuca tank, however, 
is the hight of metallurgical fashion to- 
day and, like the hobble skirt, must run 
its course. I do not condemn it, but 
merely show how, in some cases at least, 
better results may be obtained from 
standard, or less freaky apparatus. Any 
attempt to describe the imitations and vari- 
ations of the Pachuca tank and the 
numerous complex and mysterious sys- 
tems of patented piping with which it has 
been draped and garnished is, of course, 
out of the question. But, from this view 
point, the Pachuca tank has been, and is 
now, an unqualified success. 

Continuous Agitation Gaining Ground 
A battery of six Pachuca tanks 14 ft. 
10 in. by 44 ft. 8'j in., at the Esperanza 
mill, Mexico, was fitted up last February 
for continuous agitation, by means of 
6-in. pipe connections from a point near 
the top of one tank to a position near the 
bottom of the air lift in the adjoining 
tank. The pulp is fed into the top of 
No. 1 tank at the rate of 300 tons of dry 
slime and 540 tons of solution per day, 
each tank having the usual Pachuca air- 
lift equipment. The pulp gravitates 
through the series of six tanks with a 
friction drop of about 6-in. head between 
tanks. Apart from the time saved in fill- 
ing tanks a gain in extraction of 1.3 per 
cent, gold and 1.5 per cent, of silver is re- 
ported and a saving of 25 grams cyanide 
per ton of ore treated. 8 

In wet milling with cyanide solution 
(crushing and concentrating) the pro- 
cess must, of course, be continuous so 
far as settling slimes and clarifying the 
solution for re-use is concerned. Some of 
these plants also carry out continuous 
agitation methods, and with reform ores 
continuous agitation will, no doubt, soon 
become standard practice in combination 
with continuous-acting filters. The Fs- 
peranza work is, however, carried out on 
a large scale with results that show the 
continuous agitation is at least as good 
as the single-charge method. 

Vacuum Filters Apparentiy Superior 
to Filter Prf^sf^ 
West Australian metallurgists intro- 
duced the filter press into pold milling, 
and, I might sav. perfected it: todav the 
filter press remains the standard at Kal- 
goorlie, but, unlike the tube mill, also 

«M. IT. Kurvla. 
1010; p i- 

Mrr. \fin. Journ., All?., 



January 7, 1911. 

first used in ore treatment at Kalgoorlie, 
it has not spread over the world. The 
filter press is too costly in initial ex- 
penditure, in maintenance and in opera- 
tion, so could not hold its own against the 
much cheaper and more efficient vacuum 
filters of American invention, the leading 
types of which, the Moore and the But- 
ters, have with few exceptions met with 
unqualified success. 

First Leaf-filter Plant on the Rand 
The Butters company this fall started 
a 1000-ton plant, in perhaps the most 
critical metallurgical circle in the world — 
conservative in everything except the 
weight of stamps. This filter plant on the 
Crown Mines made a wonderful showing 
against the standard decantation process 
elaborated in Rand practice; and several 
other vacuum-filter plants, it is said, are 
under order. This is somewhat surpris- 
ing on account of the immense capital 
tied up in the huge decantation plants. 

Many efforts have been made to elaborate 
a continuous slime filter, one of the 
earlier successes being attributed to the 
Ridgeway, 10 of which are operated at 
the Great Boulder mill, Kalgoorlie. Other 
Ridgeway's have been erected in Mexico 
and elsewhere. 

Drum Filters Still Too Complicated 

The drum form of continuous filter, of 
which we may take the Oliver as a type, 
appears to be coming into use in the 
United States and Mexico; they all leave 
much to be desired, the complication of 
automatic valves on vacuum, pressure air 
and wash water prove troublesome and in 
the present state of the art the simpler 
form of leaf filter, now highly developed, 
appears to have the preference among 
large users. 

Zinc Still Superior to Electrolytic 
The simple zinc shaving of MacArthur 

still holds the lead and is, I believe, pref- 
erable for rich solutions. The zinc-dust 
method, however, as perfected by Mer- 
rill is superior for recovering precious 
metals from weak and low-grade solu- 
tions. This process is coming into ex- 
tensive use and deservedly so. It is im- 
portant to note that electro-precipitation 
has made no progress notwithstanding the 
many shining lights that have introduced 
one or another of the various schemes 
and the lavish use of capital to promote 

Electro-cyanide methods have indeed 
failed entirely in practical mill work, both 
in the solution of the precious metals and 
also in their precipitation. Meanwhile, 
the old process of MacArthur- Forrest 
aided by cheaper chemicals and power 
and by ever increasing mechanical im- 
provements, goes steadily on conquering 
and to conquer stubborn and rebellious 
ores in every part of the globe. 

Stamp Milling in 1910 

By Louis D. Huntoon * 

In reviewing stamp-mill practice in this 
country and South Africa during 1910 
there is still to be noticed the general ab- 
sence of preliminary hand dressing and 
mechanical sampling in this country. 

The results of the discussion over the 
efficiency of the heavy gravity stamp as 
compared with the light stamp are that 
South African practice appears to favor 
the heavy stamp up to 2000 lb., whereas 
in this country stamps weighing from 
1000 to 1200 lb. remain in favor. The 
new Ebner mill at Juneau, Alaska, is an 
exception; at this property stamps weigh- 
ing 1400 lb. have been ordered. The 
heaviest stamps operating in this district 
are 1150 lb. The results from the 1400- 
lb. stamps will be looked forward to with 
much interest. 

Fine Grinding 

For fine grinding of gold-silver ore the 
large mills still follow the practice of the 
last few years; the stamp mill is used 
primarily as a crushing machine prepara- 
tory to sliming in a tube mill. Since the 
development of the disseminated copper 
ores requiring fine grinding, mills on en- 
tirely different lines have been designed 
to pulverize the ores; rolls and Chilean 
mills have replaced the stamp and tube 

The advisability of retreating at the 
mills concentrates containing gold and 
silver, to save freight and smelting 
charges, has been investigated during the 

«f mining and metallurgy, sin-f 
School <'f ^iil<- I nl v> rHjty. 

• nri 

last few years with the result that a few 
of the mills producing such concentrates 
have devised successful methods of ex- 
tracting the gold. 

Hand Dressing 

In South Africa, preliminary hand 
dressing before stamping is practised on 
a large scale on sized products, and about 
20 per cent, of waste rock discarded, 
thereby greatly increasing the capacity of 
the mine and the profits per day and per 
ton of ore. In this country preliminary 
hand dressing is not in so great favor, 
and is only practised at a few properties 
on lump ore as delivered to the breaker 
from the mine bins. From the breakers 
the ore is conveyed to the stamp mill 
without further hand dressing. The pos- 
sibility of introducing hand dressing on 
the product from the breakers is worthy 
of careful investigation. 

Sampling Plants 

Mechanical-Sampling plants preceding 
stamp milling are also noticeable by their 
absence in most mills in this country. 
Samples are taken from the battery dis- 
charge, but this sample does not contain 
the rich sands retained in the battery and 
is not a sample of the ore being milled. 
Great care must be exercised in taking 
this sample as the slimes are liable to 
splash over the sides of the sampler and 
be lost, in which case the battery sample 
is not accurate and there is no check on 
the mill work. 

With base metals, where the ore in 
general is worth much less per ton and 

requires most careful milling to show a 
profit, accurate mechanical-sampling 
plants are installed. The excuse for not 
installing mechanical-sampling plants for 
gold ore is that a sample can be taken 
from the battery and the cost of the 
sampling plant and operation does not 
warrant it. When investigating this cost, 
it is found to be less than one cent per 
ton. The following costs were obtained 
in 1910 and illustrate how insignificant 
the cost is when the plant is properly ar- 
ranged: Capacity of plant, 3000 tons per 
day; weight of sample,' 120 lb. per day; 
cost of plant, $7500. Cost of operation: 10 
h.p. for operating, $1.40 per day; 5 
h.p. for drying, $0.70; two men, $4.60; 
maintenance, $0.80; total, $7.50 per day, 
or %.c. per ton of ore. 

Sampling and Assay Costs Low 

At the El Oro mine the total cost of 
sampling for May, 1010, including mine 
sampling, assaying, and supplies, was 
4c. per ton.. Over 8000 assays were made 
at a cost of 14c. per assay. In the Coeur 
d'Alene district, Idaho, the charges per 
ton for sampling are insignificant. At 
public sampling plants where the plant 
must be thoroughly cleaned after each 
lot is sampled, the cost is much greater 
and will vary from 20 to 22c. per ton 
on 100-ton lots. 

Capacity of Stamps 

The capacity of stamps depends upon 
a great many factors but only the size 
of the ore and weight of the stamp will 
be considered here. 

January 7, 1911. 



The size of ore fed to a stamp mill 
11 depend upon the character of the 
e and the weight of the stamp. Heavy 
imps require a coarser feed than light 
imps. The size should be such thai 
e force of the blow will be dissipated 
crushing the rock on the die and 
lashing the crushed material through 
e discharge screen. For crushing pur- 
ees, breakers are more efficient than 
imps. The ore should be reduced with 
eakers as fine as is consistent with the 
ccessful operation of the stamp. 
It appears from the investigations in 
mth Africa that the capacity of the 
imp increases in almost direct propor- 
m to the weight. This has resulted in 
adualiy increasing the weight for in- 
eased capacity until a new mill of 200 
imps, weighing 2000 lb. per stamp, has 
en erected. 

South African practice has not been 
llowed in this country. By increasing 
e weight and size of discharge the ca- 
city of South African stamps has been 
creased from about 3]/ 2 tons to 8 tons 
id in one case it is 15 tons. By in- 
easing the size of discharge in 
is country the capacity has been in- 
eased from about 3y 2 tons to five 
seven tons with one or two exceptions 
lere a nine ton capacity had been 

Efficiency of Heavy Stamps 

The question has been raised as to the 
ast efficient weight for gravity stamps, 
id upon this point opinions differ 
eatly. The series of tests made in 
>uth Africa, published in the Transac- 
)ns of the Institution of Mining and 
etallurgy, 1909, together with the dis- 
issions, indicates to me that heavy 
amps are more efficient crushing ma- 
lines than light stamps. The question 

to whether the stamp mill, as a crush- 
g machine, is as efficient as rolls ap- 
irently was not considered during these 
sts. Most engineers will admit that for 
ushing purposes only the stamp mill 

not as efficient as rolls. The original 
amp mills erected for treating Cripple 
reek ore were soon rebuilt and the 
amps discarded for rolls. This im- 
•oved practice is still followed by the 
rge mills. 

The stamp mill, as a ' crushing ma- 
line, has lately been thoroughly tested 

the mill of the Boston Consolidated 
opper Company, treating the dissemi- 
ited copper ore from Bingham, Utah. 
5 a crushing machine it was not a suc- 
ss, and the stamps are now being re- 
aced by rolls and Chilean mills which 
ill have a much greater capacity than 
e stamps. 

Fine Crushing 

The old fractice of treating gold- 
Iver ore was to crush with stamps, 
nalgamate on apron plates and con- 

centrate the tailings, if necessary. With 
the improvements in the cyanide pro- 
cess the method of recovery has changed 
entirely in many districts, but no changes 
have been introduced for the preliminary 
crushing other than increased weight of 
stamps. The apron plates to the battery 
are being discarded, and shaking amalga- 
mating plates introduced to save the 
coarse gold. The gold and silver remain- 
ing in the tailings are extracted by con- 
centration and cyaniding, or by cyanid- 
ing direct. 

The stamp mill as used today is 
primarily a crushing machine. In the 
new 200-stamp mill recently built in 
South Africa, with stamps weighing 2000 
lb., the ore is crushed through 10 mesh, 
classified, and the coarse product from 
the classifier pulverized in tube mills. 
No amalgamation takes place until the 
ore is pulverized; the stamps and tube 
mills are used for crushing and pulver- 
izing only. The products from the tube 
mils, together with the overflow from the 
classifiers, are combined and fed to shak- 
ing amalgamating tables. 

Stamps Used Only for Crushing 

The new mill of the Tonopah Exten- 
sion company also serves as an illus- 
tration of the use of stamp mills for 
crushing purposes only. The ore is 
crushed by stamps, concentrated, the 
coarse tailings pulverized in tube mi'Js, 
and the product from the tube mills again 
concentrated. The pulverized tailings 
are collected and cyanided. 

As shown in the flow sheet of the 
Goldfield Consolidated mill, the stamps 
are used primarily for crushing. The 
openings in the discharge screen are 
y\ in., giving a capacity of 8 1 .. to 9 T / 2 
tons per stamp. For finer grinding, 
Chilean mills have been introduced sim- 
ilar to the practice of mills operating 
on disseminated copper ore. Tube mills 
are used for pulverizing. Many other 
mills using stamps as crushing machines 
could be mentioned but the above will 
serve to illustrate South African prac- 
tice and two types of mills in this coun- 

Crushing Disseminated Copper Ore 

Examining the practice followed in 
crushing disseminated copper ore, which 
requires the same general treatment as 
the gold-silver ore, there is no similarity. 
The copper ore is broken to 1 Vi in. and 
crushed with rolls at less expense than 
can be accomplished with stamps. The 
rolls have a positive discharge whereas 
the stamps have not. Chilean mills are, 
at present, receiving preference for finer 
grinding of copper ore. These mills 
have not a positive discharge and tend 
to slime the product which is objection- 
able for concentration. It is reported 
that one section of the Miami Copper 
mill will use rigid rolls in place of 
Chilean mills. From the above it ap- 

pears that the stamp mill should oe 
abandoned when the ore contains no 
coarse gold and that rolls should be 
introduced in their place. 

The economical limit of fine crushing 
with rolls is about 20 mesh. Beyond 
this tube mills and ball mills are more 
efficient. For gold-silver ore, tube mills 
are preferred and are being largely us_d. 
The discharge is not positive and the 
product is likely to contain a high per- 
centage of slime. When slimes are to 
be avoided the ball mill is preferable to 
the Chilean mill. 

Retreatment of Concentrates 

At several of the large gold mills the 
concentrates produced are being re- 
treated and the gold extracted at the 
mill, thereby saving freight and smelter 
charges. The practice followed by the 
Goldfield Consolidated company is *o 
first pulverize the ore and then concen- 
trate. The concentrates are first run 
over amalgamating plates to recover 
coarse free gold and then cyanided by a 
special process devised by G. W. 

Experiments have also been conducted 
by Mr. Parsons of the Desert mill, Ne- 
vada, on the concentrates from the To- 
nopah ore, but the results did not war- 
rant the erection of a plant. 

At the Perseverance mine, about five 
miles from Juneau, Alaska, the concen- 
trates assay from $30 to $40 in gold. 
The charges for haulage, freight and 
treatment amount to about $14 per ton. 
To avoid this excessive charge a Middle- 
ton & Cobbe amalgamating pan was in- 
stalled recently to retreat the concen- 
trates. The results of the testing show 
that a large percentage of the gold can 
be recovered by amalgamation, and the 
pulverized concentrates reconcentrated, 
giving a product containing from $100 to 
$125 per ton and tailings containing $2 
to $2.50 per ton. 

Alaska-Treadwell to Retreat Its Own 

The Alaska-Treadwell company, on 
Douglas island, Alaska, is also install- 
ing a plant to retreat the concentrates 
which assay about $30 in gold. For 
years past these concentrates have been 
shipped to the smelteries along the Pa- 
cific coast. Freight and treatment 
charges have amounted to about $10 per 
ton. The present plan is to classify tke 
concentrates, recrush the coarse ma- 
terial in tube mills and pass the product 
of the tube mills, together with the over- 
flow from the classifier, over amalga- 
mated copper plates. The tailings from 
the copper plates will be cyanided. It is 
estimated that the total cost of retreat- 
ment will amount to about $3 per ton, 
thereby saving about $7 per ton on 100 
tons of concentrates per day, which is a 
good profit in itself. 



January 7, 191 

The Metallurgy of Lead in 191 

By H. O. Hofman * 

The improvements made during 1910 
in the metallurgical treatment of lead ores 
were few, as the methods of smelting ore 
and refining lead bullion were already so 
well established that the practice had 
almost become standardized. There were 
a few exceptions to this general state- 
ment, but most of the changes that took 

ee had to do with a mechanical de- 
vice here and there which hastened and 
cheapened the operations heretofore car- 
ried out by hand. 

If the practice shows considerable 
uniformity, the theory is being steadily 
advanced by the research that is being 
carried on in metallurgical laboratories. 
General chemical investigations, which 
for the last fifty years were more or less 
"onfined to organic chemistry, have in 
part made a change of front and turned 
toward the field of inorganic and with it, of 
metallurgical chemistry, since it has be- 
come possible to determine accurately the 
character and limit of many chemical 
reactions at elevated temperatures. Thus 
from metallurgical and purely chemical 
sources many processes which practice 
has developed receive explanations which 
fill existing gaps in the theory and 
broaden the field as a whole. 

Composition of the Lead Silicates 

A very common compound in lead met- 
allurgy is lead silicate. A few years 
ago Mostowitsch 1 shattered the generally 
accepted idea that we had to deal with 
chemical compounds by a series of care- 
ful experiments which appeared to show 
that lead silicates were solutions of lead 
oxide in lead glass. The more recent in- 
vestigations of Cooper, Shaw and Loomis 
proved the existence of the singulo-sili- 
cate. Pb c <0 . melting at 746 deg. C; 
of the bi-silicate, PbSiO.. melting at 766 
deg. C. ; and of a eutectic, Pb,SiO, — 
PbSiO with approximately 88 per cent. 
PbO. melting at 717 deg. C. ; they also 
determined the freezing point of PbO as 
lying g. Centigrade. 

5ITION Temperatures of the 

In the roasting of a metallic sulphide 
there is almost always some metallic sul- 
phate formed, and the latter is decom- 
wholly at an elevated temperature, 
with the exception of lead sulphate, which 
'jfl only in part its <-ulphur trioxide. 
The dissociation temperatures of only part 
of the metallic Sulphates are known. The 

rv '.it 

investigations of Friedrich'' gave valua- 
ble information upon this point. The 
temperatures for the leading sulphates 
are as follows: Fe_, 3 SO,-*Fe_.G\ = 705 
deg. C; CoSCWCoO = 880 deg.; NiSG\ 
•♦NiC — 840 deg.;CuSO,-»2 CuO.S0 3 = 
740 deg.; 2 CuO.SGwCuO = 845 deg.; 
CuC-»CuO.Cu,0 = 1040 deg.; ZnSCW 
3 ZnO.2 SOa = 840 deg.; 3 ZnO.2 SO,-» 
ZnO — 935 deg.;MnSG\»»? = 1030 deg.; 
A1..3 SCWAL-Oa = 770 deg. ; Ag,S0 4 -*Ag 
= 1085 degrees. 

The melting temperatures found are: 
MnSO«, 700 deg.; Ag,SG\ 600 deg.; the 
transformation temperatures, ZnSO,, 740 
deg.; MnSO,, 860 deg.; PbSo„ 850 deg. 
(others found 845 deg.) ; Ag,So 4 , 410 deg. 

The Name for Blast Roasting Still 

The subject of paramount interest at 
present is that of blast-roasting, by 
means of which metallic sulphide is 
roasted and agglomerated in a single 
operation through forced or induced, in- 
stead of the common natural draft. Re- 
cent experiments appear to show that 
some metallic arsenides are amenable 
to blast-roasting, of which more below. 
Some attempts have been made to sub- 
stitute for the generic term of blast- 
roasting given by Dwight, the word "bes- 
semer-roasting'" and "blast and down- 
draft sintering,""' neither of which ap- 
pears satisfactory. Following the second 
suggestion, "up- and down-draft roast- 
sintering" expresses the present state of 
the art, but the term is too long. 

Blast-roasting Only a Quickened 
Ordinary Roast 

Technical periodicals have offered many 
theories regarding the reactions that oc- 
cur in blast-roasting since the process 
was first patented by Huntington and 
Heberlein in 1898 for the treatment of 
lead ores. In a doctorate thesis', 
Paul Richter goes over the whole 
ground systematically, subjecting the dif- 
ferent theories proposed to laboratory ex- 
periment, and feels justified in putting 
them all aside. He shows that blast- 
roasting is nothing more or less than 
an enforced ordinary roast similar to 
that in a reverberatory furnace, in which 
the reactions taking place with galena 

l/< lallurf/U . 1010, vii. 328, 

Editorial Ifel and <h< ,„ Enn 1010 
Viii 222 

n ".IT 

'Rcltrilfn a, Thcorii /let Witntinatnn-ffebei 

'<"/ <i, / ;//, , . / „ "ii,iirii 1 . 
A by i.oImmi No I 
i,i«ii ■ won 

may be expressed by PbS -f 30-] 
+ SO,, SO, -f O = S0 3 , PbS + 4 SC 
PbSO, + 4 SO,, PbO + S0 3 = PbSO, 
PbO ' SiO, = Pb,SiO., 2 PbSO, + ! 
= Pb,SiO, + 2 SOa ( or SO, + O ) . 
large volume of air, forced or dr 
into the ore charge, surrounds 
single particles of sulphide, drives off 
sulphur dioxide as soon as fom 
and thus counteracts to some ex 
the formation of sulphate; at 
same time it causes the oxidation to ; 
ceed at such a speed that the heat j 
erated causes the resulting oxide to f 
with the accompanying gangue or 
added flux a sintered mass. There 
two statements in the thesis to wl 
exception must be taken; one is that 
silica necessary to the charge may 
either free or combined; the other is 
the composition of the gangue or of 
flux added has no influence upon 

Conditions Necessary for Success 

For the success of a blast-roast, i 
essential that the sulphurous g; 
formed be withdrawn as quickly as 1 
sible; that the heat furnished by 
oxidation be sufficient for agglomera 
and not in any great excess over 
amount required; that the quality 
quantity of dilutent flux, or, the gang 
be such that it form with the oxidi 
sintered mass; that the size and form 
ore as well as of diluent flux, be corn 
and that the operation be carried oul 
the suitable manner. 

The quick withdrawal of sulphur 
oxide as soon as formed prevents 
being converted into trioxide by catalj 
and acting upon oxide or sulphide, 
regards the heat set free in roasting 
is well to recall that the amounts 
erated by the oxidation of metals, si 
as zinc, iron, nickel, lead, copper, 
molecule oxygen, are much greater tl 
is that by the burning of sulphur 
sulphur dioxide, viz., (Zn, 0)=r84,{ 
cal.. (Fe, O) =65,700, (Ni, O) =61,5 
(Pb, O) = 50.800, (Cu,0) = 40,? 
(S, O.) 34,630 cal. Thus, a low-grt 
copper matte, or one that is rich in ir 
will behave differently from one that 
high-grade or poor in iron, and a It 
matte differently from a galena concf 
trate, on account of the high tempei 
tures developed by the first, as compai 
with the second. On account of the Iar 
amount of heat developed by the oxid 
tion of arsenic per molecule oxygen, vi 
(As,0) — 52.100 cal., an arsenide w 
not be so readily blast-roasted as a a 
responding sulphide, although the heat 

January 7, 191 1. 



vaporization of arsenious oxide has to be 
deducted from the above high value. 

Five Ways to Correct Excess Heat 

There are five ways open for correcting 
the heating effect of an excess of metallic 
sulphide: One is to add an extra amount 
of water to the charge, e.g., 15 per 
cent, as against the usual 5; another to 
rougii roast the ore in a fine-ore kiln cr 
reverberatory furnace, and thus convert 
part of the sulphide into sulphate and 
oxide; the third is to di'ute the ore with 
sufficient flux to reduce the calorific power 
of the ore mixture; the fourth is to 
choose a diluent of high specific heat; 
the fifth, a suggestion of Savelsberg, to 
blow in air containing less than the nor- 
mal amount of oxygen. Wetting down 
the charge is the simplest expedient, but 
water can be used only in limited 
amounts. Rough-roasting not only de- 
composes part of the metallic sulphide, 
but changing this into oxide contributes 
thereby a certain amount of diluent and 
correspondingly diminishes the quantity 
of extraneous material that would other- 
wise have to be added. As a rough- 
roast in a mechanical furnace is a cheap 
operation, this method offers many ad- 
vantages over the third, the addition of 
flux to the raw ores, because with this 
an economic limit is quickly reached, as 
it decreases the smelting power of the 
blast furnace for ore, the capacity of the 
shaft being taken up by flux. Dilution 
of air with fuel gases has not been tried. 

Effect of Diluents Examined 
The assertion of P. Richter that the 
character of the diluent had no decided 
influence upon a blast-roast is based upon 
the fact observed by him in roasting ex- 
periments made in an assay muffle, which 
showed that the oxidation was hastened 
about equally by the 16 diluents tried, 
namely, limestone, iron oxide, gypsum, 
caustic lime, dolomite, barite, witherite, 
baryta, cerussite, anglesite, lead- and 
copper-blast-furnace slag, ground brick, 
silicious gangue, "blue billy" (iron ore). 
As far as the mechanical effect of hold- 
ing apart the sulphide particles and 
thereby favoring the speed of the roast 
is concerned, the statement holds true, 
but the thermal and chemical behaviors 
oi the additions to a charge have to be 
well considered. It is essential for a 
blast-roast that complete oxidation of the 
sulphide be accompanied or closely fol- 
lowed by sintering, or fusing. The 
latter takes place at a slightly ele- 
vated temperature above the former; 
with silicate mixtures, the two curves 
usually run parallel. The specific heat 
r>f t u e flux, or, the gangue 7 , must be 
such as to absorb any excess heat gen- 
erated by the forced roast, acting as a 

"W. "Unotnwitsoh. private communication. 
Au<r.^f loin; Gulllemain, Metallurgie, 1010. 
VII. r.oo. 

thermal balance-wheel which equalizes 
the temperature and holds it at a point 
at which roasting and sintering can pro- 
ceed at the desired rate and in the re- 
quired degree. If the specific heat is 
too low, the temperature rises too quickly 
and the charge fuses before it is suffi- 
ciently roasted; if it is too high, too 
much heat is absorbed, the temperature 
of the sulphide is too low for a perfect 
roast and especially for the desired sin- 
tering, with the result that part of the 
charge is imperfectly roasted and remains 
pulverulent. The following substances 
are arranged approximately in the order 
of their specific heats, the first having 
the lowest: Lead oxide, cerussite, angle- 
site, barite, copper oxide, witherite, man- 
ganese oxide, iron oxide, iron silicate, 
calcium sulphate, basic copper carbonate, 
alumina, silicate low in iron, hornblende, 
limestone, sandstone, ground brick, do- 
lomite, clay, copper and lead blast-fur- 
nace slag, gypsum. As regards the chem- 
ical effect of the flux, it is essential that 
the mixtures have a composition which 
sinters at a low temperature, forming 
silicate. For example, with lead ores the 
composition is usually one which will 
result in a singulo-silicate of low for- 
mation temperature formed from the re- 
maining components after the amount of 
lead and matte expected has been de- 
ducted. Of course, if the percentage of 
metallic sulphide is too low, with galena 
ore under from 7 to 10 per cent, sulphur, 
raw sulphide will have to be added to the 

Size of Grain Same as for Ordinary 

The size of grain of the ore will be 
the same as that which has been found 
to be best for an ordinary roast, i.e., for 
galena about 8-mesh; the grain of the 
flux ought to be coarser with a galena 
charge, about 4-mesh; further, the grains 
ought to be angular and not rounded, in 
order that they may interlock, resist the 
pressure of the blast and keep open the 
spaces necessary to furnish free access 
to the air. The flux will therefore be 
crushed fine in rolls and not in ball mills 
or similar apparatus furnishing rounded 

As regards the mode of operating, it 
is essential that the components of a 
charge be intimately mixed; further, it 
has been found necessary to moisten the 
charge. The water acts in two ways, 
in that it prevents dusting and keeps 
down the temperature, excess heat being 
absorbed by vaporization of the water. 

Up-draft Roasting Done in Pots 

The apparatus' is conveniently classed 
as up-draft and down-draft. For the 
former the spherical or slightly conical 
cast-iron kettle supported by trunnions 

8 IIofman, Bull.. A. I. M. E., Nov., 1010. 

is characteristic. Its form and mode of 
operating have been repeatedly described 
in connection with the Huntington-Heber- 
lein, Savelsberg, and Bradford-Carmi- 
chael processes for blast roasting lead 

In the last year two improvements 
in the form and general arrangement of 
pots have been made. Thus, Baker' 
patented a pot of the usual form with 
grate and blast inlet beneath, different 
from the general type in that the conical 
hood covering the pot rests upon a sep- 
arate support with which it forms an 
airtight joint by means of a sand- or 
water-seal. The gases set free in blast 
roasting are deflected by the hood, pass 
oft between the hood and the rim of the 
pot, descend outside of the latter and 
enter a flue that is connected with an 
exhaust apparatus. Doors in the hood 
give access to the charge when the blast 
has been shut off. The recommendation 
for the arrangement is the reduction of 
volume of gas. 

Apparatus Used at Torreon 

Haas"' described his blast-roasting in 
operation at Torreon, Mexico. The es- 
sential parts are a bowl-shaped cast-iron 
vessel, 6x12 ft., with grate, holding 10 
tons of charge, supported by trunnions 
through which enters the blast, a sta- 
tionary hood with doors delivering the 
gases to a balloon-shaped dust flue, a 
hopper for holding the prepared mixture 
supplied by a belt conveyer, a tilting de- 
vice and an adjustable air supply. The 
discharged sinter-cake is handled from 
an overhead traveling crane. With a 
400-ton plant of 20 units, each treating 
two charges per day, the cost of blast- 
roasting is estimated at 68c. per ton. 

Continuous Up-draft Roasting 

Bellinger's apparatus" is a departure 
from the common intermittent pot in 
that it is continuous. It consists of a 
horizontal traveling grate resembling an 
endless link belt, over part of which ex- 
tends a vaulted roasting chamber con- 
nected by a pipe with a device for fur- 
nishing induced draft. At the feed end of 
the grate and outside of the roasting 
chamber are two hoppers: One feeds the 
ore mixture on to the grate to be ignited 
by a burner; the other feeds on top 
of the ore a" bed of crushed limestone, 
coarse ore, or other suitable material 
which, serving as a filter, holds back the 
flue dust created by the power of the 
induced draft. The sintered ore is dis- 
charged outside of the roasting chamber 
at the end opposite the feed. Another 
apparatus to be mentioned was that of 
Vivian 1 ". 

9 I\ S. Pat. No. 942.810, 1910. 
«>Eno. AND Mix. JOUKN., 1910. XC, 814. 
"T T . S. rat. No. 942.052, Dec. 7. 1910. 
' 2 T'. S. Pat No. 950.79R. March 1 1910. 


January 7, 1911 

Use of Dwight-Lloyd Machine Con- 
tinually Growing 

Of the down-draft blast-roasting ap- 
paratus the Dwight-Lloyd roasting ma- 
chines remained the sole representatives; 
however, a new device was patented by 
Perkins and Requal *. A general de- 
scription of the Dwight-Lloyd machines, 
giving the leading facts, appeared in this 
paper '. The record during 1910 was 
satisfactory. The Metallurgische Gesell- 
schaft, of Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, 
the owner of the Huntington-Heberlein 
patents, thought it wise to purchase the 
European rights to the machines. In 
this country, the original 50-ton machine 
a: Salida, Colo., has been supplemented 
by two large units of 100 tons capacity; 
the same is the case with the works at 
East Helena, Mont. 1 " Similar news 
comes from Selby, Tacoma, Alton and 

It is interesting to note that the 
Savelsburg process in operation at 
the works of St. Joseph Lead Company, 
Herculaneum, Mo., is being replaced by 
the Dwight-Lloyd machines. The St. 
Louis Smelting and Refining Company, is 
duplicating its down-draft blast-roasting 
plant; in Australia the Sulphide Corpora- 
tion at Cockle Creek has put in the 
machines, and the Broken Hill smeltery 
at Port Pirie has given up the Bradford- 
Carmichael process in favor of the 
Dwight-Lloyd machines. This record 
appears to show that the advantages 
claimed for continuous down-draft ma- 
chines with a bed of mixture four inches 
deep, furnishing ready blast-furnace ma- 
terial, as against the up-draft intermit- 
tent pot, which with a charge from three 
to four feet deep furnishing a cake 
weighing from 6 to 9 tons which has to 
be broken for blast-furnace use, are be- 
ing fulfilled. 

Ignition and Incandescence Tempera- 
tures of Arsenides 

Before discussing the new field of blast- 
roasting in the treatment of speiss, it 
is well to call attention to the experi- 
mental work of Friedrich" ; upon the 
ignition and incandescence temperatures 
of some artificial cobalt and nickel arsen- 
ides. The cobalt series of roasting tests, 
with material ranging in size between 
0.1 and 0.2 mm., shows that cobalt arsen- 
ides of from 46.5 to 78 per cent. Co 
begin to roast at temperatures varying 
.tn 750 and 822 dog. C, and that 
the ignition and incandescence tempera- 
tures do not rise with the percentage of 
cobalt. In the nickel series, the arsen- 
arying in composition from 44 to 
-hows, in 0.1 -mm. size 
incandescence temperatures of from 500 

to 1050 deg. C, which rise with the 
nickel contents. The same is the case 
with grains 0.1 to 0.2 mm. in diameter, 
excepting that the temperatures are 
higher, covering a range of from 680 to 
1200 deg. Centigrade. 

Blast-roasting of Speiss 

Guillemain 17 has experimented with 
the blast-roasting of lead-bearing speiss 
(German Pat. 1908, No. 195,465, Kl 40 a, 
Gr. 2.) the bane of the lead smelter. 
Hist charge consists of finely ground 
speiss mixed with limestone, or acid 
copper-blast-furnace slag, coarse sand, 
crushed brick and perhaps some lead 
matte for the control of temperature 
and copper content. In blowing sintering 
takes place only after a considerable part 
of the arsenic and antimony has been 
expelled. Thus, 12 tons of speiss of the 
composition Pb, 9.9; Cu, 6.65; Fe, 48.5; 
NiCo, 3.4; As, 18.5; Sb, 3.4; S, 6.2; 
Ag, 61.2 oz., mixed with flux to reduce 
the arsenic content to from 10 to 15 
per cent., gave flue dust with Cu, 1.6; 
As, 47.8; Sb, 11.4; S, 0.88; Ag, 1.6 oz. 
and after fusion, concentrated speiss witn 
Pb, 4.75; Cu, 8.15; Fe, 30.8;; NiCo, 
12.50; As, 20.6; Sb, 0.90; S, not de- 
termined; Ag, 72.9 oz. In blowing, the 
grate of the pot is covered with broken 
limestone; this is followed by glowing 
fuel, and the fuel by a second layer of 
limestone which distributes the heat. At 
first only one-quarter of the pot is filled 
with the charge, and the rest added when 
the oxidation is progressing satisfac- 

An experimental charge of 500 lb. 
was blown in five hours and the 
arsenic content reduced to from 3 to 5 
per cent. Leady speiss rich in arsenic, 
e.g., Pb, 4.50; Cu, 2.25; NiCo, 0.70; 
As, 40; Sb, 0.30; Ag, 802.1 oz., was 
found to have a melting point and to 
show a behavior in blast-roasting differ- 
ent from one that contained less arsenic, 
viz., Pb, 2.75; Cu, 1.00; NiCo, 0.50; 
As, 19.00; Sb, 0.42; Ag, 300.4 oz. The 
speiss with 40 per cent. As emits fumes 
of As-O. and Sb,0 :! until it has lost 
about 20 per cent, in weight. It then has 
become a porous spongy mass which is 
not liquefied by the heat generated in the 
oxidation of arsenic and antimony, and 
can be blown to sintering with much less 
flux than is required in starting with a 
low-arsenic speiss. 



1010 ' I 817. 

■ •■ ■■' 1910 .\\.\III. 

1010 VII 7'. 

The asbestos industry in Germany is 
reported of late to have met with con- 
siderable reverses. In September last 
the German as well as the International 
syndicate had to be dissolved owing to 
new factories having been started which 
did not join the syndicates, with the re- 
sult that a considerable overproduction, 
accompanied by a sharp fall of prices, 

The production of bromine in 
United States in 1910 was as follov 
West Virginia, 54,000 lb.; Ohio, 80,( 
lb.; Pennsylvania, 75,000 lb.; Michig 
641,300 lb.; total, 850,300 lb. The p 
duction in 1909 was 1,100,000 lb. Th< 
statistics include liquid bromine and 
bromine equivalent of bromides. 1 
output in 1910 was the smallest in yea 
the decrease being due to the low pr 
during the first six months and the d 
sale of salt. Four bromine plants in i 
Ohio valley were idle. The largest p: 
ducer in the United States is the D 
Chemical Company, of Michigan. 

During the first six months of IS 
the price for bromine was 10@ lie; 
the later months, 14@15c. ; in Novemt 
the price was advanced to 17@18c, t 
no sales at that price have yet been i 
ported. The Dow Chemical Compa 
undertook in April and May to buy t 
outside bromine production and ma 
contracts with some of the produce 
but not all. This led one of the pi 
ducers on the Ohio river to enter up 
the manufacture of bromides. 

The price of bromides was advanc 
by 2c. in May and 4c. more in Novei 
ber. The price for these salts has be 
controlled by the Dow Chemical Coi 
pany since the Germans withdrew frc 
this market in December, 1908. T 
sale of bromide and bromate of pota 
sium for metallurgical purposes i 
creased in 1910 and amounted to abo 
250,000 lb. Most of this went to Au 
tralia, but some was used in Colorai 
and Nevada. 

The equivalent of bromine to pota 
sium bromide is about 100 : 140. 
recent years the price for liquid bromii 
has been above the bromide parity, owir 
to difficulties entailed by the pure-foe 
and drug law of 1906. Since then 
has been impossible to make U. S. pha 
macopeia goods without purifying tl 
crude bromine, which usually goes abo 
94 per cent. Br. This is a difficult pn 
cess, costing y 2 c. per lb., besides invoh 
ing a loss of 7 per cent, of bromine. 


> ; \h 1010 


Messrs. Leonard Chapman & Co., ( 
London, report the current price c 
graphite, under date of Dec. 9, accordin 
tr> quality, as follows: 

Ceylon L] £ir> 58. od. to £37 IDs. oi 

Ceylon 01 cm 9s. 6d. to £37 (is f>< 

Ceylon chips £8 5s. od. to £27 os. o< 

Ceylon dusl . ,. £9 10s. od. to £25 os. 01 

The above prices are per ton of 2240 tb 
o.l f. London. The foil owing prices per 224 
lb. are for purified, milled and groun 
miners I 

Ceylon '.'7 to 99' i £59 to £4 

Ceylon 90 to 91 < £40 to ft 

Ceylon 80 to 81 % £80 to 61 

1 • ■■ to 719! vil to i"J 

Vmerlcan large flake £ 15 to £4 

■" mall M. il e £3fi t<> l' i 

January 7, 191 1. 



Mining in Colorado during 1910 

By George E. Collins * 

Generally speaking, the mining indus- 
■y in Colorado was moderately prosper- 
us during 1910. The tendency, how- 
ver, to a declining production of all the 
rincipal metals, excepting zinc, con- 
nued, and there were no discoveries re- 
orted of new mining districts, or even 
f important orebodies in existing dis- 
icts, to counterbalance the gradual ex- 
austion of many of the larger mines, 
tiling which the aggregate output can- 
ot be indefinitely maintained at even its 
resent figure. The only new develop- 
lent of first-rate importance was the 
:cidental discovery of zinc carbonates 
rid silicates at Leadville referred to 

Precious Metals 

It is too early at the time at which this 
jtline is written to forecast the output 
>r the year. It is, however, considered 
robable that the production of silver de- 
•eased, while that of gold remained sta- 
Dnary. In Cripple Creek the relative 
jsition and output of the larger mines 
imained unchanged, the Portland, Vin- 
cator, Golden Cycle, El Paso, Mary 
IcKinney and Elkton being the largest 

The gradual unwatering of the district 
om the Roosevelt tunnel, which pene- 
ated the fissured volcanic area at a 
stance of 15,500 ft. from the portal, 
id made connection with a hole drilled 
om the bottom of the El Paso shaft, 
ill enable the present rate of output 

be maintained for many years, pos- 
bly for another generation. There is, 
)wever, no reason to expect anything in 
le nature of a boom, or even a return 

the output of 10 years ago. The bulk 
! the ore was treated by the Golden 
ycle (cyanide) and the United States 
eduction and Portland mills (chlorina- 
on) ; the ores of higher grade were con- 
gned to the Pueblo smeltery. The new 
Drtland and Stratton's Independence 
ills, treating low-grade .dump ores by 
fferent modifications of water concen- 
ation and cyanidation without roasting, 
)th proved successful, and will probably 
; followed by others. 
As to the quantity of low-grade ore 
cposed underground in this district and 
cely to be available for such treatment, 
Jthorities differ, but it is improbable 
at this will counterbalance the exhaus- 
Dn of the richer ores near surface. 

eadville Production Chiefly from 
Complex Ores 

The Leadville district was still an im- 

*Mining engineer, Boston building, Denver, 

portant producer of silver, mostly in 
connection with the great bodies of com- 
plex sulphide ores, the Iron Silver and 
Yak Tunnel groups taking the lead. 
While the Ibex is never likely to resume 
its former productiveness, it shipped 
high-grade ore from fissures in the 
granite. The importance of these fis- 
sures underlying the limestone-porphyry 
formation, especially in their bearing on 
the prospects of gold production, is be- 
coming generally recognized. 

In the San Juan district, the gold- 
silver production continued large, espe- 
cially around the district in San Miguel 
and Ouray counties, just east of Tel- 

In this small area are the five 
largest mines — the Camp Bird, Smuggler- 
Union, Tomboy, Liberty Bell and Reve- 
nue. Of these, however, the first two 
are nearly exhausted; and while the Ar- 
gentine vein of the Tomboy still has a 
large ore reserve, the grade is gradually 

At Silverton, the Gold King had its 
orebody cut off by faulting, and the 
Silver Lake shut down. The Iowa-Tiger, 
operated successfully by lessees, and 
the Sunnyside are today the most im- 
portant producers. The immediate pros- 
pects of the San Juan point to a re- 
duction in output. However, the dis- 
trict is far from exhausted, and many 
promising veins are virtually unpros- 
pected, while the known extensive 
bodies of complex ores will some day, 
with lower costs for labor, power and 
supplies, form the basis for a great and 
permanent industry. 

Newhouse Tunnel Benefits Not Yet 

Gilpin and Clear Creek counties main- 
tained a steady but probably a dimin- 
ished production of both gold and silver. 
In the former, the Gregory-Bobtail 
finally closed down, and is filling with 
water. But around Nevadaville, at the 
other end of the district, the completion 
of the Argo (Newhouse) tunnel, approx- 
imately 22,000 ft. in length, is gradually 
draining the deep mines and will enable 
them to be successfully reopened within 
a couple of years. A start was made at 
the Gunnell — next to the Gregory-Bobtail 
probably the greatest producer — which is 
being reopened from the tunnel. It is 
significant that a large aggregate pro- 
duction was maintained from this dis- 
trict, even when the larger mines were 
mostly idle. 

Georgetown Mines Becoming Exhaust- 
ed with Depth 

In Clear Creek, the conditions are 
similar, excepting that it is becoming 
gradually realized that, the old silver 
mines, particularly around Georgetown, 
have become on the whole less produc- 
tive in depth. Near Idaho Springs, the 
Gem, Lamartine and Stanley were oper- 
ated in a rather small way by lessees; 
but there were several notably success- 
ful leases on smaller mines. 

Creede and Aspen were large produc- 
ers of low-grade silver ores, the former 
from various mines along the great 
Amethyst vein, the latter principally from 
the Smuggler and A. J. The Free Silver 
shaft is being unwatered; and when this 
task is completed it will open up con- 
siderable productive territory. Boulder 
county was not favored by any sensa- 
tional discoveries; but in La Plata 
county small quantities of rich ores were 
again mined. 

The gold-dredging industry in Sum- 
mit county is now on a steady and profit- 
able basis. In French gulch particularly 
the Reiling and Revett dredges yielded 
good returns. 


The production of copper in Colorado 
was, as a rule, merely an incident in the 
mining of other metals. Few mines were 
worked primarily for their copper con- 
tents; perhaps the Frank Hough and San 
Antonio in the San Juan came near be- 
ing purely copper mines, and even these 
were often rich in silver. A production 
which, in the aggregate, was far from 
being inconsiderable was afforded by 
gold-silver ores accompanying copper in 
Gilpin, Lake and Chaffee counties, and 
in the San Juan district. 

Lead and Zinc 

These ores usually occur together and 
are worked throughout an extensive 
area, particularly in the central portion 
of the State, generally associated with 
gold or silver, or both. The most ex- 
tensive and easily available orebodies are 
at Leadville, and in the Iron Mask at 
Red Cliff. There are, however, other im- 
portant replacement deposits in the sedi- 
mentary formation at Rico and Kokomo, 
and the Madonna at Monarch; and in 
fissure veins at the Wellington mine at 
Breckenridge, and in many places in the 
San Juan. Unfortunately these cres are 
usually associated with iron and copper 
sulphides, and sometimes with a gangue 
of rhodonite, as in the Sunnyside and 



January 7, 1911. 

Gold Prince at Silverton. The condi- Discovery of Zinc at Leadville per day, and should exceed this rate f< 

tions as to separation are therefore The sensation of the year was the dis- many years. In addition, the qaantii 

varied and difficult, and while the aggre- covery of important replacement deposits of ore of a zinc tenor too low to t 

gate resources of the State, particularly of zinc carbonate and silicate on the available under present conditions, sa 

in zinc, are great, its production is not fringe of the exhausted sulphide ors- 10 to 20 per cent., seems to be large. 

Sketch Map of the Mining Region of Colorado 
Copyrighted by Claaon Map Company, Denver, Colo. 

adequately profitable under the present bodies at Leadville, especially on Car- Rarer Metals 

conditions, excepting in favorable cases, bonate and Fryer hills, where the Morn- The production of tungsten conce 

Furthermore, the fact that the individual ing and Evening Star, Maid of Erin, trates in Boulder county was large, a 

orcbodies are as a rule of small extert Henrietta and Wolfe Tone were found to the product maintained a sufficient pri 

is a great hindrance to the adoption of contain large tonnages of such ores. Th? to afford adequate profit. Many of t 

advanced metallurgical methods. aggregate production reached 100 tons individual occurrences are pockety, b 

January 7, 191 1. 



he ore frequently exists at consideraole 
lepths and the aggregate output remains 
;teady. The less extensive occurrences 
»f hiibnerite in the San Juan have not 
>een worked. 

Little pitchblende was mined in Gilpin 
:ounty this year, and the reported dis- 
:overy of the mineral elsewhere did not 
esult in actual production. The mill of 
he Vanadium Alloys Company at New- 
nire, below Telluride, was in operation 
hroughout the greater part of the year, 
nd additional discoveries of vanadiferous 
andstone were reported. 

Smelting and Chlorination 

The American Smelting and Refining 
Company's plants at Pueblo, Leadville, 
)enver and Durango have continued to 
ominate the smelting situation, with 
ome effective competition on the part of 
he Ohio & Colorado Smelting Company 
t Salida. The Modern pyritic plant at 
Jtah Junction proved unremunerative, 
nd was shut down early in the year, 
he Golden smeltery succeeding to its 
usiness. The latter charges a rate which, 
^hile somewhat lower than those of the 
American Smelting and Refining Com- 
any, may be remunerative; and with the 
ssistance of mines under its own con- 
rol may obtain a sufficient ore supply 
a justify continuous operation. The 
[iinzel smeltery of Buena Vista had 

a short and unsatisfactory career. 

The Malm chlorination mill at George- 
town is not yet in operation. Whether 
or not this particular adaptation of the 
principle proves successful, it may lead 
t- a solution of the problem of benefici- 
ating mixed sulphide ores containing gold 
and silver. 

General Conditions 

Excepting on the northern coalfield, 
the labor condition has remained satis- 
factory. There have been no strikes, and 
there is now some sign of improvement 
in the efficiency of labor, after the dis- 
organized condition into which it was 
thrown by the domination of the Western 
Federation of Miners and the well 
meant, but ill-judged, eight hour law. 
Public attention has been widely directed 
to the decline of prospecting in relation 
to the smelting situation. The American 
Smelting and Refining Company, the so 
called "trust," has so generally been ac- 
cused of using its commanding position 
tc throttle the mining industry that the 
accusation has finally secured general 
acceptance and does just as much harm 
to the financing of new work as if it 
were really true. A commission, ap- 
pointed by the Denver Chamber of 
Commerce and headed by Mr. Guiter- 
man, the manager of the "trust," is now 
engaged in investigating the reason for 

the decline of public interest in min- 
ing in this State. 

On the other hand the American 
Mining Congress, as represented by some 
of its officers, has already judged the 
case and decided that it is due to the 
exactions of the smelters. Both sides 
are prejudiced, and the public pays 
little attention to either. Actually, ex- 
cepting as to matters of detail, and 
particularly the practice of some smelt- 
ery officials of haggling over settle- 
ments and comparisons of assays, the 
mining industry has little to complain 
of; and certainly the smelteries are not 
making unreasonable profits in Colorado. 
But the harm is done all the same; and 
as a result prospecting is discouraged 
and Utile new work undertaken. I be- 
lieve that a more liberal attitude on the 
part of the smelters, the abolition of 
petty haggling over comparisons, the 
simplification of schedules and, above 
all, the abandonment of special con- 
tracts, substituting public schedules 
which should be the same for small and 
large shippers alike, would do much to 
restore general confidence. But whether 
the American Smelting and Refining 
Company can afford to risk losing its 
present commanding position by aban- 
doning these special contracts is another 
question, as to which no outside opinion 
is worth much. 

Mining in Texas during 1910 

By J. K. Prather * 

In older to mine or prospect with any 
egree of safety in Texas, the land 
hould be purchased outright. The price 
aid for mineral land is S25 per acre, 
'here is no law against prospecting, but 
tie prospector does not like to open ore- 
odies for the benefit of others who may 
e able to buy the land and get the ben- 
fit of his work. Thus the Texas min- 
ig laws are a hindrance to the proper 
evelopment of the mining industry. The 
lineral products obtained in Texas are: 
Asphalt, clay, icoal and lignite, gold, 
ilver. lead, copper, lime, salt, petroleum, 
uilding stone, quicksilver and mineral 

Coal was mined in 1910 in five coun- 
ies in northern Texas, and in two coun- 
ies in the southern part of the State, 
.ignite was mined in nine counties 
n central and southern Texas. 

There was not so much activity in the 
nicksilver district as in the past. The 
/larfa & Mariposa and the Chisos com- 
anies are working steadily; the former, 
mploying 35 men, produces 40 flasks 
ev week, and the latter with 100 men 
>roduces 50 flasks per week. 

♦Mining pnginoor. 
'a so. Toxas. 

421 Mesa avenue. El 

The Texas Turquoise Company, near 
Van Horn, is mining some excellent tur- 
quoise gems which are polished at El 
Paso, Texas. 

Silver and Copper 

Near the Shafter mine of the Cibolo 
Mining Company is the Griffin mine, 
which is also producing rich silver ore. 
The Young-Wright mine has shipped 
some ore to the El Paso smeltery. The 
Shafter mine produced about 300,000 oz. 
of silver. This mine contains many 
miles of underground workings and has 
five shafts ranging in depth from 200 to 
700 ft. The orebodies are from 45 to 50 
ft. wide and 6 to 40 ft. thick. There is 
a 15-stamp mill on the property with 12 
pans, six settlers and large storage 

John Moffitt operated the Tamma silver 
mine in the Quitman mountains west of 
Sierra Blanca. The Little Lightning cop- 
per mine is one of the most promising 
in this district, and shipped some high- 
prade copper sulphide ore to the El 
Paso smeltery. John Gilcrease did some 
successful prospecting near Sierra 

Rare Earths and Tin 

Near Llano, Texas, the Nernst Lamp 
Company continues to operate its mine 
to obtain the rare-earth minerals for in- 
candescent lamps. 

The El Paso Tin Mining and Smelting 
Company is operating on the northeast 
end of Mount Franklin, about 16 miles 
from El Paso. 

The company recently shipped one 
ton of tin assaying 99.8 per cent, 
pure metal, to Philadelphia, and has 
two tons more ready for shipment. 
Since October, 1910, more than $100,000 
has been expended on the property. The 
ore occurs in veins and pockets, and 
ranges from 1 to 20 per cent. tin. A 
quantity of ore has been blocked out and 
the deposit is both uniform and rich. 
Between 40 and 50 men arc employed in 
the mine and mill. 

The mill is a combination of Harz jigs 
and two Sutton-Steele pneumatic tables, 
one coarse and one fine. The smeltery 
consists of a reverberatory furnace with 
forced draft, using concentrates and 
ground anthracite coal in the ratio of 1 
lb. of coal to 8 lb. of 60 per cent, con- 



January 7, 1911. 

Mining in Montana in 1910 

By W. P. Cary 

The most important event of 1910 in 
Montana was the absorption by the Ana- 
conda Copper Mining Company of the 
other operating companies which for- 
merly constituted the Amalgamated and 
the further absorption, by the same 
company, of the Butte Coalition and the 
\V. A. Clark properties. The Anaconda 
company thus became the only operat 
ing company of importance in the Butte 
district, with the exception of the North 
Butte, East Butte, Tuolumne and Butte 
& Ballaklava companies. At a meet- 
ing of stockholders held March 23, 1910, 
the Anaconda company increased its 
capital stock from 1.200.000 shares of a 
par value of S25 to 6,000,000 shares of 
the same par value and amended its 
is of incorporation to allow it the 
po«er to cwn and vote the stock of 
other companies as provided by the law 
enacted by the 1909 session of the State 
legislature. Following this absorption 
came a general reduction in the produc 
tion of the Butte mines, the production 
continuing at the reduced rate during the 
remainder of 1910, when the Washoe 
smelter)' at Anaconda produced 16,000,- 
000 lb. of copper per month \"hi!e the 
output at Great Falls was about 6,000,000 

Butte Operations Continuous Except 
in February 

Operations in the Butte district were 
continuous throughout 1910 with the ex- 
ception of a short shutdown in Febru- 
ary as a result of the difference between 
two unions of hoisting engineers in the 
camp. A new compressor plant of 3600 
h.p. vas built by the Anaconda company 
and preparations made for the introduc- 
tion of air for the running of the main 
hoists. The Anaconda company operated 
a great number of properties throughout 
1910, among the more important b'ing 
the High Ore, Anaconda, St. Lawrence, 
Mountain View, Tramway, Rarus, Penn- 
sylvania. Leonard. East and West Co- 
lusas. Mountain Consolidated, Parrot, 
Original, West Stewart, Never Sweat, 
Badger State, Diamond, Bell. Righi 
Bower, East and West Gray Rocks, Gag- 
non, Belmont and Little Mina. From 
the High Ore mine a crosscut was run 
from the 2800- ft. level to a point under 
the Anaconda shaft and a raise started 
■.nect with the shaft. At the Ana- 
conda mine the long-smouldering fires In 
the old stope prevented the shaft from 
v the 800 n, but 

about 400 tons were hoisted daily from 
the upper level* In October the fire 


was placed under control and the work 
of opening up the caved shaft below the 
800- ft. level was begun. 

Rarus Mine Production for 1910 Only 
50 Tons per Diem 

The St. Lawrence mine produced 
steadily until October, when mining was 
suspended to allow the retimbering of 
the shaft and the construction of new 
ore bins. At the Mountain View mine 
production averaged between 1000 and 
1500 tons daily. The Rarus mine, one 
of the large producers of the camp in 
1909, reduced its output to 50 tons daily, 
the bulk of the ore being hoisted through 
the adjoining Tramway shaft, which aver- 
aged 1500 tons daily. At the Pennsyl- 
vania mine considerable development 
work was done on the 600-, 700-, 1400-, 
1500-, 1600- and 1800-ft. levels, and pro- 
duction the latter part of the year aver- 
aged about 800 tons daily. At the Leon- 
ard the old No. 1 shaft was retimbered 
and used for lowering supplies. 

West and East Colusa Produced 900 
Tons Daily 

At the West Colusa the shaft was re- 
timbered, making the several compart- 
ments of uniform size, and the produc- 
tion averaged about 500 tons daily, mined 
from the 1000-, 1300-, 1400- and 1600- 
ft. levels, while the East Colusa pro- 
duced on the average of 400 tons. The 
Parrot mine was not in active operation 
during the year, the only work done 
being the keeping of the shaft open. At 
the Never Sweat the wreck of the main 
hoist caused a shutdown for two months 
during March and April, after which pro- 
duction was continuous and averaged 
above 750 tons daily. At the Badger 
State the shaft was sunk from the 1400- 
to the 1800-ft. level and in the latter 
half of 1910 mining was done and pro- 
duction raised to 350 tons daily. At the 
West Gray Rock mine the shaft was en- 
larged from the 700-ft. level to the 
surface, making it three-compartment 
throughout. The East Gray Rock pro- 
duced steadily on an average of between 
300 and 400 tons daily. 

At the Little Mina the shaft was sunk 
from tie 1200- to the 1400- ft. level and 
the mine produced about' 800 tons daily. 
At the Belmont mine the shaft was sunk 
to a depth of 1900 ft. and connections 
made on several levels with the Ana- 
conda mine. At the Gagnon mine the 
new vertical shaft was sunk to the 
1000- ft. level and production averaged 
600 tons through the old inr'ir/j abaft 

North Butte Mining Company 
The North Butte company operate 
the Speculator and adjoining propertit 
through the Speculator shaft, but for th 
first half of 1910 the management ol 
served such reticence that it was impos 
sible to obtain any information concert 
ing operations. It later developed th; 
the quality of the orebodies on the 200C 
and 2200-ft. levels was considerably be 
low that of the 1600- and 1800-ft. level 
After this policy of extreme secrecy tr 
management decided to issue statemen 
at brief intervals for the information ( 
its stockholders. The method of minir 
was changed from the mere rush to g( 
out rich ore and pay dividends to tr 
more conservative method, with due n 
gard to development work and the blocl 
ing out of ore reserves. Production ave 
aged about 1500 tons. 

Tuolumne Copper Mining Company 
The Tuolumne Copper Mining Con 
pany continued to ship throughout 191 
at the rate of between 100 and 200 tor 
daily and also did considerable develo] 
ment work to establish the continuity < 
its vein. In July the North Butte Mil 
ing Company started suit against tl 
Tuolumne for the purpose of determinir 
the ownership of the disputed portioi 
of the Jessie vein, but the suit was nevi 
pressed and was finally settled in tl 
latter part of November by agreemer 
The Butte & Ballaklava company ear 
in 1910 made its 1400-ft. shaft thre< 
compartment throughout and installed 
new electric hoist. Shipments were mac 
at the rate of between 100 and 200 toi 
daily until August, when the Anaconc 
Copper Mining Company started suit at 
enjoined the Ballaklava company fro 
further mining on the disputed orebodie 
The main action was not heard, howeve 
and still remains to be disposed c 
While restrained by the temporary i 
junction from mining, considerable d 
velopment work was done on the 30C 
500 -, 600- and 800- ft. levels. 

East Butte Copper Mining CoMPAr 
The East Butte company, which a 
quired control of the Pittsmont min 
ceased all operations on the origin 
East Butte properties and devoted all 
its attention to the development of tl 
Pittsmont. In November an orebody w 
discovered on the 800- ft. level which su 
passed anything thus far found in tl 
mine and the development work done 
determine the extent of the body w 
extremely satisfactory. The smeltery i 
the property was operated continuous 
and, in addition to the East Bt.i 01 
treated considerable custom ore also. 

January 7, 1911. 



vvis-Daly Estates Copper Companv 
The Davis-Daly company was hand', 
pped in the early part of 1910 by 
>uble in getting the right to secure a 
imway so that its ores could be hauled 
am the mine to the railway, but was 
lally successful. However no ship- 
;nts were made and the only work done 
| the property was that carried on by 
isers. The Raven Mining Company se- 
red an agreement from the Anaconda 
mpany whereby it was allowed to work 
s Snoozer claim and preparations were 
ide to mine. The Butte Central Cop- 
r company was able in the course of 
e year to free itself from debt and 
entually began sinking its 500-ft. shaft 
I additional 500 ft. The Butte-Alex 
ott Company entered the ranks of pro- 
bers and made steady shipments. 


In the Corbin-Wicks district in Jef- 
rson county a number of companies 
rried on operations, among them being 
e Montana-Corbin, Boston & Corbin, 
jrbin Copper, Boston & Alta, Minne- 
olis Corbin and Corbin Metal Mining 
jmpany. The Boston & Corbin sank 
; shaft from the 700- to the 900-ft. 
ve\ and installed an electrically oper- 
ed surface plant. The Boston & Alta 
nk its shaft 700 ft. but suspended 
lerations the latter part of 1910, owing 
financial tangles. The Corbin Cop- 
:r Company built a concentrator and 
;ated considerable ore, while the Mon- 
na-Corbin sank its shaft to the 400-ft. 
ark and shipped a few cars of ore, but 
:came financially involved and sus- 
:nded operations early in the summer. 


The Black Rock mine of the Butte & 
Superior company, situated in the Butte 
district, was the principal zinc producer 
of the State. It secured a lease on one- 
half of the Basin Reduction Works and 
early in 1910 sent its first shipment of 
ore to Basin, the concentrates from the 
Basin mill being in turn shipped to a 
smeltery at Bartlesville, Okla. The mine 
produced steadily at the rate of about 
350 tons daily, the ore coming from the 
1000-, 1200-, 1400- and 1600-ft. levels. 
In March the company acquired controi 
of the North Butte Extension's property 
and with it the water which was neces- 
sary for the operation of the proposed 
concentrator near the Black Rock mine. 
The Elm Orlu mine, belonging to W. A. 
Clark and also situated in the Butte 
district, produced considerable zinc ore, 
production averaging about 175 tons 

The ore was treated in the Butte 
Reduction Works' concentrator, which 
was retained by Clark when he sold the 
remainder of his mining property to ths 
Anaconda company. The Emma mine of 
the Butte Copper and Zinc Company was 
sampled by experts representing Eastern 
men but no definite announcement of 
the result was made. 

Gold and Silver 
. In Madison county the Apex Mining 
Company was incorporated and operated 
the mine of the same name continuously, 
treating its ore at a mill built on the 
premises. The Winnetka Mining Com- 
pany, a new corporation, operated the 
Winnetka mine the latter half of 1910 
with considerable success. The Conrev 

Placer Mining Company, in addition to 
operating its three dredges continuously, 
built a new dredge with a capacity of 
200,000 cu.yd. per month and put it in 
operation the latter part or 1910. Lin- 
coln county, which had previously not 
been recognized as a gold producer of 
any moment, was the scene of mucn 
mining activity. Among the operating 
companies were the Victor-Empire, Lin- 
coln Gold Mining and Shaughnnessy Hill 

In August the forest fires which 
swept that part of the State de- 
stroyed the surface plants of a number 
of properties, which were rebuilt, how- 
ever, before the end of 1910. In Gran- 
ite county the Georgetown district was 
the scene of active operations. The 
Southern Cross mine shipped some ore, 
but most of the work was confined to 
development. Numerous other proper- 
ties produced in a small way. In Fer- 
gus county the Barnes-King Mining com- 
pany produced steadily up to July, shut 
down for two months and then resumed. 
In Broadwater county, the Keating com- 
pany installed a new surface plant and 
produced without interruption. The 
Black Friday sank its shaft from the 
400- to the 500-ft. level and shipped 
thereafter. The Ohio-Keating and West 
Kendall were among the producers. In 
Silver Bow county the British-Butte 
company early in- 1910 did prospecting 
work with a diamond drill to a depth of 
1305 ft. without striking bed-rock and 
then suspended operations. In Lewis & 
Clark county a number of properties 
operated in a small way. Among th^m 
were the Bald Mountain, East London, 
Msgpie and Jumbo. 

Eastern Oregon Operations in 1910 

By F. W. Schofield * 

The year 1910 saw the beginning of 
substantial and, it is believed, perman- 
lt and profitable renewal of mining ac- 
uity in eastern Oregon, which, despite 
le fact that it has produced a total of 
sproximately S65,000.000 in gold, has 
lffered so severely from the disrepute 
lined through its former "wildcat" pro- 
lotions as to result in the practical 
aandonment of operations. 
Following the collapse in 1903 of the 
ock boom, mining went steadily down- 
ard until the panic of 1907, which 
lused the closing of the Oregon Smelt- 
ig and Refining Company plant, at 
umpter, with the loss of a local market 
jr ores, resulted in the abandonment 
f operations at the few remaining work- 
lg properties; and at the close of 1909, 

♦Consulting engineer, Sumpter, Oregon. 

with the exception of the Columbia and 
Cornucopia mines, each having an out- 
put of about three tons of concentrates 
per day, production had practically 
ceased in eastern Oregon. 

The purchase early in 1910 of the 
Sumpter smeltery by the Northwest 
Smelting and Refining Company and its 
preparation to resume operations at the 
plant, thus reestablishing a local market 
for ores, gave a stimulus to the mining 
industry, and the year showed a compar- 
atively great increase in activity. 

On the Snake river, the Iron Dyke 
mine, where extensive development work 
was carried on during the summer, 
promised to become an early producer 
of copper ore. but its work was hamp- 
ered by suits instituted bv t'~e Govern- 
ment for alleged land fra"ds, which, to- 
gether with present inability to raise 

the money required for construction and 
equipment, resulted in a temporary ces- 

In the Mormon Basin district the Rain- 
bow mine, so far the only property oi 
established value in that district, is under 
option to the United States Smelting. 
Refining and Mining Company, and it is 
believed the purchase will be completed. 
The advent into eastern Oregon mining 
of a strong company of this character 
will do much to aid future operations 
at other properties. 

Early in the year operations were re- 
sumed at the Highland mine, which, tieu 
up with litigation, had been closed for a 
long period. The litigation was adjusted, 
indebtedness discharged and the proper- 
ty became a steady producer, furnishing 
a striking example of the success which 
may be had with eastern Oregon mines 



January 7, 1911. 

where the efforts of the management are 
devoted to the economic operation and 
development of the property, instead of 
the sale of stock. 

The Sumpter District 

In the Sumpter district, three proper- 
ties, the Ibex. Imperial and Mammoth, 
resumed during 1910; the former two 
carried on extensive development, and 
the latter will continue in operation dur- 
ing the winter. 

The Oroville Gold Dredging Company, 
which has had a drill at work during 
the summer, prospecting the placer 
beds along the Powder river, pur- 
chased some portion of the property 
held under option, and the beginning of 

operations next season will demonstrate 
the value of the extensive dredging lands 
available in eastern Oregon. 

In the Susanville district, where the 
value of the properties has been es- 
tablished by the past production of the 
Badger and Stockton mines, some devel- 
opment and prospecting were carried on 
in a small way, but lack of transportation 
facilities retarded activity. The Sumpter 
Valley Railway Company had located and 
planned the construction of a branch line 
from Austin to a point near Susanville, 
during 1910, but the bringing of indict- 
ments against its officers for complicity in 
alleged timber-land frauds, requiring the 
expenditure of their energies in other di- 
rections, resulted in the abandonment of 

work on this extension, although its com- 
pletion is promised during 1911. 

The development during 1910 of two 
lead prospects in the vicinity of Canon 
City, in Grant county, from one of which 
shipments were made, promises a possi- 
ble future production of some lead ore 
for eastern Oregon. 

While the closing of 1910 did not 
show as extensive an increase in mining 
activity as might be desired, this lack 
was in a great measure compensated foi 
by the solidity of such organizations and 
resumption of operations that took place 
and which by economical and intelligenl 
management it is contemplated will de- 
monstrate the intrinsic value of easterr 
Oregon properties. 

Mining in California in 1910 

By Lewis H. Eddy * 

There was a general improvement and 
advance in the mining industry in Cali- 
fornia in 1910 as compared with 1909, 
but the total aggregate output was not 
increased to the extent that would have 
resulted from normal conditions and op- 
erations. The gold production is not 
likely to exceed that of 1909. The in- 
crease in the output of petroleum was not 
equal to what would have been expected 
under normal conditions. The tonnage 
and value of copper for 1910 will fall 
considerably below that of 1909. Other 
minerals and metals advanced in volume 
and in value of output, but not largely. 

This situation here stated is due to 
three conditions that were unavoidable, 
and which indicate no diminution in min- 
eral resources. The failure of the gold 
output to increase largely resulted from 
the dry season in the stamp-milling dis- 
tricts, and from the closing down of the 
copper smelteries, through which a great 
deal of gold production is obtained. The 
third cause for these results may be 
attributed to the withdrawal of oil lands 
from entry, and the consequent curtail- 
ment of the production of petroleum. 

.v.other-lode district suffered from 

In the Mother Lode district , while gold 
mining improved in the normal operation, 
the dry season materially affected some 
of the larger mines; particularly in Ama- 
dor county, where some of the stamp 
mills were closed for lack of water. The 
1,'tica mine has recently operated only 
one of its mills. The South Eureka, 
which is one of the biggest producers, 
was closed for two months. Rut with 
all the closing from lack of water, all 
the mines of the Mother Lode did well, 
and but for this obstacle there would 

•<; i-<-rr\ building, Ban i rand co, CaL 

have been a considerable increase in 
total production. The mines of the 
Mother Lode are not dependent on water 
so much for power as for its use in the 
batteries. The power generally is fur- 
nished by the California Electric Com- 
pany. Oil-fuel power is employed in 
most of the larger properties for hoist- 
ing, as electric power is not in all cases 
adapted to nor available for that work. 
In the Grass Valley and Nevada City 
district, where there is a large de- 
pendence upon direct water power, the 
shortage of water was not perceptible. 
The closing of the smelteries in Shasta 
county, including the Bully Hill, the 
Balaklala, and the curtailment in the 
smelting operations of the Mammoth 
during a part of the latter half of the 
year, affected the gold output. But not- 
withstanding these obstacles, the in- 
creased production of the mines during 
the periods of favorable water season 
and during operations of the smelteries 
saved the production of gold from a larg- 
er slump than might have otherwise oc- 
curred. The stamp mills in Shasta coun- 
ty and other northern counties were not 
affected by any lack of water, and the hy- 
draulicking operations which are largely 
in Trinity county had plenty of water for 
all necessary demands. 

Probable Gold, Silver and Platinum 
Output $21,000,000 

A close estimate of the gold output of 
the State for the year 1910 cannot be 
made at present. In fact, the State Min- 
ing Rureau but recently issued its bulle- 
tin showing various other mineral out- 
puts for the year 1909, and this docs not 
include gold, silver and platinum. For 
the year 1909 these three minerals may 
be conservatively estimated at a value 
000,000. It is doubtful if these 

minerals for 1910 will exceed that fig- 

The output of placer gold, which in- 
cludes chiefly hydraulicking and dredg 
ing, is estimated to exceed the outpu 
of 1909; and this fact will aid in keeping 
the volume of production up to a fairlj 
normal valuation. There was gradua 
improvement and advancement in gok 
dredging in 1910, and the output is esti- 
mated at more than $7,000,000. The ad 
vancement in the progress of the indus 
try resulted from the adoption of largr: 
boats of improved pattern, which reducec 
the cost of handling the gravel, so that i 
was possible to handle gravel profitably 
that ran as low as 4c. per yd.; and ir 
some instances gravel yielding only 2j/>c 
per yd. was handled with profit. Three 
or four years ago gravel that ran undei 
10 to lie. could not be handled wit! 
profit commensurate with the investment 
There were no new districts opened up it 
1910, but in each district there was at 
increase in the ground dredged, and ar 
increase in the number of dredgers in op 

Sixty-three Dredges Operating in 19K 
In 1910 there were 63 dredges in oper 
ation, including 30 in Rutte county, 15 it 
Yuba county, nine in Sacramento county 
and a total of nine more in the othei 
dredging districts; three in Calaveras 
county, two in Siskiyou, and one each ir 
Merced, Stanislaus, Placer and Shasta 
In the late season of 1910 there were 
expected to be in operation three othei 
large dredges, which were in course o: 
construction. These 66 boats represent- 
ed a total investment of more that 
$7,000,000. There were some boats re- 
tired, but their retirement was due chief 
1y to tin- demands for improved pattern; 
and larger boats. In the entire perioc 
of practical gold dredging, beginning 

January 7, 1911. 



ith 1897, there have been in commission 
34 dredges. Many of these were of 
nail and inferior pattern, but in the 
irlier days of dredge mining answered 
ie purpose of prospecting and develop- 
lg in these various districts. The output 
f the dredges, as reported by the State 
lining Bureau, beginning with 1898 and 
lcluding 1909, has amounted to a total 
f $32,147,877. 

Gold Dredging Aids Horticulture 

Including 1910, the total value of gold 
tken by dredges in California during 
ie life of the industry will amount to 
early $40,000,000. Besides this large 
idition to the mineral wealth of the 

State, gold dredging has materially added 
to the value of the lands within the 
dredging districts, by the fact that it has 
increased the productivity. Five years 
ago there was a general complaint in the 
dredge-mining districts that this method 
of recovering the gold from the stream 
beds and the lands adjacent was destroy- 
ing the horticultural and agricultural in- 
dustries, but within this period there has 
been a gradual and is now a complete 
recognition of the fact that dredging op- 
erations have actually augmented the ag- 
ricultural and horticultural territory, and 
increased the value of the lands for thess 
purposes. The utilization of dredged 
lands for forest growth, particularly of 

eucalyptus, has also added to their value. 
In the Oroville district, in Butte county, 
the increased value of dredged lands over 
the former soil has been proved in the 
growth not only of timber trees, but of 
fig, almond and orange trees, and grape 
vines, which have been more productive 
and profitable than the fruit-bearing 
trees and vines that were planted in the 
original soil. The fruit in this dredged 
land ripens earlier and possesses a su- 
perior flavor; and besides this there is 
less danger from frost, owing to the fact 
that the heat of the sun is longer retained 
by the heavy gravel intermingled with the 
soil. So far the work along this line has 
been largely of an experimental nature. 

South Dakota Operations in 1910 

Special Correspondence 

To review adequately the mining con- 
tions in South Dakota in 1910 one 
ust begin with the labor difficulties 
hich, starting in the fall of 1909, caused 
serious drop in the annual production 

gold, mough this has now nearly re- 
lined its normal monthly average. 
During its life of over 30 years, the 
omestake had always been operated on 
e "open shop" principle, no strike had 
er occurred and the relations between 
nployer and employed had been un- 
.ually cordial. The current rate of pay 
as, and is, $3.50 per day for miners and 
\ for helpers and shovelers, eight hours 
ark constituting a shift. Some ad- 
cent camps were already completely 
lionized, and a number of the Home- 
ake men were members of the West- 
n Federation of Miners. In the fall of 
109 the Federation commenced a cam- 
lign, at first quiet but later open, to 
impel the complete unionization of all 
:partments of Homestake employees. 
ie object of this agitation was avowedly 

facilitate the collection of dues by the 
lion, and it was freely stated that an 
crease in wages would shortly be de- 
anded, which, in view of the low- 
ade ore handled, would have reduced 
ofits to a minimum. 

Mines Closed Two Months 

The several aggressive steps taken by 
e local unions of Lead and Central 
fty, and officially announced as unani- 
ously indorsed by their members, in- 
uding the refusal to work with non- 
lion men after Nov. 25, 1909, led to 
e determination of the management to 
eet their action by closing the mine on 
ov. 24 until it could be reopened on a 
rictly nonunion basis, the maintenance 
the existing rate of wages and of the 
ght-hour shift being guaranteed. The 
anagement opened a list for those de- 
ring employment, who were required to 

sign a card to the effect that they did 
not belong to any union and would not 
join any while in its employ. In the 
meantime steps were taken to guard the 
property from violence. Toward the 
close of 1909 the superintendents of 
practically all other mines of any im- 
portance in Lawrence county advertised 
their intentions to adopt a similar non- 
union policy, and most of their miners 
went on strike in consequence. At first 
most of the union members hesitated to 
sign the Homest ke card, but after hun- 
dreds had surrendered their union cards 
and signed preparatory to work, the local 
union took cognizance of the fact and 
posted a list of 50 names as "scabs," 
and a second list of about 30, intimat- 
ing that these were the only defaulters. 
These men and a number of others then 
founded the "Loyal Legion" and the local 
nonunion paper published long lists of 
those who had signed. From that time 
they became less timid and the list of 
signers grew rapidly, so that sufficient 
men were available to equip all the sur- 
face works. 

The foreign elerrent was fully per- 
suaded by its leaders that the mines 
could never be operated by any other 
than the men who had previously worked 
there. So firm was this conviction that, 
when hundreds of outside miners were 
openly brought in from Colorado, Mis- 
souri, Michigan and other mining dis- 
tricts, they were unable to realize the 

On the whole, considering the number 
of men involved, there were remarkably 
few acts of violence during the shutdown 
and resumption of work. This was due 
largely to the foresight of the Homestake 
management in protecting, at the out- 
set, both employees and property by an 
ample number of armed guards, and to 
the stand of the Lead judges in impar- 
tially punishing sympathizers of either 

party who created disturbances. A num- 
ber of petty assaults occurred, however, 
in Lead and Terry, one policeman was 
shot by a Slavonian, and one Homestake 
employee died of injuries received in an 
attack. Simultaneous attempts were made 
to fire one of the cyanide plants and a 
boarding house occupied by "scabs," by 
means of phosphorus presumably con- 
tained in "Pettibone dope"; one hotel 
was burned and a powder magazine at 
Terry was blown up. A searchlight, in- 
stalled on the Ellison hoist and covering 
the most important of the Homestake 
works, is still operated every night, and 
a sufficient guard is still maintained over 
the property. 

In spite of the evident restoration of 
working conditions at Lead and Terry, 
the local organ of the unions continues to 
publish statements to the contrary, which 
are apparently believed in the outside 
mining camps from which subscriptions 
are being drawn. It is also intimated 
that only a fraction of the stamps in the 
various mills are being dropped; that 
empty ore cars are run to the mills as a 
bluff; that no dividends are being paid 
except to small local stockholders; that 
the rock mined is mainly barren por- 
phyry, and that the mines generally are 
in a dangerous condition owing to the 
abolition of union labor. A large pro- 
portion of the foreign labor has left, and 
the decreasing hold of the union is mani- 
fest from the fact that the socialist-labor 
candidates polled only a small percent- 
age of the votes cast at the recent elec- 
tion, although illiterate immigrants are 
allowed to vote on taking out "first 
papers" after six months' residence in 
the State. 

Resumption of Mining 

On Jan. 18 men went to work in 
the Homestake and the number was 
daily increased until, on Jan. 21. the 



January 7, 1911. 

Amicus mill started crushing with 240 
stamps. Other mills were gradually 
started until on March 3 the entire 1000 
stamps were working at full capacity, 
since which time the full output has been 
maintained, while the usual monthly divi- 
dends have been paid since March. 

The Golden Reward, the Mogul and 
Lundberg. Dorr & Wilson mills all ob- 
tain ore from mines in the Terry or Bald 
Mountain district. The first two operate 
mills near Deadwood, and the other near 
Terry, all using the Moore process. At 
the mines remote from the mills, the 
workings are scattered, and no attempt 
was made to resume work until the 
Homestake was well under way. Since 
that time they have gradually started and 
are all operating at full capacity. 

The Wasp No. 2. south of Lead, lost 
its mill by fire early in the year, soon 
after acquiring some adjacent ground. 
A new mill of 300 tons capacity was 
built and started work about Dec. 1. 
Unlike other mines of the district, this 
ore requires merely a coarse dry crush- 
ing, with rolls, preparatory to leaching 
the entire product by cyanide; this fact 
and its nearness to the surface enabled 
it to make a low record for costs. 

Homestake Aid Fund and New Power 

An "Aid Fund" or employees' insur- 
ance system was inaugurated by the 
Homestake company, to which both the 
men and the company contribute; and 
the company now furnishes free medical 
and hospital service and medicines to all 
employees and their families. 

Work on the Homestake hydroelectric 
system on Spearfish creek was prose- 
cuted throughout the labor troubles. The 

bore of the last of the eight tunnels was 
completed in October, three of them 
being over 4000 ft. long, with an aggre- 
gate length of 4' .? miles, and having a 
section of about 40 sq.ft. All were 
driven with Temple electric drills. The 
tunnels are being lined with Atlas ce- 
ment concrete, and the ditches will be 
lined with the same material. The in- 
stallation will include three Westing- 
house 2000-kw. generators, ten 667-kw. 
transformers and three 3000-h.p. pelton 

Recent Developments 

The Black Hills Development and Fi- 
nancial Corporation, which had under 
bond a number of properties in the 
Northern hills, did some exploratory 
work in the carbonate district and 
shipped two carloads of ore from the 
dumps. The Golden Crest, the mill of 
which was completed in 1909 but not 
started, has closed pending the adjust- 
ment of differences between the manag- 
ing director and stock- and bond-holders, 
a receiver being in charge. The Hidden 
Fortune has satisfied the receiver's 
claims, and the advertised tax sale has 
been postponed till early in 1911. The 
American Eagle mill, of 300 tons capacity, 
has been acquired by the Portland mine, 
which has hitherto been shipping its ore 
to the Lundberg, Dorr & Wilson mill. 
The Reliance recently effected a reor- 
ganization, and its mill on Annie creek 
is to be started as soon as a dam can 
be built to retain the tailings. 

A proposal is on foot to erect a 400- 
ton smeltery near the Branch Mint mill 
in Galena district, to treat pyritic ore 
from the Gilt-Edge-Maid mine. An ex- 
perimental plant will probably be put up 

first to test the process, which was su& 
gested by Paul Danckwardt. After ex- 
tensive sampling, an attempt is to be 
made to dredge ground on Castle creek 
near Mystic, and ground below Dead- 
wood is being tested with the same ob- 
ject in view. Hitherto no dredge has 
been operated in the State. 

The finding of a large body of ore of 
more than average grade in the Golden 
Reward mine will stimulate exploration 
in the Bald Mountain district. Although 
highly sulphureted, it is probable that 
roasting will make it amenable to cya- 
nide. The problem of treating the low- 
grade refractory "blue" ore at a profit 
is still to be solved and an effective so- 
lution will mean much to the prosperity J 
of the Black hills. 

Except a few shipments of lithia min- 
erals from the Southern hills, little was j 
done in the way of exploiting the rare- 
metal resources of the State. 

The Westinghouse Electric Company 
operated five mica mines in the vicinity 
of Custer. No. 5, the Crown, was the 
main producer; sinking is in progress on 
No. 2, the White Spar. These mines 
produced 1,856,000 lb. of mica during 
the year. 

Gold Production for 1910 

The report of the State mine inspector, 
N. Treweek, gives the gold and sil- 
ver yield for the year as $4,921,- 
000, produced by six companies, the. 
Homestake contributing $4,650,000. The 
State yield is the lowest for ten years, 
the highest having been $7,545,000 in 
1908. The ore mined and milled is es- 
timated at 1,438,000 tons; 3150 men are. 
employed in mining, 2900 of them by 
the Homestake. 

Mining in New Mexico 

The most important development in 
mining in New Mexico in 1910 was in re- 
lation with the explorations of the 
"porphvry" copper deposits in Grant 
county, notably the Chino property, for- 
merly the Santa Rita, at Santa Rita, and 
in the Burro Mountain district. In Otero 
county developments were carried on at 
the Tularosa and an experimental mill 
was erected. The Pinos Altos mine. Grant 
county, was taken under option by Corri- 
uan, McKinney & Co., and is being ex- 
ploited. In several of the older districts 
in the northern and central part of the 
State there was renewed activity and in 
some cases new capital engaged in in- 
itions and developments. This is 
true in the Ccrillos district in Santa Fe 
county, in connection with the lea 
vcr d iluable for 

zinc. In the Nogal district, Lincoln 
County, new operations were undertaken, 
among which was the N Eagle 

mining company; in the Black Range dis- 
trict of Sierra county a number of prop- 
erties were under development during 
1910, notably the U. S. Treasury. 

In the Dona Ana district in the Organ 
Mountain section, work was at a stand- 
still until the latter part of the year, at 
vnich time some properties, including the 
Bennett-Stephenson were reopened after 
reorganization. In the Magdalena dis- 
trict in Socorro county the Graphic mine 
was extensively operated by the Sher- 
win-Williams Paint Company and the 
Tri-bullion company shipped zinc ore 
regularly from the Kelly mine. In the 
Mogollon district, southwestern Socorro 
county, Canadian interests investigated 
the Cooney property but did not take it, 
and the Ernestine company operated reg- 
ularly the Last Chance property. The 
Socorro company increased its mill 
capacity and operated regularly and prof- 
itably during the year. 

At Jarilla. in Otero county, some gold- 
copper operations were carried on. The 
smeltery formerly erected by the South- 
western Smelting Company was transfer- 
red to other interests, reported to be the 
Phelps-Dodge company, and is idle. The 
smeltery, at Deming, was closed but 
plans for its resumption are under way. 

The copper properties in the northern 
section, at Taos county, in the main were 
idle during 1910, but they were recent- 
ly investigated and it is reported that 
some operations will take place in the 
spring. Mica deposits in northern New 
Mexico were operated. Prospects for 
increased activity in the New Mexico dis- 
tricts are considered good. 

A very useful monograph' on the ore 
deposits in New Mexico was issued in 
1910 by the U. S. Geological Survey. 

professional Paper, No. 08, by Waldemar 

i i nil 'iwii, Louis c Graton and Charles 11. 
norrton : I'. S Ool, Niirv. 

January 7, 1911. 


Mining in Utah in 1910 

By Edward R. Zalinski * 


At the time of writing, it is not pos- 
ble to state the output of the different 
etals accurately, but from the ton- 
iges available from Park City and Tin- 
:, it appears that silver and lead pro- 
iction decreased somewhat as corn- 
Ted to 1909. The gold production was 
tout the same, or slightly greater, the 
crease from low-grade ores balancing 
e lessened yield from silicious ores, 
le production of zinc was about the 
me, or greater, while copper showed 
marked increase due to the output of 
; porphyry mines at Bingham. 
The following ore tonnages from Park 
ty and Tintic, up to Nov. 30, were ob- 
Ined through the courtesy of the rail- 
ads. The Park City shipments include 
z sent out via the Denver & Rio Grande 


Park City. Tintic. 

Tons. Tons. 

iiiurv 8,765 22,619 

Cuary 8,328 L'7,()2t: 

.rch * 5,619 31,r>47 

ril 8. SO!) 23,941 

y 8,288 26,209 

ae 7,893 29,519 

ly 7,252 25,786 

Inst 7.00(i 28.7r>7 

Kemper 5,902 24,623 

toiler 6,441 22,929 

fcmber 6,925 24.400(b) 

Bember 7.400(a) 26.124(b) 

rotal for year 88.802(c) 313.480(d) 

(a) Month of December estimated. 
(In Partly estimated. 

ie i Crude ore and concentrates. Deducting 
moisture, 6 per cent., there would be 
474 drv tuns, as compared to approximately 
duo dry tons in 1000. 

Uli These shipments include iron ores from 
• Dragon Iron and Iron King mines, which 
(raged, approximately, 4200 dry tons per 
nth. or 50,400 for the year. Deducting 
s. and allowing for 4 per cent, moisture. 
I average in Tintic ores, there would be 
►,541 dry tons of lead, copper and silicious 
s. as compared to, approximately. 260,000 
■ tons in 1909. The copper ores are ap- 
iximately, 46 per cent, of the total, the 
d ores 50 per cent., and the silicious ores 
ler cent. 

i the Union Pacific. The Tintic ship- 
nts include ore sent over the San 
dro and the Denver & Rio Grande, 
e tonnage for Bingham is estimated. 
Bingham Produced 16,000 Tons 

Per Day 
\s nearly as can be learned, the daily 
:put of Bingham was in the neighbor- 
id of 16,000 tons. This is an estimate 
Jed on the production of the Utah 
pper, Bingham-New Haven, Highland 
y, Yampa, United States properties, 
io Copper, Bingham Mines, and Utah 
ex. It includes ore produced by the 
io Copper, Bingham-New Haven, and 
ih Apex, which was milled in the 
np. Taking 16,000 tons per day, the 
nthly production was 480,000 tons, or 
40,000 tons for 1910, as compared to 
>roximately 4,200,000 tons in 1909. 

Mining engineer, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

The tonnage mined in Tooele (including 
Mercur), Beaver, and other counties, 
judging from past production aggre- 
gated approximately 448,000 tons. In 
round numbers the total estimated 
production of the State was in the neigh- 
borhood of 6,600,000 tons. 

During the first four months of 1910, 
there was a slight ore shortage in the 
Salt Lake market, due to the poor con- 
dition of the roads at this season and to 
some loss in shipments from southern 
Nevada camps, caused by washouts. The 
deficit was largely in gold and silver 
ores, with some decrease in lead. The 
Utah Ore Sampling Company which suc- 
ceeded to the interests of the Taylor & 
Brunton and Pioneer Ore Sampling Com- 
panies in Utah reported no appreciable 
decrease. This company operated sam- 
plers at Murray and Silver City, and 
sampled a large part of the custom ore 
from Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Nevada, 
and Utah. Later in the year the control 
of the Utah Ore Sampling Company was 
obtained by the Knight interests. In May 
and June there was an increase in ship- 
ments as is usual. Park City increased 
its shipments over what was shipped in 
March. Bingham produced about as 
usual, while the Tintic output was not 
far from normal. No ore was shipped 
from Alta and the Cottonwoods, or from 
American Fork at this season. 

Shortage of Lead Ores in Latter Half 
of 1910 
The supply of lead ores which came 
to the Valley smelteries during the latter 
half of the year was below the normal, 
owing to the decreased production of 
some of the Park City mines. The Silver 
King Coalition and Daly West both cut 
production, the former on account of 
the installation of a new electric-haulage 
system on the 1300-ft. and Alliance tun- 
nel level, and the latter on account of the 
necessity of new development work on 
the lower levels. These two mines were 
the principal shippers to the American 
Smelting and Refining Company at Mur- 
ray. There was an increase in lead pro- 
duction from Bingham, but this* did not 
balance the decrease in lead shipments 
from Park City and Tintic. 

Tintic Smeltery Closes, Midvale Get- 
ting Its Contracts 
The United States smeltery at Midvale 
in February ran at full capacity, and 
treated approximately 800 tons of ore 
daily. Six furnaces were in blast on 
lead ores. After the closing of the 
Knight plant at Silver City in Sept., 1909, 
ores from the Colorado, Iron Blossom, 
and other Tintic mines were smelted 

here. Only the lead furnaces were in 
operation during the year, as the copper 
plant was being redesigned to meet the 
requirements of the Federal court. 

The American Smelting and Refining 
Company at the beginning of the year 
was running six furnaces on lead ore, 
and one on matte concentration, at its 
Murray plant, making seven out of eight 
furnaces in operation. Later in the year 
there were four and five furnaces in 
blast. The furnace for matte concen- 
tration was operated intermittently, 
when enough charge had accumulated. 
The matte, on account of the lead it con- 
tained, was shipped to Omaha for treat- 
ment. The Garfield smeltery increased 
its capacity by the addition of one rever- 
beratory furnace and two converters, in 
order to meet the increased output of 
the Utah Copper. When the sixth fur- 
nace is in operation, the capacity will 
be between 200 and 225 tons of blister 
copper daily. 

Garfield Smeltery Making 132,000,000 
Lb. Copper Per Year 

At the beginning of September, the 
Garfield plant operated three blast fur- 
naces out of four, and ran five rever- 
beratories. The daily output was nearly 
200 tons of blister copper. About 2000 
tons of ore, or 3000 tons of charge were 
smelted per day. The average monthly 
output was 11,000,000 lb. of copper, but 
it has been as high as 12,000,000 lb. 
in one month before the sixth rever- 
beratory furnace was completed. At the 
beginning of December this furnace was 
being warmed up and the bottom smelted 
in, and it was expected to smelt ore be- 
fore the end of the year. 

The Yampa smeltery at Bingham em- 
ploying 200 men closed down Aug. 1. 
Between 600 and 700 tons, largely from 
the Yampa mine, were smelted daily. 
The mine continued to operate, and 
shipped to Garfield. 

Tooele Begins to Produce in August 
Work on the new plant of the Inter- 
national Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany at Tooele was completed, and smelt- 
ing of copper ore started. The Tooele 
Valley railroad, which connects the 
smeltery with the San Pedro was com- 
pleted May, 1909. Following the open- 
ing of this line, work on the construction 
of the smeltery was started, and con- 
ducted on a large scale. All construction 
was completed Oct. 1. Fire was started 
in the first of the five reverberatory fur- 
naces July 25. During August the first 
furnace produced matte, and two others 
were being warmed up. In the latter 
part of the year three furnaces were 



January 7, 1911. 

smelting about 550 tons of ore per 24 
hours; 400 tons of this being received 
from the Utah Consolidated, 100 tons 
from the Iron Blossom and Colorado, and 
50 tons from the South Utah. 

General Smelting Summary 
The furnaces smelting ore in the val- 
ley toward the close of the year were as 
follows: The United States was running 
six furnaces on lead ore; the American 
Smelting and Refining Company, four lead 
furnaces ; the Garfield smeltery, five rever- 
beratories, and was warming up the sixth, 
recently constructed, and five Peirce- 
Smith basic-lined converters were in use, 
while three blast furnaces out of four 
were running. At the International three 
reverberatories and two converters were 
smelting copper ore. 

Bingham & Garfield and Western 
Pacific Roads Opened 
Beside the Bingham & Garfield Rail- 
road, grading on which was started dur- 
ing the early part of 1910, the Western 
Pacific, crossing a relatively undeveloped 
mineral section of the State, was opened 
to passenger service in August. It runs 
south of the Southern Pacific, through 
Tooele county into Nevada. It passes 
nearer the Deep Creek section than any 
other road, the nearest point being Wen- 
dover, about 30 miles distant. 

Transportation Facilities Inadequate 
The transportation facilities for hand- 
ling the tonnage from Bingham to the 
mills at Garfield, while not sufficient at 
all times, were better than during the 
latter part of 1909, and the first months 
of 1910. In May and June a large ton- 
nage was handled over the single line 
of the Denver & Rio Grande. On May 

23, this road moved 217 cars for the 
Utah Copper in 10 hours, while on May 

24, 378 cars were loaded, and sent out 
by the same company, and 24 cars from 
the United States Mining and Utah Con- 
solidated, making 402 cars in 24 hours 
or approximately 22,000 tons of ore 
handled in one day. 

The Utah Copper's contract with the 
Denver & Rio Grande for handling a 
maximum of 6000 tons a day was insuf- 
ficient to supply the mills, and was stated 
by the company to have reduced earnings 
;it frequent and extended periods. Grad- 
ing was begun in April on the Bingham 
& Garfield Railroad, a new line backed 
by this company, in order to secure ade- 
quate transportation facilities for the 
mills when enlarged to a capacity of ap- 
proximately 20,000 tons of ore a day. 
This road runs along the north side of 
Bingham Canon, and will connect the 
Copper mines with the mills and 
smeltery at Garfield, a distance of 17 
miles, as compared to 25 miles at pres- 
ent. The maximum grade is 2% per 
cent. A bond Ismie for $2,500,000 in 6 
per cent. 10-year bonds was mac! | 

a mortgage deed of trust filed Aug. 29, 

in favor of the Guarantee Trust Com- 
pany of New York, the Utah Copper be- 
ing named as surety. The grading was 
largely completed, and work started on 
the three tunnels. A number of con- 
demnation suits across mining ground in 
Bingham have resulted. The tunnels on 
the upper part of the line will be done 
about April, 1911, and it is expected that 
the road will be ready for traffic in the 
second quarter of 1911. 

Notable Merger of Porphyry Copper 
The Utah Copper absorbed the Bos- 
ton Consolidated, the merger going into 
effect Feb. 1. It also acquired control 
of the Nevada Consolidated in March. 
Both of these properties were acquired 
by an exchange of stock, the Utah Cop- 
per having increased its capitalization 
from 750,000 shares to 2,500,000 shares 
for this purpose. 

The Utah mill at Garfield was named 
the Magna, and that of the Boston Con- 
solidated, the Arthur. A corps of inde- 
pendent engineers confirmed the com- 
pany's findings that the machinery and 
method at the Magna plant were superior 
in costs and extraction to that at the 
Arthur. The stamps were removed from 
six of the 13 sections of the Arthur plant 
and Chilean mills and rolls with Garfield 
roughing tables are being installed. When 
the improvements are completed the ca- 
pacity will be 7000 tons per day. The 
Magna is treating 13,000 tons. 

At the end of the third quarter the 
Utah Copper Company had 17 shovels 
stripping and mining, of which four were 
on Boston Consolidated ground. Three 
more were to be placed here, bringing 
the total up to 20 steam shovels. No 
surface ore was taken from the Boston 
section, and underground mining must 
be continued for some time, but will be 
abandoned as soon as possible. Work at 
the Boston sulphide mine was suspended. 
Copper Center gulch and other ground 
was secured for dumping purposes. 

Aerial Tramway from Utah Consoli- 
dated to Tooele Smeltery 
The Utah Consolidated, which shipped 
about 800 tons of ore daily the first part 
of the year, completed its smelting con- 
tract with the American Smelting and 
Refining Company July 10, and began 
shipments to the International. Much de- 
velopment work was done on the lower 
levels, and a sampling and estimating 
of the ore reserves made under the direc- 
tion of R. H. Channing, consulting engi- 

Utah Consolidated Ore Reserves 
Formerly Overestimated 
Mr. Channing's report gave 300,000 
tons averaging 2.32 per cent, copper, 
0.05 07.. gold, and 0.85 oz. silver in sight. 
Beside this, from a large tonnage shown 
by mine maps and records, a part of 
which is caved and inaccessible, there 

may be recovered from 100,000 to 250,. 
000 tons. Taking the highest figures this 
is about half of the tonnage reported by 
another engineer at the beginning of the 
year, which gave 1,121,360 tons of 2.3 
per cent, copper ore, since which time 
130,000 tons have been extracted. The 
output of profitable ore toward the end 
of the year was stated to be about 350 
tons daily. 

Two units of the Ohio Copper Com- 
pany's mill at Lark were in operation in 
February and treated 1000 tons of ore 
per day, which concentrated about 20 
into 1. The concentrates carried 23 per 
cent, copper. The cost of milling is re- 
ported to have been 38c. per ton, and 
cost of mining less than 50c. Freight on 
ore through the Mascot tunnel to the 
mill was 15c. a ton. Later in the year 
the tonnage was increased to 1500, 1700, 
and 1850 tons of ore per day. In No- 
vember new equipment, including tables 
and Wall rolls was installed. 
Utah Metal Mining Company Has Big 
Tunnel Project 
The Utah Metal Mining Company, 
which is driving the 11,000-ft. drain and 
operating tunnel between Middle canon 
on the Tooele side of the range and Carr 
Fork at Bingham, completed the pre- 
liminary work of installing its plant, and 
advanced the tunnel about 1800 ft. since 
April 1, which made a total length of 
4500 ft. at the end of the year. 

The Utah Apex developed a number of 
new bodies of lead and copper ore during 
the year. Some of these along the Dana 
fissure were opened for over 200 ft. The 
new occurences of lead-silver ore making 
out along the limestone bedding from the 
fissures are of interest, as promising to 
open up large bodies of ore of this kind 
in a new section of Bingham. From 150 
to 175 tons was mined daily up to Nov. 
10, when milling operations were sus- 
pended in order to develop several im- 
portant discoveries. 

Work of the U. S. Smelting Company 
The United States Smelting, Refining 
and Mining Company worked its Bing- 
ham properties during the year, and 
shipped from 260 to 350 tons daily. In 
November and December the output was 
600 tons a day. The Telegraph mine 
was worked by leasers and also on com- 
pany account. A 50-ton cyanide plant 
was built by the Utah Leasing Company 
in order to treat silicious gold-silver ores 
from this mine. 

The Centennial-Eureka mine in Tintic 
owned by the U. S. company produced 
copper ore carrying some gold and silver. 
An average production of 300 tons daily 
was maintained, except during a short 
period, when pumps were installed on the 
lower levels. A number of imnrovptnents 
were made. The Holden tunnel, 2160 ft. 
long, was driven to connect with the shaft 
at the 535- ft. point. Connections were 
made March 10. The tunnel effects a 

January 7, 1911. 



saving in hoisting, pumping and bringing 
supplies up the hill. Ore bins of 700 
tons capacity were cut in the shaft be- 
tween the 500- ft. level and the tunnel. 
An electric-haulage system was installed, 
to take ore out on the tunnel level, 
and dump it directly into the railroad 

Gold Production 
The Consolidated Mercur, by careful 
work made a profit of 516,537, on ore of 
a gross value of $613,148 about 638 tons 
per day were treated, the heads averag- 
ing $3.59; the tails, 94c The ore is con- 
tinually becoming lower in grade. The 
Boston Sunshine mill at Mercur closed 
down about the middle of the year, after 
running 14 months and paying $19,500 
in dividends, because of lack of ore. 
Cheap power became available in the 
Gold Springs district in July, owing to 
the beginning of operations of the Gold 
Springs Mining and Power Company's 
power plant. 

Silver Produced Mainly in the Tintic 
The Tintic district in Juab and Utah 
counties and Park City, in Summit and 
Wasatch counties, furnished the greater 
part of the output. Salt Lake county 
also added to the production, by the silver 
in its copper and lead ores. The Iron 
Blossom in Tintic developed silicious ores 
carrying silver, but with the exception 
of a limited tonnage shipped to the 
smelteries did not produce extensively 
from this class of deposit, pending ar- 
rangements for possible cyanide treat- 

ment. The Centennial Eureka ores, men- 
tioned under copper, added appreciably 
to the output, as did also the Silver King, 
Daly West and other Park City mines. 
The Daly West drove its 1550-ft. level to 
the Daly-Judge lines for drainage pur- 
poses. The Daly West also connected 
with the Ontario drainage tunnel. There 
was no work done by this last mine dur- 
ing 1910 except to keep its tunnel open. 
The so-called Snake Creek drainage tun- 
nel, 14,000 ft. long, and backed by Knight 
and Daly-Judge interests, is also being 
pushed toward these mines, and will, 
when completed, afford fine drainage and 
development facilities to all mines in the 
southwestern part of the Park City dis- 
trict. The Ontario, Daly and Daly West 
mines will also push their drainage tun- 
nel to the Thompson-Quincy, a consolida- 
tion of the old Thompson and West 
Quincy companies. 

Zinc Produced Mainly as a Byproduct 

The zinc output for 1910 will probably 
show a small increase over last year. 
The principal source of zinc was as a by- 
product from Park City ores, while Bing- 
ham also contributed. Zinc ores proper 
were mined in Beaver county and at the 
Scranton mine in North Tintic. The out- 
put was shipped to Kansas, Oklahoma, 
and to points farther east. 

The Park City mill of the Grasselli 
Chemical Company, using Sutton dry- 
tables, dielectric separators and dry- 
sizing apparatus, treated a large tonnage 
of zinc middlings from the Daly-Judge 
mill, and shipped zinc concentrates to its 

refinery in Cleveland. The work of the 
Huff electrostatic separators at the Mid- 
vale plant of the United States Smelting 
Company was good and 45 tons of zinc 
concentrates were produced per day. 

South Utah Mines and Smelters 
Again Shipping 

The South Utah Mines and Smelters 
began milling operations Sept. 2. The 
mill was reconstructed and new equip- 
ment added. A new smelting contract 
was made with the International, by 
which concentrates were shipped to the 
Tooele smeltery. The first car of con- 
centrates was received there Sept. 24, 
and toward the latter part of the year 
shipments of from five to seven cars a 
week were made. The reconstructed mill 
began handling 400 to 500 tons, which 
was gradually increased. The capacity is 
800 to 1000 tons. 

Oil and Cement 

More interest than heretofore was 
taken in the Utah oilfields, especially 
those in San Juan and Grand counties in 
the southern part of the State. A num- 
ber of rigs were sent into the fields, and 
oil was encountered in several places. 

The production of cement for 1910 
amounted to approximately 3050 bbl. per 
day, as compared to 1400 bbl. per day 
in 1909. The Union Portland Cement 
Company, at Devil's Slide, produced 1800 
bbl. per day; the Ogden Portland Ce- 
ment plant, at Bingham City, 350 bbl.; 
the Portland Cement Company of Utah, 
at Salt Lake, 900 bbl. daily. These 
companies were the principal producers. 

The Mining Industry in Nevada 

About four years ago, during the hight 
af the Nevada boom, the Journal pub- 
lished a series of articles on the Nevada 
gold and silver camps. A year later the 
Journal made an exhaustive study of 
:onditions at Ely, and several of 
:he camps in that part of the State. The 
gathering of data on the mining districts 
in the western part of the State was 
hampered by the fact that most of the 
:amps were young and but little work 
lad been done in them. For instance, at 
:he time of the correspondent's trip to 
3oldfield, ore had been struck only about 
hree weeks before he visited the stope 
)f the Hayes-Monette lease on the Mo- 
hawk. At Rhyolite only a little develop- 
nenr had been done in the immense out- 
:rops that characterize the camp. At 
Manhattan and Fairview little had been 
ione and only at Tonopah was there any 
;reat amount of development. 

Considering the fact that the camps 
vere young, that the correspondent had 
o depend entirely upon the statements of 

the people most interested in the boom 
ing of the mines for opinions in regard 
to the assays of the ore, and that practic- 
ally everyone in Nevada was a "booster" 
in those days, the trip was made under 
conditions which made it difficult for any 
visitor to get accurate information, and 
certainly venturesome to publish opinions 
based on such information. The Journal 
realized this when it undertook the work, 
but so great was the demand for facts 
about the region that it assumed the risk. 

Rhyolite Overestimated in Early Days 

In general, the articles succeeded in 
making a fair appraisal of the future of 
the different camps, but in regard to Rhy- 
olite a great mistake was made, for in 
that camp not a single large mine has 
made good. The ore did not assay so 
high as stated. Work at the Montgom- 
ery-Shoshone has shown the truth of the 
statement that was made in 1906 that 
ore assaying from $7 to $10 could be 
treated at a good profit. But the ore 

was not forthcoming. The only property 
that the article did appraise correctly was 
the Montgomery-Shoshone, which, al- 
though its shares were then selling at 
about $16, was given but passing men- 
tion as the correspondent became con- 
vinced that the property was not as it 
was represented, although his informa- 
tion was of such a nature that he did not 
feel warranted in publishing it in the face 
of the opinion held all over Nevada at 
that time that the Montgomery-Sshoshone 
was one of the greatest gold mines of the 
world. Fairview and Manhattan have 
followed the course that the articles in- 
dicated and the camps are still awaiting 
slow, careful development, and proper 
milling facilities. Rawhide is fast be- 
coming but a memory. The resusicitation 
of Virginia City has not come, but it 
went so far toward success as to get the 
General Development Company to think 
seriously of trying to unite the different 
properties so as to do something with 
them, and the Comstock tunnel gives 
hope of new life for the camp. 



January 7, 1911. 

Nevada Sentiment Now for Develop- 
ment, Not Booming 

The booming that has characterized 
Nevada mining from its beginning seems 
now to be coming to the end. Nevada 
and Nevada mining men are beginning to 
realize that the mines have got to work 
their way instead of trying to ride on 
passes. A "wildcat" law has been passed 
to do away as much as possible with 
faking, and the mining men of the State 
are discussing the matter with the view 
of still further improving the law. News- 
papers in the mining districts have print- 
ed editorials protesting against the out- 
rageous prices at which, in some parts of 
the State, prospects are even now held. 
Everyone connected with mining seems 
to realize that the mines must show what 
they can do before the State can expect 
to get the money that it needs to go 
ahead with its development. 

The confidence in the future is there. 
But the spirit of the confidence game 
has gone under cover, and it seems cer- 
tain that the people of the State are de- 
termined to keep it there until it has died 

Local Mining Papers Doing Good 

Goldfield has a mining paper, the 
Goldfield Tribune, that is trying to tell 
the truth about the properties of the 
camp. Tonopah has a paper called the 
Tonopah Miner, the editor of which gets 
his information direct from the men in 
charge of the different properties. The 
news is reliable and in case one reads 
between the lines he can get a good idea 
of the state of affairs at the different 
mines, but the reader should remember 
that the editor of a local paper has to be 
diplomatic and as he lives in the com- 
munity he cannot afford to go out of his 
way to tell the unfavorable things about 
the properties. Lukewarmness in praise 
in a local paper is about as far as the 
public can expect an editor to go. 

But this willingness of the mine super- 
intendents at Tonopah, in a camp where 
the ore conditions change suddenly, to 
try to give the public a correct idea of 
the condition of the mines, in spite of the 
knowledce that their candid declaration 
of what they think of the conditions of 
the mine is liable to prove greatly mis- 
taken with further development, shows 
how much mining men in Nevada are try- 
ing to kill the stigma of the "hot-air" 
campaigns of the past. The policy of the 
Goidfield Consolidated company to give 
the shareholders each month an idea of 
the condition of its mines and the full 
report that the Nevada Consolidated com- 
pany issued, indicate that mining in Nev- 
ada is coming to a sound hi 

\i.ino a Valuable Asset 

Although Nevadans in the past have 
played fast and loose with the public, 
for the whole State cannot escape the 

stigma of having been a silent partner of 
some notorious schemers, still it is be- 
lieved that when conditions are such that 
one can find out without actually visiting 
the camp that practically nothing is being 
done at Rhyolite and that the last stopes 
of the Montgomery-Shoshone are almost 
cleaned up ; when one perceives that such 
a mushroom camp as Manhattan was in 
its early days has settled down to sane- 
ness; when one sees that in the face of 
low copper prices and Nevada's disrepute 
the Yerington copper district has been 
able to get the money for a smeltery and 
a railroad; when one sees the Pittsburg- 
Silver Peak property developed into one 
of the best operated properties in the 
West in the last few years; when one 
sees Fairview and Wonder building mills 
but doing so only after the ore reserves 
indicate the need for them, when one be- 
holds the camp of Austin promising to 
become again a producer, now that the 
electrostatic plant is in successful opera- 
tion; when one gets information that 
leads one to believe that ore, such as 
made Goldfield leases famous, is being 
worked miles to the north at the camp 
of National, surely the time must be near 
at hand when the development of the 
large mineral resources of Nevada is 
going to forge ahead rapidly on a sane 
basis, and that in the next year or so 
Nevada will be rivaling even Arizona in 
mining activity. 


There were only two large producers at 
work in this camp at the end of 1910. 
These are the Goldfield Consolidated and 
the Florence-Goldfield companies. These 
two properties are notable in both still 
being in control of their original owners. 
The former paid the largest dividends in 
1910 ever paid by any gold-mining com- 
pany in a single year, while its advanced 
stand taken in regard to information 
given to its stockholders has already been 
commented upon. The Grizzly Bear 
lease, in this mine, is the deepest shaft in 
the camp, 1165 feet. 

The Florence cleaned up low-grade ore 
left by leasers, and while there is not 
much ore developed, there are good in- 
dications of ore in the bottom levels. 
Earnings were erratic on account of 
this leasing work, but the company made 
about 20 per cent, of its par capitalization 
($1,050,000). The upper stopes of this 
mine are now well cleaned up and deeper 
development is a necessity. It is purposed 
to sink to about 1000 or 12C0 ft. depth. 
Leasers took out over $5,000,000 worth of 
ore from above the 350-ft. level in this 
mine (not all in 1910). Good ore was 
shown on the floors of the lowest levels, 
and as the deep developments in the 
Goldfield Consolidated arc promising the 
results at depth in the Florence are also 
expected to give good results. 

SMALLER Properties in Got.DFinin 
The Combination Fraction produced 

ore in 1910 and milled it at the Nevadf 
Reduction Works, the heads averaging 
about $25 per ton. The attempt to con 
solidate a number of small mines with 
the Jumbo Extension as nucleus was 
failure. The Jumbo Extension produced 
by proxy during 1910, as a small area ol 
ground was worked by the Goldfield Con- 
solidated on shares. 

In general it may be said that geologi- 
cal study points to there being good ore 
at depth at Goldfield, so that there is 
much to be hoped for in a general pros- 
pecting of the field on the low levels. 

The Ely District 

Production in the Ely district in 1910 
was confined to the Eureka mine of the 
Nevada Consolidated, which produced 
about 65,000,000 lb. of copper. The pro- 
duction by months is given in a table 
elsewhere in this issue. The total would 
have been larger had it not been for the 
intentional curtailment inaugurated in 
August. Operations in the steam-shovel 
pit proceeded throughout the year with 
the smoothness of a well-oiled machine. 
It may be stated emphatically that they 
are not threatened either by influx of 
subterranean water or by unforeseen dif- 
ficulties in pulling up the ore-cars over 
heavy grades as the pit becomes deeper. 
The conditions were well known before 
the pit was opened and satisfactory engi- 
neering plans were formulated after full 
consideration of all of them. According 
to the official report of the company for 
the year ended Sept. 30, 1910, the de- 
velopments of ore amounted to 30,073,- 
000 tons averaging 1.99 per cent, copper 
and 14,500,555 tons averaging 1.28 per 
cent. Of this total, 3,421,275 tons aver- 
aging 2.153 per cent, copper have already 
been extracted. 

During 1910 stripping of the Liberty 
orebody was commenced and this will 
soon be ready for extraction by steam- 
shovel. The Veteran mine of the old 
Cumberland-Ely company, now absorbed 
by Nevada Consolidated, was idle during 

Giroux's Affairs Still a Secret 

The Giroux company conducted exten- 
sive developments in its Alpha mine, 
completing the new working shaft, equip- 
ping it, etc., but no plans for the treat- 
ment of its ore were officially announced 
and certainly no construction was in- 
augurated. There was a good deal of 
talk about building a smeltery; also about 
shipping ore to Tooele; but just what is 
contemplated by the management is still 
a secret. The extent of the company's 
ore reserves is also a mystery, no official 
statement respecting them having ever 
been made by the present management, 
although it has been roundly criticized 
for its failure to do so. No efforts have 
been made to extract the disseminated 
orebody of the company. 

Prospecting was carried on in 1910 by 

January 7, 1911. 



e Ely Consolidated, Ely Central, Bos- 
n-Ely and one or two other companies, 
it it was more or less desultory, and 
ch results as were obtained were in no 
iy indicative of the development of any 
her big mine. The Ely Central com- 
ny sank its shaft through the rhyolite, 
ssing into underlying limestone and did 
me drifting in the latter. The company 
lally fell into difficulties and ex- 
orations were suspended in October. 
le Ely Consolidated prosecuted devel- 
iment work on some of the small ore- 
idies and stringers in limestone that are 
laracteristic of Ely and have not yet 
en found to amount to much. 

Eureka District 

Early in 1910 a large section of the 
jreka & Palisade railway was washed 
it, and the company not being in a po- 
tion to rebuild, the railway service was 
landoned, and mining operations at Eu- 
ka had consequently to be suspended. 
itely the Richmond-Eureka Mining 
smpany bought in the railway and will 
pair it as soon as possible. Since the 
sumption of work on Ruby hill, opera- 
ins have been confined to the old stopes, 
hence iron ore is extracted. The day 
lien the company will begin deep pros- 
•cting is awaited with interest. 

Tonopah District 

The production of the Tonopah district, 
svada, for 1910 was 105,538 oz. gold 
id 9,954,455 oz. silver, or a total of 
,436,393, as compared with $4,887,905 

in 1909. This is an increase of 42.18 per 
cent, in gold and 47.78 per cent, in silver 
over the 1909 production. Of this in- 
crease the Tonopah-Belmont produced 
about 75 per cent, and the Tonopah Ex- 
tension 20 per cent. The latter was a new 
producer in 1910, the milling period 
covering only nine months. 

The largest producer was the Tonopah 
Mining Company which paid $1,400,000 
in dividends during the year and has 
paid to date 685 per cent, on its original 
capitalization. An important addition to 
the surface plant was an enlargement of 
its electrical equipment by the erection 
of an accumulator and generator set. 
Development work amounted to 21,000 

The development of the new orebody 
on the Tonopah-Belmont stimulated work 
on adjoining properties, among which 
may be mentioned the Jim Butler, Res- 
cue-Eula and the Mizpah Extension. A 
large amount of exploration work was 
carried on northwest of the Montana- 
Tonopah at the Jack Rabbit, Mining 
Chance, Cronjie Fraction and Sampson. 
The production of the MacNamara com- 
pany was less than in 1909, due to the 
fact that only high-grade ore could be 
shipped, the low-grade being held in re- 
serve for future milling operations. 

The Comstock 

The revival on the Comstock lode pro- 
ceeded from operations carried on by 
the United Comstock Pumping Associa- 
tion, which is driving the Comstock tun- 

nel. On this project $467,000 was spent 
in 1910, while it is reported that over 
$1,000,000 in all was spent during 1910 
in developing all the mines. The Ophir 
found promising orebodies at 2300 and 
2400 ft. and is now sinking to reach 
2500 ft. Its estimated production was 
about $257,000. 

The new mill at the mouth of the Com- 
stock tunnel treated ore from the Con 
Virginia mine; the Yellow Jacket mill that 
from the Yellow Jacket, Crown Point and 
Belcher mines; the Butters plant that 
from the Mexican, Potosi and Chollar; 
and the Kinkead the ore from the Ophir, 
except some high-grade material which 
was sent to the Selby smeltery. A new 
40-stamp mill was erected, the Rocky 
Point mill at Dayton, on the Carson river, 
intended to work the ore from the Hay- 
ward mine. 

At the Con Virginia, the main shaft, 
known at the C & C, was sunk to the 
2450-ft. level and the pumping plant, con- 
sisting of the Risdon hydraulic-elevator 
and the Riedler electric pumps was aug- 
mented by the addition of a Starrett pump. 
It is thought the combined plant will be 
able to take care of any water which may 
be encountered, down to 3000 ft. At the 
Ward shaft the new Scranton pumps, pur- 
chased at a cost of $45,000, were installed 
and in a few weeks sinking will be re- 
sumed on the shaft, which is now down 
2575 ft. The Yellow Jacket, Crown Point 
and Belcher mines, at Gold Hill will be 
dtained an additional 800 ft. through this 

Alaska in 1910 

The value of the mineral production of 
aska in 1910 is estimated 1 by Alfred 
, Brooks at $17,400,000, as compared 
th $21,146,423 in 1909. Of this the es- 
nated value of the gold production in 
10 was $16,360,000, as against $20,- 
1,078 in 1909. The copper production 
1910 is estimated at 5,600,000 lb., val- 
d at $740,000, as compared with 4,424,- 
5 lb. in 1909, valued at $563,211. The 
lue of all other mineral products in- 
iding silver, lead, gypsum, marble and 
al is estimated at $300,000. 
The decrease in the gold production is 
tirely due to the falling off in the out- 
t of Fairbanks, Seward peninsula, and 
me of the smaller placer districts. With 
; exception of the placer operations, 
i production for all the other mining 
Jtricts increased. In spite of the de- 
based gold production and the handi- 
p because of the delay in opening the 
alfield, considerable advancements 
re made in the mining industry. Cop- 
r mining was prosperous and much 

"Abstract of preliminary report published 
United States Geological Survey. 

development work was done. More has 
been accomplished than in any previous 
year in the development of gold-bearing 
lodes. Much work was also done toward 
installing large mining plants for work- 
ing low-grade placer deposits. 

Coal and Oil 
Practically nothing was done in the 
coalfields except a few patent surveys. 
Most of the small mines which have 
in the past furnished lignite for local 
use, were closed in 1910 until the mat- 
ter of granting patents should be finally 
decided. On the other hand, some new 
drilling was done in the Katalla oilfield. 
Current reports indicate that some oil 
properties were leased and preparations 
made to render the district productive. 

Railways and Roads 
The Copper River railway completed 
the construction of the line as far as 
Chitina, 131 miles from Cordova. The 
remaining 60 miles to the Bonanza mine 
are of easy construction, and the man- 
agers report that the line will be com- 
pleted at an early date. 

The Alaska Northern railway main- 
tained communication over its 71 miles 
of track, which connects Seward with 
the head of Turnagain arm. This rail- 
way when completed will lead to the 
development of the Matanuska coalfields 
and the Willow Creek lode district, as 
well as other mining districts in the Sus- 
itna basin. 

An important feature of the year was 
the transformation of much of the Val- 
dez-Fairbanks trail to a wagon road. 
This new road, besides serving the ter- 
minal points, aids the development of 
several mining districts lying between. 
Important roads and trails were also con- 
structed in other parts of the territory 
by the Alaska Road Commission. 

Lode Mining 

The marked advancement in lode min- 
ing in many parts of Alaska during 1910 
is the most encouraging feature of the 
industry. This is in part reflected by an 
increase in the gold production from 
lodes, estimated at about $300,000, and 
an increase in the copper of nearly 



January 7, 1911. 

1.500.000 lb. Notable advances were 
made in the gold-lode districts of Juneau, 
Prince William sound, Kenai peninsula, 
Willow creek. Fairbanks, and the copper- 
bearing districts of Prince William sound 
and the Chitina valley. 

The season was a prosperous one in 
the Juneau district, and much work was 
accomplished that will materially swell 
the gold production in the next two years. 
There were 13 productive gold-lode mines 
in operation in Alaska in 1910. one more 
than in 1909. Of the producing mines, 
six were in the Juneau district. 

The only gold-lode mines operated in 
1910 in southeastern Alaska, outside of 
the Juneau district, were two on Chic- 
hagof island, which had a prosperous 
season, and a small one on Prince of 
Wales island, which was worked part of 
the year. A large amount of prospecting 
of auriferous lodes was done in the re- 
gion tributary to Valdez. This work was 
stimulated by the successful operation 
of the Cliff mine. Enough prospecting 
has been done on some other veins in this 
district to indicate that they are likely 
to be of commercial importance. 

The only important advances in lode 
prospecting in the inland region were 
made in the Fairbanks district. Here 
the work cf 1910 indicates a wider dis- 
tribution of gold than has previously 
been known. The work was much stim- 
ulated by the erection of a 10-stamp cus- 
tom mill at Chena. This, with the three- 
stamp mill at Fairbanks, makes it possi- 
ble to test the ore. Practically all the 
prospects are on the railway which runs 
from Chena to Fairbanks, so that the ore 
can be easily sent to mill. Promising 
gold deposits are reported from Fair- 
banks, Dome, Vault, Moose, Esther and 
Cleary creeks. 

Some advance was made in quartz 
mining in other parts of t'r.e Yukon dis- 
trict. Little appears to have been done 
in testing the gold lode of the Bonnifield 
country, which had caused much excite- 
ment in Fairbanks during 1909. Pros- 
pecting continued or. quartz properties 
in the Chandalar district. 

Copper Lodes 

There were seven productive copper 
mines in Alaska in 1910, the same as in 
1909. The copper production is about 
equally divided between Prince William 
sound and the Ketchikan district. There 
was a small increase in the copper out- 
put of the Ketchikan district and a large 
increase in that of the Prince William 
sound in 1910. In the Ketchikan district 
the Jumbo. Mount Andrew. It. and the 
Goodrow properties were operated dur- 
ing the year. 

The most notable advancement in the 

Prince William sound section was made 

on the Beatson property. I.atouche island. 

This property changed hands July I. and 

•ice largely increased its tonnage. 

In the Chitina district some ore was 

shipped from the Bonanza mine over the 
bucket tram to the terminal station at 
Kennicort, where it awaits the completion 
of the railway. Among the most import- 
ant events of the year in the Chitina dis- 
trict appears to be the reported discovery 
cf a large orebody on the Mother Lode 
property. There is now every reason to 
believe that the copper output will show 
a much larger percentage of increase 
in 1911 than in 1910. 

Placer Mining 

The value of the gold production from 
placers in 1910 is estimated at $12,000,- 
000, as compared with $16,200,000 in 
1909. The best prospects of permanency 
in the placer-gold production lies in pro- 
viding means for economically mining the 
gravels of lesser value. Until this has 
been accomplished it is to be expected 
that there will be large fluctuations in 
the annual gold production. The year 
1910 witnessed considerable activity in 
enterprises looking toward this end, more 
especially in planning for or installing 
dredging equipments. 

The gold production of Seward penin- 
sula in 1910 was about $3,600,000, as 
compared with $4,260,000 in 1909. This 
decrease is chargeable to the working out 
of the bonanzas and the delay in the in- 
stallation of large plants to handle gravel 
of lower grade. The water supply on Se- 
ward peninsula is not sufficient to war- 
rant hydraulic methods except in a few 
favored localities. As a result, nearly all 
the operators are turning their attention 
to the installation of dredges. In 1910, 
six large dredges operated on the penin- 
sula. Of these, three were at work on 
small creeks that traverse the tundra 
near Nome, two on Solomon river and 
one on Ophir creek. Successful hydraul- 
ic operations were conducted on the 
benches of upper Kougarok river, in the 
central part of the peninsula. 

New placers were discovered in the 
Squirrel river basin, which is tributary to 
the Kobuk river. These are about 70 miles 
from tide water. So far as known the 
conditions seem to be favorable for the 
finding of other workable deposits. The 
rigors of the climate, the shortness of 
the season and the isolation of the dis- 
trict will always make operating expenses 

Iditarod District 

This district is about 400 miles from 
the Yukon river on the Innoko river. The 
district can also be reached by a 450-mile 
winter trail from Seward. In the summer 
of 1910 there were about 2500 people 
in the district and the gold production 
is estimated at $350,000. Most of the 
streams in the district have gradients so 
low that the gravels have to be hoisted 
to an elevated sluice box. Much of the 
auriferous gravel lies on a granite bed 
rock, which yields considerable sand and 
many boulders. These conditions have 

increased the cost of mining. It appears 
that the amount of proved placer grounc 
is not sufficient to support the populatior 
now in the district. During the year j 
number of other placer deposits were 
found along various streams in this dis-, 
trict, some of which may eventually 
prove to be of commercial importance. 

The Innoko district had a fairly pros- 
perous season, but reported no discov- 
eries of importance. The producing 
creeks are Ophir, Yankee, Little and 
Spruce. The value of the gold produc- 
tion for 1910 is estimated at $200,000. 

Fairbanks District 

The estimated value of the gold pro- 
duction of the Fairbanks district in 19 1C 
is $6,100,000, as against $9,650,000 in 
1909. This is due to the fact that many 
of the richer placers have been mined 
out and that no effective work has been 
accomplished for mining low-grade grav- 
el. Plans for dredging some of the shal- 
lower creeks have been made, but nothing 
tangible has been accomplished. There 
was some scarcity of labor at Fairbanks 
in the spring, owing to the exodus to 
Iditarod and on some of the creeks the 
water supply was inadequate. It is es- 
timated that about 130 placer mines were 
operated in the Fairbanks districts during 
the year. This is a falling off of over 
50 per cent, of the average of previous 
years. About 1200 men were employed 
in the operations during 1910. 

. Other Districts 

The Hot Springs district of the lower 
Tanana valley had a prosperous season. 
The largest production was derived from 
Solomon and Cache creeks and their trib- 
utaries. The output of the Rampart dis- 
trict lying adjacent to and north of Hot 
Springs was considerably less than 1909. 
Little Minook creek is still the chief pro- 
ducer in this field, Hunter creek being 
second. The decrease in output is due 
in part to the fact that the hydraulic 
plant on Hoosier creek was not operated 
in 1910. It is estimated that 33 men 
worked on 18 claims in this district dur- 
ing the winter. The gold production of 
the Salchaket region in 1910, somewhat 
exceeded that of 1909. There was little 
mining activity in the Bonnifield district, 
except on Gold King creek. 

The value of the gold output of tho 
Birch Creek district is estimated at $225,- 
000. A smali hydraulic plant on Eagle 
creek was successfully operated through 
the summer, but the larger plant on 
Mammoth creek was somewhat hampered 
by lack of water. There was a consider- 
able falling off in the gold output of the 
Koyukuk during 1910, as compared with 
previous years. 

This loss is largely chargeable to the 
decreased production of Nolan creek. A 
shaft was sunk for 335 ft. on Wiseman 
creek and an iron pipe was driven 30 ft. 
deeper without reaching bed rock. 

January 7, 1911, 



Mining in Mexico in 1910 

By Kirby Thomas 

1 As a whole, the mining industry of 
[Mexico during 1910 marked time. The 
aggregate output of the base-metal mines 
apparently decreased, as compared with 
1909, and the precious-metal output did 
not show more than the expected normal 
increase, due to the perfecting and com- 
pletion of large plants under way since 
the previous two years. There were no 
notable new districts opened up in 1910, 
or in fact in several years, and the ex- 
pectations of immediate great wide- 
spread results from the application of 
:he cyanide process to the treatment of 
ow-grade silver ores in the old silver 
listricts were not yet fulfilled in many 
:ases. The smelting industry of the 
:ountry was hampered by the upward 
evision of freight rates on the Govern- 
nent-controlled railroad, and had to meet 
he new condition of a scarcity of sili- 
ious ores, due to the spread of the 
yanide process in the silicious-ore camps 
f all Mexico. The introduction of 
yanidation of concentrates, as in Guana- 
uato, indicated the approach of yet 
nother encroachment on the preserves 
f the customs smelteries, which have 
een such a prominent and dominant fac- 
>r in the Mexican mining situation since 
bout 1890, when they were forced into 
le country by the Wilson tariff on lead 
ito the United States. A continued and 
:ute uncertainty as to political matters 
id an unrest on the part of the Mex- 
ans of all classes over the actual and 
leged shortcomings of the Government 
m a damper on the local initiative in 
ining and, in a minor way, affected ad- 
:rsely new foreign commitments in 
ining. It must, however, be stated that 
1910 large capital from 'abroad did 
)t show any timidity about Mexican 
vestments, and in fact the financial 
cessities of the Mexican owners of 
ining properties, and their willingness 
let outsiders do the work of develop- 
ing made the Mexican offerings during 
i year past especially attractive and 
merous, particularly, as compared With 
; halcyon days before 1907 when 
ery "gringo" became in his own 
nd, and in the eyes of the Alex- 
ins, a "millionaire" as soon as he 
>ssed the Rio Grande, and any old (es- 
cially very old) Mexican mine was 
isidered worth at least a paltry million, 
generally several million, if it could 
secured on a bond with a moiety of 
lerican dollars, expanded 100 per cent, 
the process of exchange into pesos, 
the present time real mines in Mex- 
can be bought cheap, but it takes real 
ney to buy them. This, of course, is 
)d for legitimate mining. 

Sociology and Politics 

There continued to be the inevitable 
repulsion between the races, as the for- 
eigner gained and held prestige in the 
mining and in other development under- 
takings in Mexico, but this is a sociol- 
ogical problem in the main and does not 
affect the progress or profit of the great 
mining business of the country. Anti- 
American riots, now known to have been 
part of the political program of the op- 
position party in the country, attracted 
the attention of the newspaper readers 
to Mexico in November, and these were 
succeeded by an armed campaign, dig- 
nified by the "border" correspondent into 
a revolution. Whatever the truth or sig- 
nificance of these internal political tur- 
moils may have been the fact of the 
studied protection of the rights and prop- 



1910-11, 1909-10, 

July, Aug., July, Aug., 

Sept. Sept. 

Gold (coined, foreign).. 


Pesos . 

Gold in bars 

16,934 578 

Gold in other forms.. . . 

415,548 '645,482 

Total gold . .' 



Silver (coined, foreign) . 
Silver in bars 







Silver in other forms.. . 

Total silver 



Total gold and silver . 






6 320 








Marb e (bulk) 



1,524,510 1,633|446 

159,782 426,834 
75,266 | 141,305 


Other mineral products 

Total of all mineral 



erty of Americans and all foreigners by 
both sides and the strong belief by Mex- 
icans and by Americans in Mexico that 
intervention (the "Big Stick") would fol- 
low any actual antagonism or jeopardi- 
zation of American interests minimized 
any bad effect that revolution talk or 
incipient revolution might otherwise have 
had on proverbially timid capital. 

Railroad Development 

The extension of the Southern Pacific 
railroad system on the west coast of Mex- 
ico was the most far-reaching factor in 
Mexican mining during 1910. This line 
is now nearing connection with the 
plateau trunk-line system at Guadala- 
jara, and it has extended important 
branches into Sonora localities of known 
great mining possibilities. The important 

project planned and partly realized by 
Col. William Greene, the railroad south 
from El Paso into the rich heart of the 
Sierra Madre, has come into strong con- 
structive hands, the F. S. Pearson inter- 
ests, and was extended, probably with 
the ultimate view of reaching a Pacific 
port, and a consolidation with the rail- 
road westward of Chihuahua was ef- 
fected. Other important railroad exten- 
sions, particularly in the plateau section 
of Mexico, have been held in abeyance 
during 1910 from various causes. It is 
probable that some of these extensions 
and branches will be built during the 
coming year, and the effect of such ex- 
pansion of the trunk-line railroad system 
on mining is already being anticipated in 
a number of districts now greatly limited 
by lack of transportation. 

The building and extension of hydro- 
electric projects was important during 
1910, particularly in the Jalisco districts 
and at Guanajuato, Aguascalientes and 
San Luis Potosi and in Chihuahua. Plans 
were formulated in the latter part of the 
year for a very extensive hydroelectric 
installation on the Rio Balsas which will 
supply all of the important camps be- 
tween the Balsas and the city of Mexico 
with electric power. 

Zinc Tariff Stops Mining 

The continued low price of zinc and 
the conditions imposed by the American 
tariff in 1909 have practically closed this 
important developing branch of the min- 
ing industry of northern Mexico. Some 
of the companies have continued to ship, 
during 1910 under contract, but most 
of the companies have ceased to operate 
and so far no satisfactory arrangements 
have been made for continuing ship- 
ments on a large continuous scale to 
European treatment centers. The zinc 
deposits of northern Mexico have proved 
to be extensive and important and the 
industry has great possibilities under fa- 
vorable conditions as to market and 
transportation. Several concessions for 
the erection of zinc treatment plants in 
Mexico have been granted, but so far 
none of them have materialized, and it 
is the opinion of those who have studied 
the questions that the conditions are not 
generally favorable to a local zinc-smelt- 
ing enterprise of any moment in Mexico. 

Oil Development Important 

The development of oil in the Tampico 
field continued to be very important. A 
number of companies are now operating 
on a dividend basis and the field has 
expanded largely and strong interests 
have come into it. The development in 



January 7, 1911. 

Veracruz has not been so important. This 
is controlled under a concession to an 
English syndicate represented by Sir 
W'eetman Pearson. Reports are current 
of oil indications on the west coast in 
Sonora. No information has become 
public concerning the success or failure 
of the extensive deep drilling operations 
in northern Chihuahua carried out un- 
der the backing of the Hearst interests. 
The government of Mexico has granted 
concession for the free import of oil into 
Sonora to the Cananea company and to 
other companies — a policy which is not 
likely to be extended if the Mexican 
fields developed sufficient output to take 
care of local demands. Among the strong 
interests in the Tampico field is the 
syndicate representing the Harriman- 
Southern Pacific interests, which syndi- 
cate has acquired extensive and import- 
ant holdings and the basis of a supply of 
future fuel for the extensive railroad 
operations in .Mexico, projected and under 

Trade and Mining Statistics 
The advance in the production of the 
precious metals in Mexico is strikingly 
shown in statistics given out at the time 
of the recent inauguration of President 
Diaz (Dec. 1, 1910). These figures show 
that in 1884-5, the beginning of the Diaz 
regime, the gold product of the country 
was 1.804.688 pesos and the silver prod- 
uct 33.226.211 pesos. And for the fiscal 
year 1909-10 the gold was 44.881,620 
pesos and silver 77.076,097 pesos. 

The restoration of trade and industry 
in Mexico in 1910 can be measured by 
a comparison from the latest available 
official statistics of exports and imports. 
They cover the first three months of the 
fiscal years 1910-11 including July, Aug- 
ust and September. The total value of 
the imports in that period in 1910 was 
53,095,992 pesos against 39,879,667 pesos 
for the corresponding period of 1909. 
The total value of the exports for the 
same period for 1910 was 70,592,089 
pesos as against 60,926,128 pesos for 
1909. This is an increase in imports of 
33.14 per cent, and in exports of 15.87 
per cent. 

The mineral products exported for 
the first three months of 1910-11 were 
valued at 44.383.506 pesos as com- 
pared with 42,526.173 for the same pe- 
riod of the previous fiscal year. This 
is deceptive as the increase is in gold 
exports, presumably for settlement of in- 
tnd trade balances. The consistent 
decrease, as shown in the table herewith, 
in the base mineral exports, which pric- 
tically measure the production as far as 
these metals are concerned, is notable and 
is not easily explained on the face of the 
available data. 

Standard High 
The mining camps in Mexico continue 
to make !'. cords in the treat- 

ment of si: y cyanidation. Dur- 

ing the stress of the continued low price 
of silver, these mills were compelled to 
meet price conditions uncalculated on 
at the time the properties were taken 

As a result, the cost has been re- 
duced much below the estimates. With 
the continued small advance in the price 
of silver during the latter part of 1910 
these companies have had the satisfaction 
of a considerable increase in earnings. 
This is particularly true in Guanajuato 
and in Pachuca. The companies operating 
at El Oro continue to make excellent rec- 
ords in the matter of cost and saving, 
and on the whole have attaineu a high 
state of progress in the treating of the 
silver-gold ores of that camp by milling 
and cyanidation. 

Review of States 

Besides the brief outline given below 
of operations in various States, a 
more detailed review of several of the 
principal mining States of the Republic 
follows this article. Discussion of the 
general situation as to the various metals 
ir. given place in the respective general 
articles elsewhere in this issue. 


At the beginning of 1909 the mining lo- 
cations in Sonora numbered 5391, repre- 
senting 300,655 acres. During 1910 it is 
estimated that more than 800 additional 
locations were made. The state provided 
nearly one-fifth of the total mineral ex- 
port of Mexico during 1910. Activity was 
greatly increased by the cessation 
of all Indian troubles and the im- 
portant railroad extensions completed 
and projected. 

During 1910 the Pacific Smelting and 
Mining Company was put on an operat- 
ing footing and is in the field for ore con- 
tracts for the Fundicion and Guaymas 
plants, greatly stimulating small mining 
operation. The Cananea operations are 
reviewed in Dr. L. D. Ricketts' article 
elsewhere in this issue. 

In the central part of Sonora 
many suspended or abandoned pros- 
pects were revived and strong companies 
came into the field, as the Cole-Ryan in- 
terests at the San Antonio and the Mines 
Company of America at La Dura and the 
Creston-Colorada. The Altar district con- 
tinued to attract attention and large oper- 
ations to treat the cement gold-gravels 
were undertaken, notably by the O'Neil 
syndicate. The operations at the Pilares 
mine at Naozari. at Las Chispas, near 
Arizpe, and the Lucky Tiger were con- 
ducted on a large and profitable scale. 

BA 1 a CAl h-'Ornia 

There was hut little new development 
in mining in Baja California during 1910. 
Several gold and copper companies con- 
tinued to operate successfully. The Boleo 
copper mines were operated on the 
same large scale. Some explorations 

were undertaken in the Pacific Coast dis- 
;ricts. In the San Antonio district, Com- 
pania Metalurgica de California install- 
ed a cyanide mill and the Progreso com- 
pany operated at full capacity. 


The conditions in Durango during 1910 
were but little changed. The operation 
of mines and smeltery at Valardeha con- 
tinued active and successful and the Map- 
imi district kept up its output and some 
new work was begun. At Avino, the 
English company continued shipping on 
a small scale. In the Topia camp sev- 
eral companies continued operations and 
at Guanacevi more extensive operations 
were carried on during the year. Some 
important discoveries were made in this 
district. The Inde and EI Oro camps were 
quiet. Recent negotiations and reorgani- 
zations promise to restore this rich region 
to activity. A projected railroad from 
Tepehuanes to Inde is being financed and 
also a line to El Oro. 


In Tepic mining was stimulated during 
1910 by the advance of the coast ex- 
tension of the Southern Pacific to the 
Santiago river. Much prospecting and ex- 
ploration were carried on in anticipation 
of better transportation conditions. Min- 
ing in Colima was practically at a stand- 
still during the year. 


Outside the Dos Estrellas mine of El 
Oro district there was little mining ac- 
tivity in Michoacan in 1910. The Talapa- 
huajua camp continued quiet excepting 
one or two minor development undertak- 
ings. The French interests owning the 
Inguaran mines continued to wait for 
needed railroads and the copper district 
about Morelia was only active in a small 
way. The Dos Estrellas company con- 
tinued its operations on a large and suc- 
cessful scale and held its rank as one of 
the most profitable mines of Mexico. Its 
stock is now largely held in Paris. The 
projected extension of the Southern 
Pacific railroad from Guadalajara to 
Mexico City will open up part of the State. 


The El Oro district continued to output 
goL and silver in excess of any other 
Mexican district during 1910, El Oro, 
Esperanza, Mines of Mexico and Dos 
Estrellas being the principal producers. 
The explorations of other properties were 
continued during the year with good re- 
sults in the Descubridora. The re- 
sult of explorations in the developed 
mines has been very satisfactory. 

In a new district the San Vidal com- 
pany is developing with great promise 
This lies northeast of El Oro and the 
same geological features prevail. 

In the Sultepec, Temascaltepec anc 
Zacualpan districts considerable develop- 

January 7, 191 1. 


■nent was carried on and some mill build- 
ing, notably the Seguranza. These dis- 
xicts await the extension of a railroad 
From Toluca. A description of the year's 
jrogress at El Oro will be given in an- 
>ther article. 


The Teziutlan copper smeltery was in 
jperation about six months in 1910 and 
it the close of the year was operating one 
itack on ores from the Teziutlan mines 
:hiefly. Little progress was made during 
he year in any of the other districts of 
he State, most of which are yet in the 
(iospective stage. A railroad from 
reziutlan to a gulf port was projected 
md may be built. 

The districts of the State of Zacatecas 
naintained fair activity during 1910. In 
he important section in the northeast 

part of the State of the Mazapil Copper 
Company (British) operated lead and 
copper properties extensively. The prop- 
erties of the Smelters' Securities com- 
pany and others also maintained a fair 
output. In the western part of the State 
in the operations were limited awaiting 
the building of the long projected railroad 
to connect with the National Railways. In 
the southern part of the State the Pinos 
camp has been active and the Benito 
Juarez at Salinas began production. In 
the district at the city of Zacatecas min- 
ing has been quiet. English interests ac- 
quired the Rio Tinto on the Cantera vein 
and are unwatering. El Bote produced 
regularly and handsomely. New cyanide 
equipment was installed. The San Ro- 
berta, under option to the Cape Copper 
Company, reverted to Juan Petit. El 
Eden mill was in operation on zinc ores 
from the Quebradillas. Negotiations for 

the sale of the Veta Grande properties 
are under way. The Zacatecas Mining 
and Metallurgical Company erected a 30- 
stamp cyanide mill in the gold-belt south 
of the city of Zacatecas. A sub-ventioned 
custom milling plant was erected in 
Zacatecas. The whole district promises 
greater activity. 


The Santa Rosa Quicksilver company, 
operating about 20 miles northwest of 
Cuernavaca in Morelos, installed an 8- 
ton Scott furnace during 1910. No data 
of operations are available. The deposit 
is large and has been worked for cen- 
turies. William Niven controls deposits 
of rose garnet in Morelos. The man- 
ganese deposits at Buena Vista on the 
railroad between Cuernavaca and Mexico 
City were not worked owing to the 
freight conditions. 

Mining in Sinaloa during 1910 

By E. A. H. Tays * 

Mining on the west coast of Mexico 
id not feel the effects of the 1907 panic 
mil the beginning of 1909, and it took 
II of 1910 to overcome the mining in- 
rtia this caused. Although active min- 
ig, with the exception of two or three 
Id camps, was practically at a standstill 
or nearly two years all over Sinaloa, 
lere was activity in all the 10 districts 
l the locating of claims. Taking 10' 
lonths in 1910, there were recorded 338 
enouncements (locations) embracing a 
)tal area of 3901 hectaras, or 9639 acres, 
;corded year. The greatest number were 
l the northern district of Fuerte, but the 
istrict of Cosala takes rank for area, it 
caching 829 hectaras (one hectara 
quals 2.471 acres), while Sinaloa was 
?cond with 825 hectaras. 

The greatest mining activity was in the 
istricts of Sinaloa and Cosala, due, per- 
aps, to each having a going mining 
imp within its boundary. The activity in 
le district of Sinaloa was more general, 
hile that in Cosala was confined in lar^e 
art to the region around Guadalupe de 
os Reyes. The districts of Mazatlan and 
uliacan made the poorest showing for 
le year, there being but 15 denounce- 
ients, covering 139 hectaras, in Culia- 
in, and 18 denouncements, covering 180 
;ctaras, in Mazatlan. Parts of all the 
) districts of the state are highly min- 
•alized. Those that show minerals over 
le whole area are Fuerte, Sinaloa and 
adiraguato, so it is natural that the 
■eatest number of locations should have 
;en made in these, thus equaling just 
)out 45 per cent, of the total locations 
»r the State. 

♦Mining: engineer, Fuerte. Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Fuerte District 
The district of Fuerte, although rich in 
mineral veins from the coast to the 
mountains, has no developed mines nor 
reduction works within its boundaries. 
The Choix Consolidated Company owns 
a number of good copper prospects, and 
it is reported that the company has ord- 
ered a 100-ton smelting plant and ex- 
pects to erect it at Choix. Development 
was done on several veins in the vicinity 
of Madriles, and an American company 
was at work in the old Las Papas camp. 
Isolated locations were made on placer 
ground, several in the vicinity of Fuerte 
and San Bias. 

Sinaloa District 

In the district of Sinaloa is the fam- 
ous gold camp of San Jose de Gracia. 
During 1910 work on the Rosario group 
was suspended due to barren zones and 
to a lawsuit. The Jesus Maria y Anexas 
company had another good year, ship- 
ping, monthly, 50,000 pesos and having 
large reserves developed. Numerous lo- 
cations were mado in the lead-silver- 
copper zone northeast of Ocoroni. Lo- 
cations were also made nearer the coast, 
on large veins, on the Tetamecha ranch. 
The outlook for this district is promising. 

Mocorito District 

In the Mocorito district are many large 
veins, especially around the Cerro Agudo 
section, and copper, gold and silver in- 
dications are abundant. The only active 
camp was Palmarito, owned by a Phila- 
delphia company. This company modeled 
its milling plant and treated successfully 
the silver ores that had proved rebellious. 

Badiraguato District 
In the Badiraguato district the Trigo 
or Tedras mines, worked frcm 1883 to 
1894 by the Anglo-Mexican company, 
were relocated. These have produced 
7,000,000 ounces of silver, which cost 
the company about 240,000 pesos more 
than the value of the silver recovered. 
It is believed that the mine has over 
100,000 tons of ore actually blocked out, 
assaying an average of 14 oz. silver per 
ton. This mine was developed to 1400 
ft. in depth, with the dip. There are sev- 
eral promising sections in this district, 
and numerous locations were made 
around Soyotito, Santiago de los Cal- 
balleros and San Luis Gonzaga. This 
district has the disadvantage of being 
off main transportation routes, and 
freight must be carried on the mule or 
the burro. The San Javier silver mines 
in the district have been closed for sev- 
eral years, but, during 1910, Americans 
secured old tailings, and will treat them 
by cyanidation. 

Culiacan, Cosala and San Icnacio j 

The Culiacan district, although one oi 
the most central and accessible, is the 
most backward in mine development. 
The San Lorenzo section is the most im- 
portant in a mineral way, and some day 
will become one of the notable producers 
in the State. 

The Cosala district is one of the lead- 
ing mining districts in the State and has 
several active centers, of which the well 
known Guadalupe de los Reyes camp ?s 
the most important, yielding about 1,000,- 
000 pesos a year for many years. The 
mining activity in this district was gen- 



January 7, 1911. 

eral; and while much was in the section 
surrounding Guadalupe de los Reyes, the 
San Jose de las Bocas and Nuestra Se- 
nora sections came in for their share. 

The San [gnacio district, though essen- 
tially a mining section, because of lack 
of transportation facilities was little ex- 
ploited. There was no active camp in the 
district, but it has many important min- 
eral zones, the most important perhaps 
being Jocuistita. 

Mazatlan and Concordia Districts 

The Mazatlan district is the least im- 
portant in mineral resources, as the 

greater part embraces the coastal plain. 
However, the northeastern section is 
wholly mineral. A new camp, Metates, 
was opened up during 1910, and is pro- 
ducing. Locations were made recently 
near the city of Mazatlan, at the water's 
edge, and development is said to be 
showing up a gold-bearing vein. The 
Pacific Smelting and Mining Company 
acquired the concession for a smeltery at 

The Concordia district ranks fifth in 
importance, and it has two of the most 
important centers in possibilities in the 
state, Panuco and Copala. At Copala, 

however, the Butters company ceased all 
mining operations. The general mineral- 
ization in this district, together with the 
accessibility of its principal camps to 
Mazatlan, will in time commend it. 

The Rosario district is one of trie most 
noted in the State, due to the antigua. 
mines in the Rosario camp, owned for 
years by the Bradbury estate of Los 
Angeles. No developments of note were 
made during 1910, but the advent of the 
Southern Pacific will help the district 
materially, the Rosario camp being espe- 
cially favored. Plomosas is a camp in 
this district of future importance. 

Northeastern Mexico 

By Henry C. Schmidt * 

During 1910 mining in general was 
quiet in northeastern Mexico owing to 
the low price of metals, and the heavy 
duty on zinc ores into the United States. 
Nevertheless, there was a certain amount 
of steady work carried on in the larger 
mines. Some of the mines are in a bad 
way owing partly to the lack of system- 
atic development, while others seem to 
be reaching the end of their orebodies. 
No new discoveries of any importance 
were made, and unless some discovery 
is made the mining industry in this part 
of the country will continue to decline. 
Both the smeltery of the American Smelt- 
ing and Refining Company, and the No. 
2 smeltery ran at full capacity, smelting 
lead ores. The Mexican Ore Purchasing 
Company ran a calciner at Monterey and 
also shipped crude zinc ores to the 
United States and Europe. 

Nlevo Leon and Coahuila 

The district around Lampazos, Nuevo 
Leon, was quiet. A little prospecting was 
done in a small way. The Fraternal 
shipped some ore. Near Villaldama, the 
Cruz del Aire mines were lately sold to 
a French company. The new owners 
finished the tram, and are developing 
• the mines in an energetic manner. These 
mines have a promising future. The 
tram was built by A. Leschen and Sons 
Rope Company, and has a capacity of 
100 tons of ore per day. At Vallecillo 
nothing was done in the zinc mines, 
though it is reported that they will soon 
start milling again. Minas Viejas con- 
tinued to mine low-grade zinc ore in a 
sri-all way and to calcine the same. The 
Soledad was a heavy shipper of lead ore. 
Recent examination showed about 100,- 
(XX) tons of high-grade lead ore in sight 
in the^e mines, which are under option 
to a French company and reported sold. 


In Montafias practically nothing was 
done during 1910. At Palo Blanco, the 
Palo Blanco Mining Company started up, 
after a shutdown of a couple of months. 
A good grade of zinc ore was mined in 
a small way, most of the work being con- 
fined to development and prospecting. 

Developments in the Vicinity of 


On Mitre mountain close to Monterey, 
several prospects were worked energeti- 
cally. Chief among these was the Cen- 
tenario Mining Company, which began to 
ship about 100 tons per month of lead 
ore of good grade. The General Es- 
cobedo developed favorably. On the 
Sierra Madre, near Monterey, the San 
Pedro and San Pablo mines of the Mex- 
ican Lead Company produced at the rate 
of about 2000 tons per month. Develop- 
ment continued in the Zaragoza y Anexas 
property. The Mineral Belt Railway suf- 
fered severe damage in the floods last 
summer, but was immediately repaired. 

In the Cabrillas district, Coahuila, the 
Paloma and Cabrillas shipped steadily 
large quantities of lead and zinc ores. 


In San Jose, Tamaulipas, several sales 
took place during the last two or three 
months and considerable work was done. 
It appears that this camp will come to 
tht front again, as good copper and zinc 
ores are being mined. San Nicolas, Tam- 
aulipas, continued quiet. Several mines 
were worked. After the heavy rains 
there was plenty of water and consider- 
able ore was concentrated in hand jigs 
and about 300 tons of silver-lead concen- 
trates shipped per month. 

In the Rampuhuala and Dulces Nom- 

listrictB, Tamaulipas, the orincipa! 

work was done by Salinas Caute and L. 

i- in & Co. of New York, zinc- 

Cafbonate ore being extracted, over 1000 

tons of this ore averaging 45 per cent, 
zinc having been shipped from Santa 
Ergracia, principally to Europe. Some of 
the ore was calcined before shipment. In 
the Llera district three lead-silver prop- 
erties were developed, one of which com- 
menced shipping to Monterey. In the 
southern part of the State the oil excite- 
ment continued and several producing 
wells were brought in. There are 30 com- 
panies at work and preparing. 

Operations in San Luis Potosi 

The Candelario & Filosofal mine at 
Catorce, San Luis Potosi, was taken over 
by a Monterey company and energetically 
opened. This is a promising property. A 
few years ago a large bonanza was taken 
out, but nothing was done at the property 
for more than a year. Catorce was quiet 
otherwise, though, there was again talk 
of starting cyaniding in this camp. Large 
quantities of silver ores suitable for this 
process and carrying from 400 to 500 
grams of silver per ton can be had here 
in dumps and mines. 

La Paz, at Matehuala, continued active. 
Santa Maria de la Paz, La Esmeralda 
and Dolores y Anexas all produced 
steadily. Improvements were made at 
the smeltery of the American Smelting 
and Refining Company at this place and 
Matehuala promises to be an important 
smelting center. This district has not re- 
ceived the attention its value merits; but 
it can be confidently stated that it is 
about to come into its own. 

At Charcas, the Tiro General shipped 
heavily. This property was under option 
and was examined by French engineers. 
The Bufa continued development. Large 
quantities of zinc blende were uncovered 
here, and tests made with a view to 
erecting a concentrator. The copper 
mines of the district were nearly all 
closed, only one or two being worked in 
a small way. 

January 7, 1911. 



\guascalientes Operations in 1910 

By Bruno Newman :: 

The Aguascalientes smeltery is still 
aerating at reduced capacity; only three 
f its nine copper furnaces are in oper- 
ion. The lead furnace was started 
October on an accumulation of lead 
•es which will soon be exhausted. 
The districts contributory to the Aguas- 
ilientes plant have not increased their 
ltput to any extent, although prospect- 
g and development were started recent- 
, and the competing smelters are mak- 
g good rates to shippers, particularly in 
sientos. In this camp, with a small re- 
tction on the silica charges or an in- 
ease in the iron or lime payments, the 
nelters could easily stimulate a larger 
oduction. Gabriel Chavez, who re- 
ntly purchased the Socorro mine, en- 
luntered a good streak of copper ore, 
A m. in width, and opened a good 
nnage of this ore. 

•Consulting engineer, Apartado 9, Agiias- 
lientes, Mexico. • 

The Nopensada mines of the Asientos 
mining company started work again and 
shipped three to four cars per week to 
Aguascalientes. The Alta Palmira mines, 
belonging to the same company, shipped 
two cars weekly, and are trying to lower 
the water to increase the output. The 
Lead's Queen properties, under rental to 
the R. S. Towne interests, encountered 
a large body of copper ore and the mine 
is shipping the ore to San Luis Potosi. 
The Tepozan mine found some good ore 
in its drift, the work being under the 
direction of T. M. Hamilton. At the 
Purisima mine, the drift south was con- 
tinued on the Purisima vein toward the 
intersection of this vein with the Veta 
Rusia and Santa Rita veins. 

The Santa Francisca mines of the 
American Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany have pulled the lowest sinking 
pump in order to install a large station 
pump to handle the water at the seventh 
level. Diamond drilling was discon- 

tinued, and no ore is being shipped to 
Aguascalientes; about ten thousand tons 
are being piled on the dump monthly, 
possibly for future milling purposes. 

At Tepezala the Guggenheim mines 
continued their monthly output of about 
three thousand tons, and Charles Lucas, 
in charge of these mines, blocked out a 
large tonnage. 

At Teocaltiche, near Paso de Sotos, 
W. N. Musgrave started operations at 
the tin properties, which are under lease 
to the Canadian Tin Mining Company, 
for exploration purposes. These mines 
belong to Mr. Rettich and associates; 
prospecting had been done previously, 
and new property was acquired. 

During November a large number of 
denouncements were made at the Aguas- 
calientes mining agency, most of them 
being in Asientos near the Lead's Queen 
properties operated by the Towne inter- 
ests, others in the tin district of Teocal- 
tiche and some in Tepezala. 

Mining in Oaxaca in 1910 

By A. E. Place* 

Business conditions in Oaxaca im- 
oved steadily during 1910. Among the 
ire important changes that were ben- 
cial to the miners was the completion 

the railway into Taviche by the Na- 
mal Lines of Mexico, and the subse- 
ent placing of an ore-purchasing 
ency and sampling works by the 
juascalientes smeltery at the new ter- 
nus. The reduction of rates for 
sight and treatment was such that ores 
saying above 60 oz. of silver can be 
ip^ed at a profit. Several important 
•ikes of bonanza ore, notably in the San- 
rd mine, operated and owned by the 
n Geronimo Mining Company of Mex- 
) City, in the El Duende, under lease 

J. Sibley of Chicago, the San Fran- 
»co.' the Conejo Blanco and the San 
an mine did much to call the attention 

the possibilities of other properties. 

consequence work was actively started 
the Boston, Esperanza, Purisima, 
ides-Bullion and a number of other 
od properties, and some of them are 
ready meeting with good success. Per- 
ps the most vigorous impetus was re- 
ived when the famous San Juan liti- 
tion was ended, the San Juan mine 
ing back to Charles Hamilton and his 
sociates in the Compahia Minera San 

♦Mining engineer. Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Juan de Taviche. This mine is now pro- 
ducing over a carload per day of sorted 
shipping ore, reported to liquidate at from 
2000 to 3000 pesos per car. The ore- 
shoot recently opened on the third and 
fourth level east is said to measure 126 
m. in length. Direct-acting hoists were 
orderec' for the mine, as well as a com- 
plete electric installation, and sinking to 
the 1500-ft. level will be continued, im- 
mediately upon arrival of the new ma- 
chinery. The prospects for the custom 
mill contemplated by Dr. Howard A. 
Kelly and associates are favorable. A 
most thorough sampling of all of the 
more important mines of the nearby 
camps showed ample resources in mill- 
ing ores. Titles to the mill site and 
water rights were recently turned over to 
the new company. 

In San Jose and San Martin active 
mining is going on in several places. 
In the Natividad del Valle, owned by the 
Mimiaga family of Oaxaca, who have 
been operating a 20-stamp mill for five 
years, active prospecting above the 200- 
ft. level led to the discovery of some 
large bodies of milling ore, and a ma- 
terially increased output of bullion. This 
level is the deepest working in the mine. 
The entry of Montreal capitalists, in- 
fluenced by Captain Seely and Henry 

Domville, who purchased the famous San 
Martin mine, was welcomed. After fixing 
up the shafts, and unwatering the mine, 
a first shipment was made a short while 
ago that netted them about S250 per 
ton. It is reported that the same group 
of capitalists purchased the Conejo 
Blanco mine in Taviche, now in bonanza. 

In Totolapam two custom nills were 
built in 1910. One of 10 sta-nps, on the 
Victoria Tapada mine, and one at the 
Soledad mine. Both will oe ready for 
work in January. Active prospecting of 
the country revealed ores in several 
places that assay half an ounce gold and 
90 or more ounces silver at the surface. 

In the Sierra Juarez camp several ex- 
aminations were made of the large old 
mines of the Manchega group, but the 
ore in sight did not satisfy the purchas- 
ers. It is hopeless to look for bodies 
of high-grade, or docile ores in mines 
where the buscones have had sway for 
3 lumber of years. The Rescate mine 
and mill were in constant operation by 
the Old Mexico Mining Company. 

Tn the Talea camp, the Santa Gertudis 
is shipping. At Cahonos, the mines owned 
by the Mineral de Cahonos, a Louisville, 
Ky., company, developed high-grade 
milling ores. In San Fernando, a Spring- 
field, 111., company purchased the lead 
and silver mines owned by the San Fer- 



January 7, 1911. 

nando Mining Company of Oaxaca. 
They have a permanent force of some 
300 men developing. The mines are not 
expected to produce until the lead smelt- 
are completed. 

The gold beit was iv.tner qukt in 1910. 
Wenzeslao Garcia installed a stamp mill 
in Peras. The ores come from the sur- 
rounding mines. The El Carmen mill 
increased to 10 stamps and in addition to 
these, there are many arrastras running 
throughout the gold belt treating ores will average from one-half to three 
ounces gold. 

Investigations by John T. Birkinbine 

and others, acting for the Oaxaca Coal 
and Iron Company, demonstrated beyond 
a doubt that good coking-, as well as 
fuel-coal, exists in commercial quantities 
to the west and south of Tlaxiaco. 
Plans are under way to open this region 
by railway from the north via Puebla, 
as well as from the south, via the Rio 
Verde. The exploitation of these coal 
and iron deposits will prove important. 

Other projects are the extension of the 
National lines to Tlacolula, thus bringing 
in touch with this center the important 
mining camps of Magdalena, and of Tla- 

Captain Seely and associates were ac- 
tively pushing the railway enterprise, 
that involves the building of a line from 
Acapulco to Salina Cruz along the Paci- 
fic coast, and the connection of Oaxaca 
with this line via the Rio Verde. It is 
also contemplated to relocate the Oaxaca 
smeltery at some point on this road, 
where limestone and iron ore can be 
had. The most strategic point may be 
the junction of the Rio Verde with the 
Rio Penoles, which dominate the entire 
western half of Oaxaca, the coal and iron 
fields and the south and east of the 
State of Guerrero. 

Hidalgo Operations in 1910 

Special Correspondence 

During 1910 important development 
and exploratory operations were carried 
on in the northern part of Hidalgo in 
the Zimapan region, chiefly by the Rob- 
ert S. Towne interests and by the Cortez 
Association, a Boston company. The 
Honey railroad W£S extended and its 
completion will facilitate operations in a 
notably rich region and also permit 
the development on a larger scale of the 
iron deposits of the State. Attempts to 
revive the milling and mining operations 
at Zimapan were hampered by lack of 

Pachuca District 

The results of the development in the 
important camp of Pachuca, including the 
tributary camps of the Real del Monte 
and El Chico, during 1910 gave assur- 
ance of renewed vitality for the camp 
for many years to come. The Real del 
Monte y Pachuca company, the principal 
operator in the district, inaugurated 
a number of improvements in the mining 

It is reported authoritatively that in the 
working mines of this company at the 
levels as deep as 1500 ft. the veins con- 
tinue to carry a rich average content and 
in some cases show richer than in the 
above. The company is doubling 
the capacity of its Loreto and Guerrero 
mills. Electric transportation has been 
installed in the Girauit tunnel and a 40- 
km. aerial tram is being built to bring 
the ores from Barron mines to the Lo- 
reto mill. The company is planning to 
open new mines during 1911. 

The Sar ■ company was 

constructii : anide plant all 

nearly completed. I) - 

in the mine resulted in a 

s and the 

vein v d to hav par 

ticularly in depth. 

' *;npany continued to 

develop on the 500-m. level, with suc- 
cessful results. The mill worked on 
dump and mine ore. Exploration was 
carried on to the north of the Viscaina 
vein in search of new veins. The out- 
put was about one ton of silver each 
v\ eek. 

La Blanca company continued develop- 
ments on the oreshoot of the Santa Ger- 
trudis vein as well on the new Northwest 
vein. The discovery of some faults and 
dikes in the northeast portions of the 
mine introduced new problems, but they 
do not affect the conditions of the opera- 
tion. The ore reserves are reported to 
be increasing. A 300-ton cyanide plant 
was completed and running well. 

EI Bordo mine was reported to have 
developed a large tonnage of ore and to 
have discovered "fillings" enough to jus- 
tify a cyanide mill which will probably 
be built on the site of Hacienda de Pu- 
risima Chica in Pachuca, the pulp being 
brought from the mine by a pipe line, a 
distance of 2 kilometers. 

The Guadalupe-Fresnillo company is 
building a 100-ton cyanide mill using 
Chilean mills and Pachuca tanks. The 
mine has a moderate ore reserve and a 
large dump. Capital was raised to oper- 
ate the Maravillas company on a larger 
scale. The company owns extensive ter- 
ritory in the Pachuca district. Much in- 
terest has been shown in the develop- 
ments of the Santa Gertrudis lode in the 
Sonora y Ures mines and in the Santa 
Ines y Carretero. The former company 
cently acquired I. a Fe" and Try- 
dimita properties. La Fe is on the con- 
tinuation of La Blanca lode. The Santa 
. Carretero is sinking to 250 m. 
>anta Ana mine developed a large 
orebody, and supplied the San Francisco 
mill, tli- capacity of which was incr 
La Union mill at Pachuca. another cus- 
tom mill, treated about 100 tons daily, 

the San Rafael mine. 

The Coscotitlan plant for the treatment 
of the tailings in the Pachuca river 
achieved a notable metallurgical success 
and is now operating profitably. Other 
plants are being built to treat tailings. 

Official Report on Santa Gertrudis 

The following data of the operations at 
the Santa Gertrudis mine are from the re- 
port of the stockholders at the meeting 
in London, Dec. 8: 

Since the Santa Gertrudis property was 
acquired by the Camp Bird, Ltd., opera- 
tions were greatly retarded for want of 
power. This difficulty was overcome by 
the starting of a subsidiary of the Mexi- 
can Light and Power Company. The 
installation of this new power plant, 
removed one of the most difficult and 
expensive items in mining at the camp. 

The developments in the 17th level of 
the Santa Gertrudis proved the width of 
the vein fujly equal to, and the grade in 
excess of previous estimates. The de- 
velopments above the 17th level are prov- 
ing satisfactory and indicate that far too 
little credit was given to the probable 
production of that section of the mine. 
In this part of the mine, in which much 
work was done by former operators, it 
was impossible for the engineers inspect 
ing the mine to estimate the ore reserves 
Since the new operations began, system- 
atic work has resulted in satisfactory de 
velopment. In September the vein wa: 
cut on the 18th level, approximately 110 
ft. below the 17th level. It is 16 ft. wide 
8 I', of which assays S20 per ton. Drift- 
ing east and west is now being carried on 
with good results. The ore exposed 
above the lfith level in the old workings, 
whik not blocked out, should yield a 
$2,000,000 profit, being twice the 
amount of the original estimate. 

January 7, 1911. 



There is every indication that the ore- 
)dy continues below the 18th level. Lit- 
» progress has been made in drifting 
i this level, due to lack of pumping 
jwer. The most important feature is 
at work accomplished throughout the 
ine fully confirms the original itimate. 
The new plant of the milling company 
ill consist of a 60-stamp battery, 10 
be mills. 49 cyanide tanks, precipita- 
:>n and filter-press plant, and othor nec- 
;sary machinery. This plant, which is 
jw in course of construction, will have 
daily capacity of about 600 tons, and 

is hoped will be ready for operation 
)out May, 1911. The Guadalupe mill, 
hich has a capacity of 250 tons per day, 
:gan operation in March and treated, 

the end of October, 43,000 tons of 
w-grade ore, leaving a small profit, 
hich has been utilized in the further 
jvelopment and equipment of the mine. 
The Santa Gertrudis company also 
vns two claims, La Necesidad and 
uillermo Segura. The shaft on these 
aims, 400 ft. deep, was retimbered. In 

crosscut at a depth of 270 ft., the 
:in averaged for a length of nearly 30 
., $17 per ton over a width of 20 in., 
hile the face of the drift showed $26 

ore. These two claims constitute an ex- 
cellent prospect, hut it will be some 
months before systematic development 
can be done. Should the development 
prove satisfactory it will constitute a 
mine independent of the principal Santa 
Gertrudis property. 

Real del Monte District 

The Real del Monte y Pachuca Com- 
pany controls the principal mines of the 
Real del Monte camp. Extensive im- 
provements in the mines were made dur- 
ing the year. La Reina company de- 
veloped a satisfactory orebody and is 
exploring on a north and south vein. 
The company will sink the San Pablo 
shaft to cut the Viscaina vein and to 
explore for the Santa Gertrudis vein, 
which it is thought extends to the prop- 
erty. The San Felipe Company is re- 
opening the San Felipe shaft and de- 

El Chico District 

In El Chico district, outside of the 
Arevalo company and the Tetitlan mine 
a few other mines worked on small scale. 
The cutting of the Arevalo vein by the 
Nepton tunnel at 2160 m. opened a large 

field for exploration. In the Arevalo the 
lower level of the mine is 70 m. above 
the level of the tunnel. About 300 ft. 
of drifting at the level of the tunnel on 
Arevalo vein will reach one of the ore- 
bodies. The Arevalo cut vein by the Nep- 
ton is 40 ft. wide. The tunnel cut an- 
other vein 7 ft. wide, mainly zinc and 
lead. The Arevalo company is planning 
a 100-ton cyanide mill. A company was 
organized recently in Pachuca for the 
erection of a 100-ton custom mill in El 
Chico. It is probable that not all the El 
Chico ores are suitable for cyaniding. A 
new company is being organized for the 
prospecting of territory east of the Are- 
valo properties. 

Work on the narrow-gage railway from 
Pachuca to the Real del Monte and El 
Chico is progressing. The line to Re*al 
del Monte will be finished by March, 
1911. The grade is about 7 per cent, in 
reaching Real del Monte. The Mexican 
Light and Power Company extended its 
service to Pachuca during the year, with 
the result of greatly cheapening and in- 
creasing mining and milling operations. 

The Pachuca, Real del Monte and El 
Chico districts together will soon have a 
mill capacity of 3000 tons daily. 

Mining in Chihuahua in 1910 

• Special Correspondence 

In spite of drawbacks, such as low 
etal prices, the United States' tariff 
1 zinc ores, the frequent shortage of 
■e cars and the comparatively small 
nount of new American and foreign 
.pital diverted to Mexican mining invest- 
ents, the State of Chihuahua made 
arked progress during the year 1910. 
lis progress is shown in an increased 
itput of gold, silver, lead and copper, 
ith but a small decrease in the zinc ton- 
ige considering the handicaps attendant 
1 its advantageous marketing. Just 
hat the total metal output was cannot 
: arrived at at this time, but a conserv- 
ive estimate places it about 20 per 
nt. in excess of the preceding year. 
le largest increase was in gold and 
Iver, while the lead tonnage remained 
>out normal. Upward of 20 properties 
>erated at a handsome profit, while 
rice as many more made ready for 
irly dividend earning by the addition of 
odern milling plants. 
Important features of 1910 were the 
vival of mining in such old camps as 
usihuiriachic, Guadalupe y Calvo, 
campo and San Pedro; the erection of 
dozen or so cyanide plants of capaci- 
;s varying from 20 to 300 tons with 
ans announced for as many more; 
e enlargement of the Chihuahua 
id Terrazas smelteries; railroad con- 

struction completed and announced; im- 
portant ore discoveries in Ocampo, Chin- 
ipas, Santa Eulalia, Conchos River and 
Naica sections; an absence of undesir- 
able promotions in Santa Eulalia, Naica 
and other older producing sections; bet- 
ter ore transportation, notably in the 
latter two camps; and the advent of 
financially able English and French com- 

D'vidend Companies 

The following companies have made 
public dividend distributions: Batopilas 
Mining Company, gold-silver; Dolores 
Mines Company (Mines Company of 
America), gold-silver; El Rayo company 
(Mines Company of America), gold- 
silver; Cigarrero Mining Company, gold- 
silver; Rio Plata Mining Company, sil- 
ver; Cienega Mining Company, gold; 
Gibraltar Alining Company, lead-silver; 
Compania Minera de Naica, lead — 
In addition, such companies as the San 
Toy Mining Company, Chihuahua-Potosi 
Mining Company and Santa Rulalia Ex- 
ploration Company (now the Exploration 
Company of England and Mexico), all 
with properties in the Santa Eulalia 
camp; the Yoquivo Development Com- 
pany, Cusi Minin» Comnany. Remihlic 
Mining Company, Santo Domingo Mining 
Company, Sierra Mining Company, Bar- 

ranca del Cobre Mining Company, all in 
the sierras west of Chihuahua City, San 
Diego Mining Company at Santa Barbara, 
and the various units of the American 
Smelter and Refining Company at Chi- 
huahua, Santa Eulalia and Santa Barbara 
have returned substantial earnings. 
There were also other properties in- 
dividually operated, of which no detai'el 
record is available but which proved 
profitable, as was the case with leasers, 
notably in the Parral section. The Rio 
Tinto Copper Company with mines and 
reduction works at Terrazas also oper- 
ated profitably until its shutdown in July 
to permit of the installation of a second 
furnace and converters. 

Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo 

Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo at- 
tracted particular attention on account 
of milling plants. In the former. taV 
first 250-ton unit of the Palmilla Milling 
Company cvanide plant was completed, 
while the 300-t~n cyanide mill of the 
Veta Colorado Mining and Smelt-ng 
Company and 500-ton zinc reduction 
plant of the San Francisco del Oro Min- 
ing Company were in process of erection 
and improvements were made at the zinc 
mill of the Arizona-Parral Mining Com- 
pany and at plants of other companies 
in the camps tributary to Parral. At 


January 7, 191 1. 

Guadalupe y Calvo. La Fe Mining and 
Milling Company had in operation a 25- 
ton cyanide plant which is being doubled, 
while the West Coast of Mexico Mines 
Company is erecting a 250-ton cyanide 
mill and a third company has in pros- 
pect the erection of a cyanide mill. With 
the operation of the several Parral plants 
which will permit of the economical 
handling of large tonnages of low-grade 
ores now unmarketable, the camp's out- 
look for 1911 is exceedingly bright. 

Santa Eulalia and Other Districts 

Santa Eulalia furnished nothing un- 
usual, but the producing and developing 
companies have made a number of im- 
portant ore discoveries. There was but one 
noteworthy property transfer, namely the 
Buena Tierra mine of the Santa Eulalia 

Exploration Company to the Exploration 
Company of England and Mexico. The 
installation of aerial trams facilitated in- 
creased ore production. 

The old silver camp of Cusihuiriachic 
gave unmistakable proof of again be- 
coming one of the State's most important 
silver producers and according to reports 
there will be several old mines on the 
shipping list again within a few months. 
The railroad is completed to the camp 
and this will greatly aid in its pro- 

There was active prospecting along the 
building line of the Mexico-Northwest- 
ern Railway from Casas Grandes to Ma- 
dera and many denouncements were 
made in new sections. This line also 
gave impetus to operations in the Guayn- 
opa and other old lead-silver and silver 

districts where reduction plants are 
planned for, awaiting railroad service. 

The operations of the Candelaria Min- 
ing Company at San Pedro were of note 
on account of regularity of lead-silver 
ore production and the installation of 
heavy pumping machinery. Normal con- 
ditions prevailed in the northern camps 
about Villa Ahumada and Casas Grandes 
and new discoveries of copper-^old and 
lead-silver ores were made. 

During the latter months of 1910 ship- 
ments of zinc ore were suspended by 
nearly all the large producers, mainly on 
account of the tariff on zinc ores into 
the United States, but a small production 
is now being made to European points. 
German and French companies are ac- 
quiring a few properties and the outlook 
for increased production is encouraging. 

The Mining Industry in Jalisco 

By A. S. Brady * 

The year 1910 witnessed the comple- 
tion of a power-transmission line into the 
Hostotipaquillo district by the Chapala 
Hydroelectric and Irrigation Company of 
Guadalajara, and delivery of power will 
be commenced early in 1911. Towers 
were erected as far as the El Favor mine, 
and from a switching station there, power 
will be sent to adjacent properties over 
wires strung on steel poles. From Lo de 
Guevara, a point on the Jalisco link of 
the Southern Pacific, near Magdalena, a 
branch tower line extends to the Embo- 
cada camp of the Amparo Mining Com- 
pany, in the Etzatlan district. Pending 
the completion of a new hydroelectric 
plant on the Santiago river, power will 
be supplied from one of the old plants 
of the Chapala company. The proper- 
ties that are certain to receive current 
during 1911 are El Favor, Casados, Mi- 
rador, Amajac, Espada, Marquetas and 
Mololoa. The Cinco Minas and Mina 
Grande may be added to the list. 

Hostotipaquillo District 

At El Favor the El Favor Mining Com- 
pany has a 20-stamp concentrating and 
cyaniding plant, built in 1909, still await- 
ing power. New equipment, including 
two additional tube mills (making a total 
of four) were installed and machinery 
rearranged. By coarse crushing and re- 
grinding it is expected to put through at 
least 120 tons daily. Development dur- 
ing four years has proved a large ton- 
nage in the mine, and stoping will be 
commenced as soon as power read 
mill. All mine workings were connected 
with the main transportation tunnel, and 
ore will be taken to the mill over a sur- 

face tramway. The El Favor Company 
is controlled by Makeever Brothers, of 
New York, who also control the Mirador, 
a new enterprise. It was decided to in- 
stall a plant for the Mirador adjoining 
that of El Favor, using the same building. 
There will be 15 stamps, with concen- 
trating and cyaniding equipment. The 
Mirador properties are near El Favor. 

In January, 1910, the Marcus Daly 
estate closed a deal for the old Cinco 
Minas, paying approximately 500,000 
pesos for the properties, and in Septem- 
ber the mines were transferred to the 
Cinco Minas Company, capital $500,000, 
organized by the Daly interests as a close 
corporation. The year's development of 
the Cinco Minas was satisfactory and a 
recent estimate placed the proved re- 
serves, inclusive of those left by for- 
mer owners, at close to 500,000 tons. 
Plans were made for 250-ton direct-cya- 
niding plant, but due to the recent ap- 
pearance of some zinc at depth equip- 
ment orders were not placed. During 
1910 the Dalys purchased valuable water 
rights on the Tecomil arroyo, in the Te- 
quila district, and if negotiations in pro- 
gress with the Chapala Hydroelectric 
Company fail, an independent hydro- 
electric plant will be built. Shipments of 
rich ore were made. 

Machinery for the first unit of a 200- 
ton reduction plant is being assembled at 
the Casados mine by the Consolidated 
Mining Company. During 1910 ore to 
the value of 150,000 pesos, taken out in 
development, was shipped. The work- 
ere increased to nearly two miles. 
Power drills will be installed as soon as 
power reaches the mine. Casados ore 
shows a j-rcater percentage of gold than 
any other Hostotipaquillo property. In 

ore recently encountered the gold repre- 
sented 35 per cent, of the total value. 

The Amajac Mines Company began re- 
modeling the old Amajac reduction works 
and it is expected to have the modernized 
plant in commission early in 1911. The 
company owns the Refugio, Animas and 
Tres Estrellas mines, and carried on de- 
velopment with good results. 

The Virginia & Mexico Mine and 
Smelter Corporation, which inaugurated 
the first modern reduction plant (Mar- 
quetas) in the district in J ( uly, 1909, shut 
down some months ago. Serious metal- 
lurgical difficulties, due to a high percent- 
age of manganese, were encountered. The 
Espada Mines Company, developing the 
Espada, Deseada and San Jose mines, 
made arrangements to use the mill. An 
aerial tramway will be installed. 

A deal for the old Mololoa mine was 
recently made with the Mololoa Mining 
Company, of Toronto, Canada, by W. M. 
Mathews, of Hostotipaquillo, and the lat- 
ter is now in control. Recent develop- 
ment opened a body of high-grade ore, 
and shipments are being made. 

Etzatlan District 

Tn the Etzatlan district in the first 11 
months of 1910 the Amparo Mining 
Company milled 57,474 tons of ore, pro- 
ducing 1,252,663 pesos. The returns to 
Jan. 1, 191 1 are expected to raise the total 
to over 1,500,000 pesos. The company paid 
quarterly dividends of 3 per cent, on $2,- 
000.000. Additional reduction equipment 
was installed, and the main shaft carried 
to 1000 ft. The company is ready to re- 
ceive power from the Chapala Hydro- 
electric Company, and a saving in operat- 
ing expenses is expected in 1011. 

January 7, 191 1. 



The old Candelaria and adjacent prop- 
rtles, near Ahualulco, were taken over 
ome months ago by J. B. Shale, of New 
'ork, and the Shale Mining Company 
irganized. An old tunnel and drift were 
leaned out, and a new tunnel driven 
150 ft. 

Ameca District 

In the Ameca district, late in 1910, 
Tench interests purchased a block of the 
tock of the Magistral-Ameca Copper 
Company, of Los Angeles, Cal., provid- 
ng funds for increasing the capacity of 
he concentrating plant at the Magistral 
line to 150 tons daily. When the plant 
,'as inaugurated, about June 1, the El- 
lore flotation process was a feature, 
"his was abandoned. Mine development 
ontinued during 1910 with satisfactory 
esults. The Almoloya Mining Company, 
f Mexico City, operating a small con- 
entrating plant at the Almoloya mine, 
aid dividends of 8000 pesos. The plant 
nil be enlarged in 1911. The Regina 
lining Company, at San Martin Hidalgo, 
ailed to obtain a satisfactory extraction 
i the treatment of its gold ore by cyanid- 
tion. Work on copper properties, under 
evelopment for several years, was con- 
nued, and reduction Tacilities planned. 


In the Bolanos district the famous old 
ilver mines of Bolanos were purchased 
uring 1910 by the Bradbury interests of 
,os Angeles, Cal., owners of the Minas 
el Tajo, Rosario district, Sinaloa. The 
lexican Mines Company, capital $500,- 
00, was organized. Pumping equipment 
3r the unwatering of the mines was or- 
ered, and old buildings and roads re- 

paired. A modern reduction plant will 
be erected. The Rosario Mining Com- 
pany, owning mines near San Martin de 
Bolanos for several years, resumed de- 
velopment late in 1910. Minnesota capi- 
talists, headed by ex-Governor Lind, ar- 
ranged to reopen the old Zuloaga mine, 
owned by Patrick Fitzgerald. 

In November, 1910, the Porvenir tun- 
nel of the Tajo Mining Company, driving 
for the last three years, cut the old Tajo 
vein, in the San Sebastian district, at a 
depth of several hundred feet below the 
antigua workings. Additional equipment 
is being installed at the Tajo plant, and 
by February it will be in shape to handle 
100 tons daily. Equipment for a 250-h.p. 
hydroelectric plant, utilizing the water 
flowing from the Porvenir tunnel, is ar- 
riving at the mine. It includes 3000 ft. 
o f pipe. The water will fall 600 ft. 
English interests recently made a deal 
for the Los Reyes properties, owned by 
a Guadalajara company, and are now in 
charge of operations. Some reduction 
machinery was purchased during 1910 by 
the Navidad Mines and Reduction Com- 
pany, operating the Navidad mines and 


In the Ayutla district the Carrizo Cop- 
per Company increased the capacity of 
the concentrating plant at the San Felipe 
mines to 100 tons daily, and placed it in 
commission late in 1910. The company's 
30-ton smeltery, at the town of Ayutla, 
was idle, but there are plans for smelt- 
ing in 1911. The San Miguel Gold Min- 
ing Company was organized in Indian- 
apolis by Gen. A. L. New to take over 

the San Miguel gold properties near 
Ejutla. Limited development of its cop- 
per properties was in progress by the 
Los Ailes Mining Company. 

In the Mascota district the Lupita 
Mines Company opened bodies of milling 
ore in the extension of its property, pur- 
chased from the Dwight Furness Com- 
pany, of Guanajuato, and operated the 
mill. A cyanide annex was installed. 
The company recently treated several 
hundred tons of high-grade milling ore 
from the San Jose de la Agujas mine 
of H. M. Sunde. Some rich ore was 
also shipped from the Sunde property. 
Several attempts have been made to sell 
the mines and mill of the Lawson-Mexi- 
can Development Company at court auc- 
tion, for the benefit of creditors, but 
without success. At each successive at- 
tempt the price was reduced 10 per cent. 
The court will soon offer the properties 
at 37,214 pesos. 

Tula Iron Operations 

In the Tapalpa district the Mexican 
Iron and Steel Company, of Boston, re- 
modeled the iron foundry at Ferreria de 
Tula, and purchased a traction train for 
the transportation of iron ore from the 
mines to the plant, 23 miles. During the 
year the company increased its invest- 
ment to nearly 500,000 pesos. Payments 
on the. purchase price of the Tula iron 
mines, timber and lands, 1,000,000 pesos, 
represent the greater part of this amount. 

In the Tecalitlan district, late in 1910 
a 20-ton concentrating and amalgamating 
plant was placed In commission at gold 
and gold-copper mines owned by A. J. 
Stewart and G. S. Johnston. 

Guanajuato Operations in 1910 

By A. S. Brady * 

The principal operations in the State of 
iuanajuato continue to be in the district 
f the same name. Active operations were 
arried on throughout 1910 at the Pozos 
amp in the southwest. 

Dwight Furness writes concerning the 
iuanajuato district: "The production of 
le camp held its own, with a gradual 
lcrease in efficiency of treatment 
nd a decrease in the cost of 
•eatment. Development was pushed 
orward more than at any other 
mch larger percentage of the ores treat- 
d now come from new ore mined, in- 
tead of from the dumps. The gross pro- 
uction in concentrates and bullion 
anges from 12.000,000 to 14,000,000 
esos per year. Several new mills: La 
'ula, Tajo de Dolores or the Providencia, 
Mil start early in 1911. Active work is 

'Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. 

being prosecuted in the Oro Grande 
mines, so that during 1911, there will be 
a notable increase of production." 

During 1910, the Guanajuato Power 
and Electric Company began work on a 
third hydroelectric plant on the Angulo 
river in the State of Michoacan, which 
will double its total capacity, giving it 
over 20,000 h.p. The new plant will be 
completed early in 1911. The company, 
through its subsidiary the Central Mexico 
Light and Power Company, purchased the 
San Luis Potosi power plant for $700,000, 
and built a transmission line to San 
Luis Potosi, 87 miles in length. The 
earnings of the company increased dur- 
ing 1910, and dividends were continued. 

The Oro Grande Mines Company, cap- 
ital $9,750,000, organized to reopen the 
old mines of La Luz and build a 1000- 
ton plant, early in 1910 made a deal for 
the mines and mill of the Guanajuato 

Amalgamated Company, at La Luz. Pay- 
ment was made in Oro Grande stock, 
and indebtedness of 211,000 pesos was 
assumed. Profitable milling was in pro- 
gress at the Amalgamated plant for sev- 
eral months, the net returns ranging from 
15,000 to 20,000 pesos monthly. The 
money has been applied to development 
and the payment of the indebtedness. An 
attempt to place a large block of stock 
in France has not yet borne results. 

The Adolph Lewisohn interests, of New 
York, now owners of the old San Caye- 
tano properties, spent from 5000 to 6000 
pesos monthly in development work and 
proved a large tonnage. The long tunnel, 
driven by former English owners 2% 
miles, was carried into the Mexiamora 
property, and old workings unwatered. A 
big reduction plant is planned. During 
1910 an option on the adjacent La Joya 
group was arranged. 



January 7, 1911. 

The Peregrina Mining and Milling 
Company is treating from 4000 to 5000 
tons monthly from the properties of the 
Cubo Mining and Milling Company. An 
aerial tramway was installed for ore de- 
liveries several months ago. The Pin- 
guico Mines Company milled about 150 
tons daily, part of which was secured 
from the Cedros property, under option 
to the Guanajuato Development Company 
for several years. For several months 
no high-grade ore was shipped by the 
Pinguico. The San Matias custom mill 
of the Mexican Milling and Transporta- 
tion Company was operated under lease 
by E. J. White with small profits. 

During the greater part of 1910 the 
Guanajuato Reduction and Mines Com- 
pany put through an average of 22,000 
tons of dump ore and mine fillings. The 
profits earned were sufficient to pay 6 
per cent, on the bond issue of $3,000,000. 
It is hoped to arrange for new develop- 
ment in the Rayas and other old mines 
during 1911. 

The Mineral Development Company 
continued driving the crosscut planned to 
intersect the Mother Lode and prove the 
Guanajuato district at depth. It was 
started just below the 600-m. level of 
the Nueva Luz shaft and it is estimated 
that at present progress the Mother Lode 
will be reached in February. The fed- 
eral government is paying a subsidy of 
150 pesos per meter for work below 
the 500-m. level of the shaft. 

The production of the Guanajuato Con- 
solidated Mining and Milling Company 
averaged over 100,000 pesos monthly. 
The Carmen Gold Mining Company, con- 
trolled by the Guanajuato Consolidated, 
showed a small profit during the year. 
The Humboldt Mining Company, of Mex- 
ico City, owning a property adjoining the 
Pinguico, resumed work several months 
ago and continued its shaft to a depth 
of 400 m. Crosscutting is now in pro- 
gress, with the hope of encountering the 
Pinguico vein. The properties of the 
American Mining and Milling Company 
were shut down during the year. 

The El Monte gold mine, owned by 
J B. Rocha and associates, netted from 
25 000 to 50.000 pesos monthly during 
1910. Much rich ore was shipped and 
some lower grade treated in arrastres. 
At the Pasadena property, adjoining the 
El Monte, a shaft is being put down 
to encounter the El Monte vein. 

It is expected that the plant of the 
Tula Mining Company will be ready for 
operation in January, 1911. and that of 
rovidencia Mining and Milling Com- 
pany in February. The former is one 
-.tamps, and the latter of 40. The 
• both plants will he concen- 
tration and cyanidation. Several years' 
lonnaue is blocked out in the Tajo de 

Ine of the Providencia coin- 

Mining in Nicaragua in 1910 
By T. Lane Carter* 

The serious revolution commenced r'n 

1909 was brought to a close during 1910, 
but as these Central American revolu- 
tions are not serious to mining as a rule, 

1910 was a satisfactory year on the 
whole for the mining industry in Nica- 
ragua. The first act of the Estrada revo- 
lutionists was to reduce the outrageous 
tariff imposed by Ex-President Zelaya. 
This reduction in taxation was of great 
assistance to the miners, so that even 
with the disadvantage of the revolution, 
eastern Nicaragua had a better year than 
i* has had for some time past. 

The war interfered seriously with 
mining operations in the Rama district. 
On the Topaz mine, near Rama, several 
battles were fought, and in consequence 
this mine was compelled to stop all work. 
In the Pis Pis district the mines ran 
fairly well, but a scarcity of labor was 

The normal output of gold in Nica- 
ragua is about 81,000,000 per annum. 
The output for 1910, however, will not 
come up to this amount. The probable 
figure will be $800,000. Statistics in 
this country are unsatisfactory and it is 
difficult to get at the exact figure, as the 
gold is not reported in fine ounces but 
in bullion. 

Little or no attention has been paid to 
any mining in Nicaragua except gold, as 
all indications point to the fact that the 
mineral wealth of Nicaragua is in that 
metal. Some lead-silver ores are known, 
and it is also reported that coal has been 
found. There are a number of copper 
prospects, but under the present condi- 
tions, base-metal mining does not ap- 
pear attractive. 

The country suffers from lack of trans- 
portation. Now that there is every in- 
dication of the abolishment of the con- 
cessions, large tracts of land will be 
thrown open to prospectors. During the 
year 1910 a number of mining engineers 
visited Nicaragua. The indications are 
that American firms will become inter- 
ested in the country. Most attention, at 
present, is being given to the Pis Pis 
district. All the engineers who ha</e 
examined the Bonanza mine in this dis- 
trict have been impressed by its great 
possibilities. Recently native prospect- 
ors have reported rich finds of free gold 
ore in the Bana Cruz district which is 
not far from the Pis P ; s. In the Ocon- 
guas district the La Luna has been work- 
ing our Huntington mill. Compared with 
the Pie Pis and Bana Cruz districts, th2 
Oconguas country has the serious disad- 
vantage- of hcin« lower and less health- 
ful. Great interest was taken in La 

•Mlnlnu • i u_- i • 8 C 

,1 ] imiid ... ill. 

Leonesa mine which is being develops 
under the direction of H. C. Hoover. The 
outlook for 1911 in Nicaragua is favor- 
able. The progress no doubt will be slow 
but there can be no question but that in 
time Nicaragua will have a flourishing 
gold industry. 


In Salvador in 1910 the Butters prop- 
erties, the Salvador and the Devisadero, 
were operated continuously, producing 
about $125,000 per month chiefly in gold. 
The plant was extended during the year. 
Mina Gigante at Jocoro operated its 
new cyanide plant continuously and 
other properties were developed. As a 
whole the mining industry did not make 
the advance the richness of the deposits 
justified according to official reports, the 
chief reason being lack of transportation. 


The shipments of iron ore from the 
Daiquiri iron mines near Santiago de 
Cuba operated by the Spanish-American 
Iron company during 1910 amounted to 
676,000 tons. The production of the May- 
ari iron mines, which is the new property 
of the same company on the north coast 
of Cuba, amounted to 410,000 tons for 
1910. The average annual production of 
the Daiquiri iron mines is 500,000 
tons. The estimated production of the 
Mayari property for 1911 is 800,000 
tons. The Ponupo Manganese Company 
shipped from its iron mines near Santiago 
de Cuba during 1910, 165,000 tons. The 
production from this property during 1911 
will be 200,000 tons. The manganese 
mines of this company are not in opera- 
tion. At the Mayari property the Span- 
ish-American company installed a 12- 
kiln nodulizing plant which has a ca- 
pacity of 1600 tons of nodulized ore per 
day. At present about one-ralf the ore 
is shipped in its raw or natural state and 
one-half nodulized. 

The Juragua Iron Company, a subsidi- 
ary of the Bethlehem Steel Company, 
shipped about 300,000 tons during the 

Most of the Cuban iron ore came to the 
United States. 

Some development of the gold district, 
near Holguin, in the province of Oriente, 
was undertaken during 1910. The Hol- 
quin-Santiago, El Mejor (American com 
parties) and the Cuban Gold Mining 
Company, of Havana, are in the district 
Gold is in veins and alluvial deposits 
The district was anciently worked by the 

The Cuba Copper Company of New 
York, operating at El Cobre, produced in 
1910 about 50,000 tons of silicious ore 
running from 5 to 12 per cent, in copper. 
Most of this was shipped to the United 
States, a small amount going to Europe. 

January 7, 1911. 



Mining in South America in 1910 

The Andean countries during 1910 
bowed a most important awakening in 
lining, due chiefly to the advance in- 
uence of the Panama canal. In these 
nd all of the South American countries 
ie great obstacle is the slowness of the 
rogress in railroad building, due to great 
hysical difficulties, to sparseness of set- 
ement and to the difficulty in rescuing 
ie necessary foreign capital. In Brazil, 
Tgentine, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and 
;hi!e, the railroad progress was marked 
nd many new roads are projected or 
nder construction. A general review of 
ie several countries follows. It is re- 
rettably impossible to secure satisfactory 
nd timely statistics of South American 

Argentine Republic 

In an able and trenchant article by 
alvador Mesquita, presented on the oc- 
asion of the Industrial Exposition at 
luenos Aires (August, 1910), the recog- 
ized backward state of the mining in- 
ustry of the Argentine Republic is at- 
ributed mainly to the defective national 
sgislation; the need of technical schools 
ostered by public funds; the failure of 
he banks to recognize or aid mining 
inancially; and the lack of competent 
;eological and technical literature on the 
ndustry and the districts, and of official 
naps and mineral surveys. He ably 
Iraws a parallel and contrast with the 
onditions in the United States and urges 
he government to recognize the import- 
ince of developing the mineral resources 
»f the country and to take action to re- 
nove the obstacles under which it is 
low struggling. The article is an ex- 
)lanation of the failure of this South 
\merican country to develop in a rela- 
ively important way its mining industry. 

The same author describes in a pam- 
)hlet the tin deposits of San Salvador in 
he province of Catamarca in the Sierra 
if Zapata. These were originally lo- 
cated as silver mines and abandoned. In 
1906 Sr. Mesquita discovered tin in 
:he samples of the ore. and deno""ce- 
nent and development followed. The tin 
s found in a granite formation. A typical 
analysis shows tin oxide, 14.52 per cent.; 
ron oxide, 2.75: copper oxide, 0.22; com- 
bined water, 2.31, lime and magnesia, 
3.23; silicious gangue, 79.97 per cent. The 
property has been equipped and is oper- 
ating. The possibilities of increased 
quantities of tin being secured from Ar- 
gentine deposits are mentioned by Con- 
sul-General R. M. Bartleman, of Buenos 
Aires. The San Salvador mine has, ac- 
ording to the report, 2000 tons of mineral 
waiting for machinery to treat it. No 
tin has yet been exported from Argen- 
tina, lack of railway transportation being 

a detriment in development. The cost 
of transporting a ton of. mineral from the 
mine in question to the seaboard is ap- 
proximately $25, pending the completion 
of the railway line to Cerro Negro, now 
under construction. 

Several British companies have in 
recent years undertaken development of 
mining prospects, principally in the prov- 
inces of La Rioja and Catamarca. In 
the former the Famatina Development 
Company, Ltd., during 1910 completed 
important improvements of the smelting 
plant, including converters. Apparently 
little has been done in gold mining in 
Argentine, although several vein deposits 
have been exploited in a small way by 
local interests. Recently examinations of 
gold-gravel deposits near the Bolivian 
line in the province of Salta are reported, 
and also investigations of the Rio Negro 
area in the south for dredging have been 

The coal developments in Argentina 
continue to be of increasing importance, 
although in 1909, the latest available sta- 
tistics, the coal imports were valued at 

In 1909 the total mineral-product im- 
ports amounted to $64,378,000. The min- 
eral exports of the first six months of 
1910 were only 307,927 pesos (gold). 

A Chilean company is operating gravel 
deposits at the head of the Neuguen river 
by sluicing. Dredging operations in 
Jujuy province commenced in 1908 are 
reported to be discontinued. Tungsten 
deposits are being operated in La Caro- 
lina district province of San Luis, the 
product being shipped to Europe. 


Manganese ore and monazite contin- 
ued to be the important and distinctive 
mineral products of Brazil in 1910. 
Gold operations and diamond mining are 
attracting more attention in Brazil, as the 
country is opened up by railroads which 
are rapidly being extended into the in- 
terior under the backing of foreign cap- 
ital. During the year, American engin- 
eers studied the iron deposits of south- 
ern Brazil and American geologists have 
demonstrated that the coal deposits ex- 
tend from Sao Paulo to Rio Grande do 
Sul. Placer operations were under way 
on the Kaka river below Guanay. Mer- 
cury was produced in the State of Minas 


The impetus to mining in Bolivia 
began with the program for the govern- 
ment financing of a railroad system for 
the country during 1909. Tin was the 
principal mineral export. The Andes 
Tin Company erected a hydroelectric 

plant using the waters of the glaciers. 
The mines are between 16,000 and 17,000 
ft. above sea level. The principal mineral 
zones being developed on a large scale 
are: The extensive region which, com- 
mencing in the basin of the Inambari 
river, extends from the western confines 
of the country to Upper Paraguay, and 
contains the placers of San Juan del Oro, 
Suches, Tipuani, and a number of others 
equally important; the district commenc- 
ing in Lopez and continuing southward 
through Chayanta, Chichas, Mendez, Cin- 
ti and Acero and terminating in the plains 
of Santa Cruz; and the zone, which is 
the richest and most important, extending 
to Carabaya, Peru, and to the sources of 
the Madre de Dios, Acre, and Purus 
rivers. From 1540 to 1750, the gold 
mines of Bolivia produced S2, 100,000,- 
000. From 1750 to the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, the mines and placers 
situated in the provinces of Larecaja and 
Caupolican produced $14,000,000 gold, 
and from 1818 to 1868 the output was 
150,770 oz. of gold. The product in 
gold of the other mines and placers of 
the nation, from the middle of the 
eighteenth to the latter part of the nine- 
teenth century, is estimated at $125,- 

The attention of foreign capital was 
turned toward Colombian mining opera- 
tions in 1910 in a notable way. The 
American-British interests controlling the 
Oroville, Cal., dredging operations took 
extensive options in Colombia on gold- 
gravel deposits and carried on explora- 
tions with reported satisfactory re- 
sults. Other American companies inves- 
tigated the field. Several American com- 
panies which undertook dredging opera- 
tions in the country a few years ago 
have been compelled to reorganize or 
discontinue, chiefly by reason of lack of 
sufficient capital. Several smaller gold- 
quartz operations, chiefly by English 
and French capital, were undertaken, 
in the southern part of the coun- 
try. Canadian interests investigated the 
petroleum deposits near the Caribbean 
coast, and the results are reported good. 
The country continues to produce some 
platinum from the placer operations. The 
Government canceled the lease of its 
emerald mines to an English syndicate 
and operated them itself successfully. 
The new mining code is considered very 

The United States Gold Dredging and 
Rubber Company, of New York, has 
acquired extensive placer properties in 
Ecuador, and recently announced that a 
dredge was contracted for. The property 



January 7, 1911. 

is in the province of Esmeraldas. An 
English syndicate is negotiating for the 
petroleum fields of Ecuador in return 
for a loan to the Government. A French 
syndicate took a contract on extensive 
mineral lands in the province of Esmeral- 
das. At the mouth of the Santiago river 
at La Tolita active mining operations 
were carried on during 1910. The rail- 
road to Quito is completed, and a con- 
tract was let to extend it to the Province 
of Esmeraldas. 

The mineral deposits of the country 
have as yet been only slightly developed. 
The country is reported rich in gold, 
mercury, copper, iron, lead and coal, 
while silver deposits also exist but are 
not worked. In Esmeraldas platinum is 
reported. Petroleum was found in pay- 
ing quantities on the coast. Sulphur de- 
posits were reported in several localities. 
Owing to lack of transportation, develop- 
ment of the interior coal deposits is 


The Cerro de Pasco company during 
1910 increased its output largely. The re- 

ported shipments to the United States for 
10 months were 32,000,000 lb. of copper 
as against 22,000,000 for the same period 
of 1909. The production for October at 
La Fundicion plant of this company is re- 
ported from Peru at 4,926,217 lb. of cop- 
per bullion. 

The Huancavelica copper mines are un- 
der option to an American syndicate and 
were examined recently by Frank Kle- 
petko. It is expected that development 
will be undertaken on a large scale. 

The Ferrobamba, a newly discussed 
copper deposit, is under option to A. C. 
Burrage, of Boston, until June, 1911. 

British and French capital organized 
the Aporoma Goldfields, Ltd., to operate 
at Aporoma in the Province of Sandia, de- 
partment of Piura, 155 miles from Tirapata 
on the Southern Railway of Peru and 365 
miles from the port of Mollendo. It is a 
placer deposit and is described as being 
the bed of a former river now elevated by 
geologic forces. The gold is fine and is 
reported to run 40c. to the cu.yd. Hy- 
draulicking will be practised. G. Allen 
Crane, London, is engineer and manager. 
Production is expected within 18 months. 

The only other large placer operation in 
Peru is the Poto controlled by Argentine 

A sulphur property in the department 
of Piura is reported to be yielding 150 
tons daily. 

Coal of good grade was developed re- 
cently in the Chimbote and Huarez dis- 
tricts. Oilfields in several districts are 
producing. Recently oil was found near 
Lake Titacaca. The Zoritos wells are re- 
ported to yield 15,000 tons of oil per an- 


The most important mineral product 
of Venezuela, asphalt, is controlled by 
an American company. Troubles over 
the concessions were adjusted in 1910 
following the change of the control of the 
Government. The iron deposits on the 
Orinoco river were under negotiation, but 
owing to complications with the Govern- 
ment, they are yet unworked. Gold 
mines in the south of the country were 
investigated by American engineers and 
also the magnesite deposits on the island 
of Margarita. 

The Mining Industry in Chile 

By H. K. Masters* 

The exports of Chile to the extent of 
86.1 per cent, are mineral products, 72.62 
per cent, being nitrate of soda. Export 
duties, which in 1909 amounted to 62.71 
per cent, of the total customs receipts, 
and paid 39.64 per cent, of the annual 
"budget," are collected on exports of ni- 
trate, iodine and bar silver, containing 
less than 50 per cent, silver. Nitrate 
pays an export duty of SI. 23 per 100 
kg. Iodine pays 46 cents per kg. 
Since 1908 bar silver, less than 500 fine, 
pays 40 per cent, of its value as export 
duty. This measure was adopted to pre- 
vent the purchase and export of the sil- 
ver coin in circulation in the country at 
such times as the depreciation of the 
paper money made this business profit- 

The government is friendly to mining 
and the mining code in force since 1888 
is liberal. 

General Mining Statistics 

Gold and silver have long ceased to 
be of importance in Chilean mining and 
whereas the average annual production 
O* gold in the decade from 1K01 to 1810 
100,000 oz., the maximum annual 
production during the last decade was 
only 61,322 oz. in 1*K)7. nearly 80 per 
cent, of which was contained in copper 
ores. The maximum reported produc- 

•Mlr. it bulldln 


tion of silver was 7,080,000 oz. in 1887, 
which had fallen to 1,425,000 oz. in 1909, 
of which 62 per cent, was contained in 
copper ores. 

The maximum reported production of 
copper, in the year 1876, was 52,308 
metric tons, which had fallen to 25,829 
in 1906, in spite of the high price of the 
metal for that year. It rose again to 
42,096 tons in 1908 and 42,726 in 1909. 
This increase was due entirely to the 
Collahuasi district, which has been de- 
veloped during the last five years, and 
shipments from which in 1909 amounted 
to 48,065 metric tons of 27 per cent, 
copper ore. Practically the entire pro- 
duction of this district came from two 
companies, La Poderosa and La Grande. 
The shipments of bar copper from Chile 
average about 20,000 tons annually, of 
which amount the two smelteries at 
Guaycan and Lota contribute over 60 
per cent, in the well known form of 
"Chile bars." 

Manganese ores were exported to the 
amount of 51,682 tons in 1907, but the 
price does not permit profitable work- 
ing in Chile at present. 

The total value of the metals pro- 
duced in Chile to the end of the year 
1907, as given by the Estadlstica Winer a 
<!<■ Chile, from which all the figures in 
this article were taken, amounted to 
$1,173,247,886. In 1909 the value of the 
metallic products was $10,433,560. The 

total value of the mineral production of 
Chile up to the end of 1907 is esti- 
mated at approximately $2,500,000,000. 
The maximum yearly production was 
reached in 1907 with $104,236,000. From 
1903 to 1909 there has been an average 
yearly increase in the value of Chile's 
mineral products of approximately $5,- 
000,000. The production of Chile's 
mines amounts to 43.3 per cent, of the 
total value of her mineral, agricultural 
and manufactured products. 

Coal and Iron 

Coal was first produced in Chile in 
1840 and the total production up to the 
end of 1907 was 24,787,767 tons, valued 
at approximately $100,000,000. The pro* 
ductiow reached a maximum in 1908 of 
939,836 tons, valued at $4,784,620. The 
total consumption of the republic in 
1908 reached the figure of 2,631,731 tons, 
so that the imports of coal from Aus- 
tralia and England amounted to over 
1,600,000 tons in that year. Of the total 
amount consumed 39 per cent, is taken 
by the mining industry. 

Iron has never been produced in Chile 
until the year 1910, when a French syn- 
dicate, which holds valuable concessions 
from the Government, completed a blast 
furnace at Corral, a port in southern 
Chile near the city of Valdivia, to m^ke 
pig iron, using green wood as fuel, by 
the Prudliomme process. The iron ore 

January 7, 1911. 



and limestone for this furnace will be 
orought from the provinces of Coquimbo 
and Atacama in vessels owned by the 
syndicate, which commenced operations 
it the furnace in March, 1910. 

Chilean Nitrate Industry 

The nitrate industry is the greatest of 
ill the industries in Chile and the pres- 
ent annual production is over 2,000,000 
;ons, valued at approximately $75,000,- 
300. From 1878 to 1907 the total value 
) the nitrate output was approximately 
SI, 000,000,000. Iodine, which is produced 
is a by-product of the nitrate industry, 
ivas exported to the maximum quantity 
if 564 metric tons in 1905, valued at 
52,564,630. Exports of nitrate in 1909 
imounted to 2,133,970 tons, of which the 
Jnited Kingdom took 32.8 per cent., 
Germany 26.9 per cent, and the United 
States 21.5 per cent., the remainder 
;oing principally to France, Holland and 
Jelgium in the order named. The two 
lorthern provinces of Tarapaca and An- 
ofogasta divide the exports about 

Since 1903 stocks of nitrate are re- 
•orted to have increased at an average 
ate of 5 per cent, yearly. In 1909 the 
world's consumption is reported at 2,- 
146,230 tons and the average English 
irice for 112 lb. of 95 per cent, nitrate 
/as 8s. 6K'd. The Estadistica Minera de 
",h'de estimates the nitrate deposits still 
emaining at 340,000,000 tons, equal to 
36 years' supply taking 2,500,000 tons 
early as the world's requirements, 
'here are 30,000 men employed in the 
itrate industry whose average wage is 
bout 5s. 6d. The capital invested is 
mglish, German and Chilean. 

The Copper Industry 

The copper industry employs 15,000 
lien, who work 280 days in a year for 
n average wage of about 80c. per day. 
n 1909 there were 500,532 tons of 9.22 
er cent, copper ore, containing 46,135 
Dns of fine copper. Exports of ore were 
5.53 per cent, of the total tonnage, 
ontaining 40.59 per cent, of the copper 
roduced. To produce these 500,000 
uns of ore over 800 so called mines 
eported operations, giving an average 
er mine of 625 tons, or only two tons 
er day. Three-fifths of the total ton- 
age comes from 75 mines which report 

production of over 500 tons yearly, so 
nat the other 725 reporting mines pro- 
uce only 258 tons per year or less than 
ne ton daily. An inspection of these 
gures gives one a fairly good idea of 
le condition of this industry. Prop- 
rly speaking there is no well organized 
lining industry in Chile, except the 
itrate industry. The metalliferous 
lines of the country, are largely in the 
ands either of poor mineros without 
apital to exploit their properties, and 
mo, by the hardest kind of hand labor, 
lanage to mine a few quintales of ore 

daily, or of men whose income is derived 
from some other business — who may be 
either professional men or merchants — 
and who employ miners to work their 
"mines" when the price of the metal pro- 
duced permits them to do this at a profit. 

Most of the ore produced must be 
transported to the nearest smeltery or 
railroad on the backs of pack animals 
and this is very expensive. In years of 
insufficient rainfall forage for these ani- 
mals is very scarce and in some cases 
. freighters cannot be found, even though 
excessively high freights are offered. 
The railways owned by the government 
have cheap freight tariffs and no com- 
plaint can be made by the ore producer 
on this score. 

When ore must be transported over 
railways owned by private individuals, 
as is largely the case in the northern 
provinces, there has sometimes been just 
cause for complaint. On the whole, how- 
ever, transportation difficulties are no 
greater in Chile to-day than were those 
encountered and successfully and swiftly 
overcome in the early days of mining in 
western United States, though it may 
be unreasonable to expect that the ob- 
stacles that do exist in Chile today will 
be overcome as quickly. 

The construction of the "Longitudi- 
nal" railway by the Chilean government, 
which will connect the southern prov- 
inces with those of the north, will mean 
much to the mining industry. This work 
is being actively carried forward at pres- 
ent in the provinces of Aconcagua and 

Operations in 1910 

No new mining enterprises of impor- 
tance were undertaken in Chile during 
the year 1910, but existing companies 
maintained more or less their usual out- 
put. The Braden Copper Company, in 
the province of O'Higgins, reports 7,- 
500,000 tons of 2.93 per cent, copper ore 
developed and is constructing a concen- 
trator to treat this ore on a large scale. 
This is a Guggenheim property. Tne 
important Compania Poderosa of Colla- 
huasi, with mines situated 15,000 feet 
above sea level, close to the Bolivian 
boundary, in the province of Tarapaca, 
will show a diminished output for 1910 
and is reported as unable to make a 
profit on the present price of copper, even 
though its shipping ores contain over 
20 per cent, copper. This company is 
owned in England, though there are quite 
a number of Chilean shareholders.. 

Boston capitalists are financing a thor- 
ough prospecting of the deposits of oxi- 
dized copper ore in the province of Co- 
quimbo at Almendral. Leaching on a 
small scale is carried on there, but no 
information has been given out as to the 
results of the exploratory work. The 
Central Chili Copper Company of Lon- 
don is maintaining its usual output from 
its mines and smeltery at Panulcillo, in 

the province of Coquimbo, and is devel- 
oping ore in its Ascension mine of better 
grade than the average. This company 
ships matte to the Nichols Copper Com- 
pany of New York. 

Caldera Again Shipping Matte 

The Caldera smeltery, owned by the 
Edwards estate, has never been the suc- 
cess that was anticipated and its con- 
verters were not operated during 1910. 
A contract was made with Lota and 
Guayacan for refining the matte. This 
was practically forced upon the Caldera 
plant by the necessity of preventing com- 
petition in ore buying by Lota and Gua- 
yacan in the Copiapo district. Caldera 
has never been able to get enough ore 
to keep the smeltery running at over 
half-capacity. The French company 
which owns mines and smeltery at Nalta- 
gua, in the province of Santiago, had 
some difficulty in getting a sufficient ore 
supply for its furnaces and its plant was 
evidently erected far in advance of the 
development of its mines. 

The leaching plant built by the Socie- 
dad Chilena de Fundiciones, the largest 
producer of bar copper in Chile, at 
Guaycan, was operated during 1910, but 
results were far from satisfactory. 

The total tonnage of ore treated in 
Chile in 1909 was 422,782 tons, contain- 
ing 6.48 per cent, copper. The figures 
for 1910 will not vary greatly from those 
of 1909. About 90 per cent, of the ores 
are now smelted in blast furnaces as 
against only 55 per cent, in 1903, and 
31.5 per cent, of the bar copper pro- 
duced is converter copper, compared with 
10 per cent, in 1903. In the latter year 
only three smelteries were equipped with 
converters. There are now ten plants 
so equipped. There are 30 smelteries in 
operation in Chile, only two of which, 
Panucillo and Catemu, treat over 40,000 
tons of ore yearly. Fourteen treat less 
than 5000 tons. 

Labor Conditions 

Labor has been more or less equal to 
the demand during the last few years, 
though the North continually draws men 
from the central provinces, such as Co- 
quimbo, thus creating a scarcity of labor 
in certain sections. "With the tendency 
to lower wages in the nitrate fields, due 
to the low price of nitrate and to the 
rising "exchange" of the Chile paper 
"peso," and the growing knowledge in 
the South of the hardships of life on the 
pampa, this migration of the workmen 
from the central provinces to the North 
will gradually diminish. Strikes are rare 
in Chile, principally because the Chilean 
workman is exceedingly improvident and 
unable to sustain any struggle with his 
employer. He is a very independent 
laborer and almost impossible to drive. 
He is, however, susceptible to flattery and 
can be coaxed. Physically he is a splen- 
did animal. 


January 7, 1911. 

Ontario Mineral Production in 1910 

By Thomas W. Gibson * 

The aggregate value of the minerals 
produced in Ontario in 1910 was about 
630.000.000. being much the largest on 
record, and exceeding that for 1909 by 
at least S3.000.000. Silver, pig iron, 
nickel and copper are the chief metallic 
products and all four show large in- 
creases. The output of non-metallic sub- 
stances remained on the whole about the 


The chief, practically the sole, pro- 
ducer of silver is Cobalt, the mines of 
which have been steadily worked. De- 
velopments during 1910 include the in- 
troduction and general adoption of water 
power for operating the mines, and the 
extension of concentration processes for 
low-grade ores. Both compressed air 
and electrical energy are supplied from 
Ragged chute and Hound chute on the 
Montreal river and from the falls of 
the Metabichouan at Bass lake, with de- 
cided advantage to the mines the cost 
of power being reduced from $125 or 
S150 to S50 per horse power per annum, 
eleven of the mines are now equipped 
with concentration plants, as against 
seven last year. 

The output of fine silver for the nine 
months ended September 30, 1910, was 
19.791,033 oz.. and the probable yield for 
the year will be about 27,000,000 oz., an 
increase of about 1,000.000 oz. over 1909 
Including 1910, the production of silver 
from the opening of the mines in 1904 
has been over 90,000,000 oz. The prin- 
cipal producers are Nipissing, Crown Re- 
serve, Kerr Lake, Temiskaming, La 
Rose, McKinley-Darragh-Savage, Buf- 
falo, Coniagas, O'Brien. Trethewey and 
Hudson Bay. The original Cobalt area 
remains wonderfully productive and has 
not been equaled by any of the newer 
camps. Of the latter. Gowganda and 
South Lorrain are proving to contain 
promising deposits, such as Millerett and 
Miller Lake-O'Brien in the former, an.1 
Wettlaufer in the latter. 

Shipments from Cobalt mines for 1910 
will aggregate about 33.000 tons as 
against 30,677 tons in 1909. The pro 
portion of concentrates is much larger, 
100 tons as against 2948 tons in 
1909. The average silver contents of the 
■lipme-its during the first nine 
month I was 707 oz. per ton. 

and of the concentrates 990 oz In 1908 
iveraged 736 oz., an 1 
• per ton Mo-t of the 
and much of the con- 
centrates are now refined into merchant- 

I lti< i:il OOV 

able bars at the Copper Cliff, Deloro 
and Thorold smelteries in Ontario. A 
good deal of the low-grade material goes 
to Denver, Colo., Perth Amboy, N. J., 
and other United States smelting points. 


The Sudbury nickel-copper mines 
maintained their supremacy during 1910, 
and in fact improved their position. The 
output during the first nine months was 
13,905 tons of nickel as against 13,907 
tons for the whole of 1909. For the 
calendar year 1910 the yield was prob- 
ably 18,000 tons, nearly twice the pro- 
duction of five years ago. The furnace 
product is a bessemer matte containing, 
say, 80 per cent, of nickel and copper, 
which is sent to the United States and 
England for refining and separation of 
the metals. The larger proportion of the 
product is made by the Canadian Cop- 
per Company, whose principal working 
mines are the Creighton and Crean Hill; 
the remainder is from the works of the 
Mond Nickel Company, which is now 
operating the Victoria and Garson mines. 
The extensive smeltery of the former is 
at Copper Cliff, and is in every way a 
modern and efficient plant; the Mond 
Nickel Company's furnaces are at Vic- 
toria Mines, but a removal is contem- 
plated to a point farther east more con- 
veniently situated as regards the Garson 
deposit. Both companies now operate 
their mines and works by electrical 
power generated by the Canadian Cop- 
per Company from the Spanish river, 
and by the Mond Company from the 
Vermilion river. The Dominion Nickel- 
Copper Company, formed a few years 
ago, to exploit orebodies on the northern 
nickel range, has not yet begun actual 
mining operations. It has been con- 
structing a spur line into the mines from 
the Canadian Northern railway. The 
nickel contents of the ores of the Co- 
balt silver mines are inconsiderable com- 
pared with those of the Sudbury ores, 
and are really a negligible quantity. 


Most of the copper is found associated 
with nickel in the ores of Sudbury, and 
forms a constituent of the matte pro- 
duced in the furnaces of the nickel com- 
panies. The output for the first nine 
months of 1910 amounted to 7108 tons, 
at which rate the product for the year 
would be, say, 9500 tons. For 1909 the 
production was 79^3 tons. The non- 
nickeliferous copper sulphides of the 
north shore of Lake Huron and else- 
where do not yet contribute largely ro 
the output. 


The recent discoveries in the Porcu- 
pine area, which lies about 100 miles 
northwest of Cobalt, proved sufficiently 
substantial to warrant a considerable 
amount of development work. Fortun- 
ately, the leading properties fell into the 
hands of men capable of thoroughly test- 
ing them without calling on the public to 
subscribe. The Timmins, Dome and 
Foster claims are being vigorously ex- 
ploited, and later finds similar in char- 
acter are also undergoing development 
Small stamp mills have been at work 
during the past summer on the Timmins 
and Dome properties, and will be re- 
placed by larger plants, now that the 
winter roads permit of machinery being 
taken in from the railway. The surface 
showing of gold at some points was ex- 
traordinary, and the feeling in the camp 
itself has never been other than opti- 

The Ontario government has an- 
nounced that it will build a branch line 
into the camp from the Temiskaming & 
Northern Ontario railway. The point of 
departure will probably be near Kelso 
station, the distance from which to Por- 
cupine is about 30 miles. The actual 
output of gold for the year, mostly from 
Porcupine, will be about 2000 oz. The 
gold occurs in quartz veins found both in 
Keewatin and Huronian rocks, also in 
veins of ferruginous carbonate cut by 
numerous quartz stringers. 

Helen mine, Moose Mountain, Atitc- 
okan and Bessemer (Hastings county) 
mines produced 121,488 tons of iron ore 
during the first nine months. The total 
yield for 1910 will probably be less than 
ir 1909; pig iron to the extent of 319.698 
tons was produced up to the end of Sep- 
tember, 1909. The total output for 1910 
was probably about 425,000 tons. 

The cobalt constituents of the silver 
ores from Cobalt camp have by their 
abundance demoralized the market for 
cobalt oxide, which is now down to 80c. 
per lb., with prospects for a further fall. 
The Canadian refineries are beginning to 
offer oxide for sale, and also shipping 
mixed oxides of cobalt and nickel for 
final treatment abroad. New uses may 
be found for cobalt; one of these is in 
making an alloy with chromium for fine 
cutlery, which is claimed to be non- 
corrodible. Meantime other sources of 
cobalt supply, notably the deposits of 
New Caledonia, have practically cease 


January 7, 191 1. 



Petroleum and Natural Gas 

The decline in production noticeable 
>r a number of years past continued. In 
?00 the yield was about 34,000,000 Im- 
2 rial gal., in 1905, 22,000,000 gal., and 
i 1910 it will probably not exceed 11,- 
)0,000 gal. — a decrease from 1909 of 
sout 3% million gal. Tilbury field has 
illen off markedly, and the older dis- 
icts of Petrolea and Oil Springs are 
kewise diminishing in yield. The in- 
.lstry has the stimulus of a Dominion 
jvernment bounty of l%c. per gal. of 
•ude product, yet the refining trade has 
jw to depend for the greater part of 
5 requirements upon imported crude. 

On the other hand, the yield of natural 

gas is increasing yearly. From the coun- 
ties of Welland, Haldimand, Norfolk, Es- 
sex and Kent on the north shore of Lake 
Erie, a supply is obtained which is piped 
to the cities and towns of the southwest- 
ern peninsula. The output in 1909 was 
estimated to have a value at the wells o F 
SI, 188,179, and that for 1910 will prob- 
ably shown an increase. The gas-bearing 
territory was proved to extend under Lake 
Erie, and wells drilled in shallow water 
off the shore in certain localities have 
yielded freely. 

Minor Products 

Arsenic may be classed among the 
non-metals, since it comes into the arts 
chiefly in the form of arsenious acid or 

white arsenic. Ontario is rich in arseni- 
cal ores, and from the mines of Cobalt 
a large quantity of white arsenic is 
yearly obtained by the smelteries during 
the process of recovering the silver. The 
output in 1909 was 1085 tons valued at 
$61,039 and for 1910 the quantity was 
not less. In addition, a considerablj 
quantity was exported as ore and in the 
speiss produced by the refineries. 

Iron pyrites, corundum, feldspar, 
graphite, mica, quartz, salt, talc, clay 
products, cement, building and crushed 
stone, lime, calcium carbide and fluorspar 
were all produced and testify to the va- 
riety of minerals Ontario contains. Some 
of these afford the basis for industries 
of more than local importance. 

Mining in British Columbia In 1910 

By E. Jacobs * 

An estimate of the mineral production 
' British Columbia in 1910 gives a net 
crease in value of $1,550,665, as shown 

the accompanying table. It will be 
en, though, that this was chiefly due 

a substantial increase in coal, for 
ith the exception of gold and a 
-all addition to the 1909 total for 
[ver, there was a decrease in the other 
inerals, these including lead, copper, 
nc and coke. In the case of copper, 
ough, the opinion may be expressed 

cent, from the lead. Only 85 per cent, 
of the value of the spelter in the zinc 
concentrate was allowed. The prices 
used were: For placer gold, $20 per oz.; 
lode gold, $20.67 per oz.; silver, 51.3 
per oz.; lead, 4 cents per lb.; copper, 
12.75 cents per lb.; zinc, 4.6 cents per 
lb. Coal is taken at $3.50 per long ton 
and coke at $6, these being regarded as 
fair average prices for British Columbia. 
Taking the several minerals in order, the 
following comment is submitted: 


old placer . 
old, lode . . 

Total gold 
I ver 

jpper . 

nc . . . 

Total metalliferous. 

Ml, tons, 2240 lb 

)ke. tons, 2210 lb . . . 
uilding materials, etc 

Total mineral production 

24,100 oz. 
257sOOO oz. 

281,100 oz. 

2,500,000 oz. 

37,000 000 lb. 
39,000,000 lb. 

4 000,000 lb. 




1. ISO. 000 




9, 796, 500 








D. 8954,951 

I. 2,773,834 
1). 268,218 


at the decrease was more apparent 
an real, for there appears to be ground 
r concluding that the 1909 copper re- 
rns supplied to the department of 
ines in one or two important instances 
ive the assay value of the ore rather 
an the quantity of copper actually re- 
vered at the smeltery. For 1910, it is 
lieved the figures used in the estimate 
esented herewith show the copper re- 

In calculating values in the table, the 
iUrnal's average prices of metals for 
even months, to December 1. were 
ken, but following the official custom 
the province, deductions were made of 
per ctnt. from the silver and 10 per 

•Victoria. B. C. 

Slight Gain in Gold Production 

Placer-gold mining in 1910 showed a 
small net increase. The season was not 
favorable for hydraulicking operations in 
Cariboo district, as a shortage of water 
prevented cleaning up at several of the 
larger mines; consequently only 10,000 
oz. was recovered, as against 12,350 in 
1909. Several small losses brought the 
total decrease up to 2750 oz. Against this, 
however, Atlin, in Cassiar district, made 
a gain of 3000 oz.. so that there was a 
net increase of 250 oz., or $5000, in the 
whole province. 

In lode gold, the gain was 18,776 oz. 
Approximately one-half of this was made 
by the Hedley Gold Mining Company, 
operating the Nickel Plate mines, in the 

Similkameen, and the remainder came in 
large part from mines in Sheep Creek 
camp, Nelson mining division, and in 
smaller degree from Rossland mines. 
The British Columbia Copper Company's 
Wellington group — a new producer — 
also made an appreciably large addition 
to the 1910 lode-gold production. There 
were not any decreases worth mention- 
ing, the various mining divisions well 
maintaining their gold output. The out- 
look is favorable for a further increase 
in 1911. 


The quantity of silver produced in 
1910 was practically the same as in 
1909. There were decreases in East and 
west Kootenay, chiefly in Ainsworth 
mining division, of the latter district, but 
these were compensated for by corre- 
sponding increases in the Slocan and 
Coast districts. Between 500,000 and 
600,000 oz. of silver was recovered from 
copper-gold ores by smelteries; the 
greater pr.rt of the remainder came from 
galena ores. The recovery of silver at 
the Consolidated Mining and Smelting 
Company's lead and copper reduc- 
tion works at Trail was about 2,000,000 
oz., or four-fifths of the total of the 
province. For the first time, a Portland 
Canal mine contributed to the year's 


Compared with the 1909 official fig- 
ures, production in 1910 was less by 
about 6,600,000 lb. A reason for much 
of this seeming loss has already been 
given. The proportions of production by 
districts were: Boundary, 31,500.000 lb.; 
Rossland, 3,600.000 lb.; Coast, 3,200,000 
lb.; and the remainder from other parts. 
The Granby company's output was re- 



January 7, 1911. 

duced, following a destructive fire at the 
mines which interfered with ore shipping 
and necessitated 'blowing out several fur- 
naces at the smeltery until fresh arrange- 
ments could be made for resuming the 
normal output. The British Columbia 
Copper Company made a gain of about 
a million pounds. Both the Consoli- 
dated company, at Trail, and the Tyee 
Copper Company, on Vancouver island, 
also made increases in production of this 
metal 1 . 

Lead and Zinc Production Declined 
The decrease in lead output was about 
7.000.000 lb. The St. Eugene mine, 
East Kootenay, was 8,500,000 lb. short 
of its 1909 production; but against this 
loss the Sullivan, in the same district, 
formerly idle, produced approximately 
that quantity. In Ainsworth division two 
of the larger mines were together 
7.500.000 lb. short, in one case owing to 
the destruction of a concentrating mill 
by fire and the consequent loss of the 
greater part of the season's production. 
There were several gains in the Slocan, 
at the Richmond-Eureka, Van Roi and 
Standard, notablv at the last with an in- 

'Our own statistics of copper production in 
British Columbia, based upon reports from all 
of tin- smelters, fall short of what Mr. Jacobs 
estimates. Editor. 

crease over 1909 of about 1,500,000 lb. 
Summer fires cut down the production 
of silver, lead and zinc at several im- 
portant Slocan and Ainsworth division 
mines, destroying surface works at the 
mines and bridges and trestles along six 
or seven miles of railway, thereby prac- 
tically stopping production for six 

The production of zinc was seriously 
checked by the forest fires already men- 
tioned. The Whitewater mill, up to last 
July, produced much zinc concentrate, 
and in 1909 the Lucky Jim mine shipped 
5000 tons of crude ore averaging about 
45 per cent, spelter. The latter mine 
was within a week of being ready to 
ship on a larger scale than formerly, 
when the destruction of the railway took 
away its transportation facilities. Ship- 
ments will be resumed next year. The 
Ruth mill, Sandon, Slocan, produced 450 
tons of zinc concentrates. The Van Roi 
produced until Aug. 1, 1910, when its 
lease of a concentrating mill expired; it 
is now building its own mill. 

General Progress 

In Cariboo, the producing capacity of 
John Hopp's hydraulic mines was con- 
siderably increased, and the Quesnelle 
Hydraulic Gold Mining Company made 

much progress with construction of Its 
17-mile ditch and flue. In Atlin, a small 
but rich gold-quartz mine was opened. 
In East Kootenay, the Consolidated Com- 
pany put in an ore-testing plant at ths 
St. Eugene and reopened the Sullivan 
lead mine while the provincial govern- 
ment established a mine-rescue station at 
Hosmer. In Slocan, the Van Roi Mining 
Company made progress 'with building a 
concentrator, and at the Standard a big 
shoot of galena ore was developed. At 
Rossland, another valuable shoot of gold 
ore was found in the War Eagle, and 
the Le Roi No. 2 Company opened an 
orebody on the 1300-ft. level. In the 
Boundary, the British Columbia Coppei 
Company commenced shipping gold ore 
from its Wellington group mine, and in- 
creased the blast-furnace capacity of its 
smeltery 50 per cent. In Similkameen 
the Hedley Gold Mining Company put it 
larger power plant and added fine-grind 
ing and more gold-saving appliances a 
its 40-stamp mill. On Vancouver island 
the Tyee Copper Company increased it: 
custom-ore smelting business, while th< 
Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir), Ltd. 
made important additions to its plant 
The Portland Canal Mining Compam 
built and equipped a concentrator an( 
commenced production at its mine. 

Mining in The Transvaal in 1910 

By Hugh F. Marriott * 

The estimated results from the gold 
mines of the Witwatersrand for the year 
1910 show an increase over those of 
1P09 of roughly 1,000,000 in the tonnage 
milled and £875,000 in yield, while, for 
the outside districts of the Transvaal the 
increase amounts to £275,000 in yield, 
equal to 27 per cent, of the 1909 out- 
put. The grade of ore milled corre- 
sponds closely with that of 1909 at 28.5s 
per ton. 

The only new producer for the year 
was the Bantjes, which recommenced 
crushing operations in August after a 
lapse of over 20 years. One remark- 
able feature of the official returns issued 
by the Transvaal Chamber of Mines was 
that on the Witwatersrand the number of 
companies operating in September was 
59 as compared with 68 during 1909. 
This reduction in number was the result 
of the policy of amalgamation so freely 
adopted during the last few years. 
Among the mines which, for this reason, 
no longer make separate returns are 
Crour mglaa«te Deep and Rob- 

tral Deep, all of which went 
the Crown Mines; the Gcldenhuis 

[xradon Wall building, 

Estate and Jumpers Deep amalgamated 
with the Geldenhuis Deep; and the North 
Randfontein, Robinson Randfontein, 
South Randfontein and Porges Randfon- 
tein were absorbed by the Randfontein 
South company. 

Stamp Duty Increased 
The number of stamps running durin 
September, 1910, was 9150 as compare' 
with 9158 in 1909, but the duty pe 
stamp per 24 hours increased from 6.7 
tons, which was the average for 190£ 




Witwatersrand District. 




Total Value 
for Transvaal 


Tons Milled. 


Value per Ton 


1884 0(i 

1 ,000,000 







l.oi 1,697 









1 1,10" 

13,571 554 

IS. I'" 

•0.5 1 

•i ,600,000 










L5.1 11,376 



ioi i.687 

7.170,07 1 

12,1 16,307 

[5 i 19,219 

lo.ooi ,658 


26,421 s:;7 


29,900 ■ i9 


13 1 


10 2 
45 2 
39 2 

39 7 1 

n :: 
is M 
65 sl> 
io 25 

12 00 

39 7 
38 Hi 
35 82 
:il 8 
:si oi 
:\ I 6 
29. l 
28 ."- 

2 13.101 
730. ISO 

1 ,s(i9,045 
I.:. 11,071 
5, 180,498 
7. 007. 152 

10.2 10,030 



1. 000.151 



10.05 1,809 


2 1,579,987 

27.10 ; 738 

"i 'i ., ,610 





1 892 

I 893 



I 896 








7 1 ,59 1 

1 12.0 11 

ni.-),:, oo 

OS| ,001 
1 .1 17,217 
1 .02.-,. 120 










January 7, 1911. 



y 7.40 tons, in September, 1910. This 
icrease in duty was largely brought 
tout by the greater use of tube mills, 
ere being now 181 at work as com- 
•ired with 134 in 1909. Various dis- 
Hssions and tests were conducted during 
e year with the object of determining 
hat is the proper economic ratio of 
Ibe mills to stamps. On the first intro- 
liction of tube mills it was generally 
tcepted that the proper ratio was in the 
jighborhood of one tube mill for every 
) or 60 stamps, while with new instal- 
;tions at present one tube mill is gen- 
ally installed for every 20 stamps or 
>; for instance, the City Deep plant 
msists of 200 stamps and nine tube 
ills. On the East Rand Proprietary 
jnes two batteries of 40 stamps were 
ir some time operated as an experi- 
ent in conjunction with eight tube mills, 
• one tube mill for every 10 stamps, 
id a duty of 23 tons per stamp per day 
as obtained, with screens of la:ge 
esh. Another factor in the improve- 
ent in stamp duty is the fact that the 
eight of stamps used in new pknts is 
uch greater than formerly. Only a 

agitator for cyanide treatment. In addi- 
tion, great attention was paid to such 
matters as screening, mortar-box classi- 
fiers, and amalgam traps. In fact, it 
can be said that the management and di- 
rection staffs on the Rand are constantly 
endeavoring to improve their methods 



1 . 85 



5 60 




4 90 


.", 05 

7 11* 


♦Average for nine months ended 30th Sep- 
tember, 1910. 

and are always willing to give any new 
process or device a fair trial. 

Stope Drills 

During the year the award was made 
in connection with the competition for 
small stope drills, promoted by the 
Transvaal Government, in conjunction 
with the Chamber of Mines; they offered 
prizes amounting to £5000 for the best 









Tons Milled. 


s. d. 





s. d. 



3.416. 813 . 


42 - 





16 5 

2, 14s. 715 




39 9 





15 - 



1.3. .".20,329 

- " 





14 3 



19.991 658 

35 10 





12 6 

4 s.-,:j.H7 




34 11 




8,5 15, 000 

12 7 




34 - 





12 10 


is. 196,589 


31 8 





13 2 





29 1 





11 6 



21. .".00,000 


28 1 





10 5 


* For six months ended 30th June, 1910. t Estimated. 

w years ago the erection of a mill 
ith stamps of 1000 lb. weight was con- 
dered to mark a great era of progress; 
new mills the Randfontein Central 
amps weigh 1650 lb., the West Rand 
entral Deep 1760 lb., and the City Deep 
)00 lb. Table III shows the average 
lty per stamp per diem from 1902 to 

Metallurgical Practice 

Much thought was devoted during 
'10 to the improvement of metallurgical 
•actice on the Rand, and numerous ex- 
:riments were made. Among other 
;w devices and processes the follow- 
g may be mentioned : The Caldecott 
stem of continuous collection and sep- 
ation of sand, in operation at the East 
and Proprietary Mines and the Simmer 

Jack; the Arbuckle process for treat- 
g slimes and sands, a feature of which 

a large cone for thickening the pulp 
■fore treatment; the Ridgway filter; the 
utters filter, which has been eminently 
iccessful at the Crown Mines and else- 
here: the /vlerrill patent zinc-dust pre- 
pitation press, which is receiving a trial 

the Village Deep; and Brown's air 

drills and £600 for their operators. The 
prizes for the drills were two in number, 
£4000 and £1000. The weight of the 
machines was limited to 100 lb., and 
there- were 19 competitors. The tests 
lasted nearly a year, and a great deal 
of experience was gained as a result. 
Machines of the reciprocating type gained 
both the first and second prizes, the 
hammer type of machine not showing 
up so well. Several of the machines 
which entered the competition had minor 
defects which were capable of correc- 
tion, but no alteration was allowed during 
the competition. 

Preliminary trials were held on the 
surface, and nine out of the 19 ma- 
chines were eliminated, leaving 10 to 
compete underground. The prizes were 
awarded on the work done in five stopes 
on three mines, 43 shifts being worked 
by each drill in each stope, or 215 shifts 
in all for each machine. Accurate sta- 
tistics were compiled as to the cost of 
compressed air. stores, spares, and the 
depreciation of the machines. The cost 
per foot drilled for the winning ma- 
chines was slightly under 10d., this 
compares very favorably with the cost 

of hand-drilling, which is about Is. Id. 
per foot. It was decided by the judges 
to diviae the two prizes equally between 
the Holman 2', s -in. drill and the Siskol, 
the former of which drilled 12,779 ft. in 
the 215 shifts and the latter 14,083 ft.; 
the Siskol cost slightly more than the 
Holman per foot drilled. The official 
statement read by Mr. Francke repre- 
senting the Chamber of Mines, expressed 
the view that probably a machine weigh- 
ing about 130 lb. would be more econ- 
omical than one of 100 lb. weight. There 
is no doubt that this competition gave a 
great impetus to the use of small ma- 
chine drills, and large numbers of them 
are now employed on the mines of the 

Approaching Additions to Production 

During 1910, several large companies 
rapidly approached the crushing stage, 
the most notable being the following: 


(Mixes Department Stati- 

Total Col- 

orec 1 and 

\\ hite. Colored. 


1902 {ft*--; 

8.162 32.616 


10,292 45.698 


19 ° 3 te;:::: 

11,825 66,221 


12,695 73,558 


13,413 74.632 1,004 


15,023 83,639 20,885 



16,939 104,902 U,34< 


18,159 93,831 47.267 



•-_ ->_'. 


17,495 98,156 52,917 



17,166 111,862 51,517 


17,697 129.61s 37,118 


1908 H™ 6 

18,181 147.557,21,461 


iyuo j Dec 

19,605 164,826 12,275 


1909 {June.. .-. 

21,620 175,895 7. 317 


23.077 168,665 2,03s 


1910{££ e -; 

24.794 201.77U 


The City Deep, which commenced crush- 
ing about the middle of December, 1910, 
with a milling capacity of 65,000 tons 
per month; the Randfontein Central, 
with a capacity of 160,000 tons per 
month; Brakpan with 60,000 tons per 
month; and Modder B, with 26,000 tons 
per month; the last three of these are 
expected to commence crushing opera- 
tions during 191 1. 

These additions amount to a total of 
3.700,000 tons per annum, and, besides 
these, at least eight mines have consider- 
able increases in plant in contemplation 
or in course of erection, while other 
properties in the earlie>- stages of devel- 
opment will have to be reckoned with 
in the course of the next few years. 
It is apparent, therefore, that the output 
of gold from the Transvaal may be ex- 
pected to continue increasing for some 
time to come. 

The question of native labor is in- 
timately associated with that of expan- 
sion, and unremitting efforts have been 
made to increase the supply and to make 
it more efficient. It is a matter for regret 
that, owing to the increasing demand for 
native labor, the various groups con- 



January 7, 191 

trolling the mines on the Rand have been 
to a great extent recruiting with com- 
peting organizations during the year un- 
der review. The tendency of this com- 
petition is to increase unduly the cost 
of recruiting and the scale of wages; 
within the last month or two, however, 
an arrangement has been made fix- 
ing a maximum allowance to recruiters 
per native, and it is hoped that this ar- 
rangement will have a beneficial effect. 
The following table shows the labor em- 
ployed in Transvaal gold mines at cor- 
responding periods for every year since 

It will be seen that, notwithstanding 
the complete withdrawal of the Chinese, 
the total unskilled labor force was 

respect favorably with those of any 
other part of the world, yet it is be- 
lieved that conditions can be improved, 
and that improvement in this respect 
will lead to higher efficiency. On the 
Village Deep a large Sirocco fan was 
erected, 2000 ft. below the surface, with 
great benefit to the air in the mine, 
while at the Cinderella Deep a Capell 
fan is employed at a depth of about 4000 
f.\ On other mines thorough investi- 
gations were made by expert advisers, 
and schemes adopted for complete sys- 
tems or ventilation through the whole of 
the workings. 

It is a matter for some congratulation 
that the grade of ore milled, which has 
decreased year by year since 1901, re- 

which had for its objectives the adoption 
of profits as the criterion of good min- 
ing, and elimination of arbitrary com- 
parisons between the working costs of 
one mine with those of another whose 
conditions were in all probability very 

The scheme, in essence, is to re- 
place the cubical unit of the ton milled 
by a superficial unit of the amount ol 
ground worked out. For convenience, tc 
suit the local custom in keeping mine 
records, the unit of one square fathom 
was adhered to. By the adoption of this 
standard the incentive to increase stop, 
ing width no longer has the samt 
strength as under the ton-milled method 
seeing that, if the width is unduly hv 


Xante of Company — Quarterly Returns for 1910. 

(1.) Average percentage of profitable to total ore based on the working results obtained during 1909 (to be utilized 

comparing columns 1 and 2). As a general average for the whole mine the limit of payability is governed by column 11 (eleven). 

Estimated value of the gold contents per square fathom of the profitable ore reserves standing developed in the mine at 12(31109 =■ £.. .1 
(for comparison with column .">>. 

1 2 


Quarter Ending. 

March :u . 
Jim.- 30 

ber 31 . . 

Totals ami 

a\ •••■.: 

Anas Developed On 

Plane of Reef in 

Square Feet.* 

- i; 

\| R !. 

Areas St oped Out On 

Plane of Heef in 

Square Feet.t 

Total \n-a in 


Fat horns. 




Total Vrea in 

Fal horns. 

Resultant Average Stoping 
Widths by Actual Meas- 




Value of Total 

< lold Contents 

of Anas Stoped 

as Disclosed by 

Block Assay 
Plan of Ore He- 
serves in situ. 

Average Gofl 

Contents pel! 

Square Fathom 


(4 -*■ 2a). 


irterly note to be added, giving: Distance exposed in feet. 
width. t Two reefs stoped togetherare to be considered as one. 

A\ erage width cf reef in inche 

Value per square fathom over averag 






1 1 



Value of Total 

Cold Won. 



\iuount oi 

1 iold Won pet 


Fat hom. 

(6 ■*■ 2a). 


of Recovery. 
( 100 X col. 6 

-v col. 1). 

Mine Work- 
ing Costs per 

Fathom Over 

Areas Stoped 
on All Reefs. 


Proportion of 

( <>~t s ( bank- 
able Against 
Profits per 

Squa re 
Fal hom. 




costs per 


(9 l(i) 



Total Distrib- 
utable Profit 
( obtained. 
(6 — l lat. 

Disi libutable 

Profit per 




(12 -:- 2a). 


Quarter Ending. 

Total Work- 
ing Costs. 
(li X 2a). 


March 31. . . . 


hing •■■ cept im n a ■<■ ol i apac ty of plain . 

greater in June. 1910. than in any pre- 
vious year. Efforts are being made by 
mine managers to improve the condi- 
tions of housing and the general welfare 
of the natives, and in this manner it is 
hoped to make service on the Rand in- 
creasingly popular, and to attract more 
and more labor to the mines. 

. it a r ION 

In this connection it is important to 
mention the steps that have been taken 

:ie of the mines to impro 

condition of the air in which the natives 

have ■ by the installation of 

ems of ventilation. Although 

If aklng, 

in this 

mained steady during 1910. During the 
year mining practice on the Rand was 
subjected to investigation and criticism 
both external and internal. It had for 
some time been growing more and more 
apparent that the effort to obtain low 
working costs was in many instances ac- 
companied by ton great a reduction in 
yield, the margin of profit, instead of be- 
coming larger through the diminution of 
costs, actually becoming smaller. The 
fact was that low working costs were 
beginning to be looked upon as the end 
of all good mining rather than simply a 
to the end which good mining 
should have in view to secure profits. 

When I was in Johannesburg in the early 
part ol I'Hu i brought forward a 

creased, .the cost per fathom will rise 
more than the corresponding improve- 
ment in the yield per fathom. I also 
proposed that returns should be pub- 
lished by the mines quarterly instead of 
monthly, as it is undeniable that the 
publication of monthly returns and the 
necessity for equalizing results month by 
month acl ?s a drag on economic mining. 
Subjoined is the form which it was pro 
posed the return should take. 

There is not space in the limits of t'lis 
article to deal fully with the argu 
to be adduced to support the adoption of 
this method. The scheme, which was 
propounded to a representative meeting 
of mine directors and managers in 
Johannesburg, has been widely discussed 

January 7, 1911. 



nd criticised. It has been adopted by 
;e Eckstein and Rand Mines groups for 
iternal use; but it is thought that, for 
ie present at least, it would not be 
alitic to substitute this quarterly state- 
lent of results for the monthly returns 
i which shareholders and the public 
re accustomed. 

Government Leases 

At the beginning of 1910, a departure 
i mining was inaugurated by the flota- 
on of the Government Gold Mining 
reas (Modderfontein) Consolidated, 
td. This company was formed to work 
;rtain ground equivalent to 2633 claims 
n a partnership arrangement with the 
ransvaal Government. The mining 
ghts under this ground belonged to the 
overnment, which split up the ground 
ito two areas and invited tenders for 
ie right to work the property. The 
mditions stipulated that the tenderer 
>r each area should undertake to guar- 
itee £700,000 working capital on the 
irmation of the company to work the 
rea, and a condition of the form of 
ase from the Government was that the . 
tter should receive a share in the prof- 
5 made by the company, such share 

be calculated on a sliding scale based 
l the relation of profits to yield. 

As a minimum, it was laid down that 
e Government should receive the pro- 
mion of net profits that net profits 
)re to yield, such proportion to be not 
ss than 10 per cent, of profits and not 
ore than 50 per cent. That is, if the 
eld were 25s. per ton milled and work- 
g costs were 15s. the profit would be 
)s. or two-fifths of the yeld; the Gov- 
•nment would then receive a minimum 
F two-fifths of 10s. per ton milled. Net 
-ofit is take l to be the value of the pro- 
jction after deduction therefrom of the 
>st of production, and of such sums as 
ay be allowed in respect of the ex- 
lustion of capital. For the purposes 
P the lease, cost of production and cap- 
al have the same meaning as is as- 
gned to them in the Profits Tax Ordi- 
ince. In addition, the tenderers were 
ivited to add to their tender a further 
lare of the profit, in the form of a 
jrcentage of the amount payable under 
ie sliding scale proportion. The ten- 
ors which were accepted were put in 
t a nominee of Barnato Brothers, who 
?reed to add to the sliding scale a per- 
:ntage varying from IV-i to 22% per 
'nt., the maximum share of profits 
)ing to the Government being 61 M per 
;nt. Other stipulations of the Govern- 
ent were that there should be no 
odors' shares in the company to be 
irmed, and that the Transvaal public 
lould be allowed to subscribe for 12% 
:r cent, of the original capital pro- 
ided. Messrs. Barnato obtained per- 
lission to put the two areas together 
ito one company, which was floated 
ith £1,400.000 capital. 

A peculiarity of this sliding-scale basis 
i? to be noted, which is that the better 
the mining that is done the greater is 
the proportion of profits which the Gov- 
ernment receives, and consequently the 
less the proportion which accrues to the 
company. The accompanying table, 
based on the minimum scale, illustrates 
this peculiarity. 



minim; AREAS. 

Yield pei 


Cost per 


< rovern- 

Ilient 'S 




17s. 0,1. 
12s. 6d. 

7s. 6d. I 2s. 3d. 
10s. 4s. 

12s. (id. I 6s. 3d. 

5s. 3d. 
6s. 3d. 

With the same yield — 25s. — on a re- 
duction in working costs from 20s. to 
17s. 6d. the company and the Govern- 
ment share equally in the increase of 
2s.6d. in the profit. If the costs are 
reduced by a further 2s. 6d. the Govern- 
ment gets ls.9d. of the benefit and the 
company 9d. If the costs are brought 
down yet another 2s.6d. the Government 
obtains 2s.3d. while the company gets 
only the odd 3d. This is on .he minimum 
basis only, and when it is remembered 
that, in the case of the areas mentioned 
above, it has been agreed that the Gov- 
ernment is to get a further percentage 
of the profits, it is apparent that beyond 
a certain point there can be little in- 
centive for the management of the com- 
pany to strive for any reduction in costs 
or higher ratio of profits to yield. The 
Government has other ground to dispose 
of in the same way, and already tenders 
have been invited on similar lines for 
another large area. 

Sand Filling 

A notable event during 1910 was the 
inauguration of the filling oi worked- 
out stopes with sands from dumps and 
current reduction operations. Some ac- 
tive steps became vitally necessary, as, 
on several mines, falls of rock and dam- 
age to shafts occurred through the in- 
sufficient support afforded by pillars. 
The system of filling up stopes with 
sand has long been practised in Silesia, 
and men were brought from the mines 
there with a thorough knowledge of the 
system to advise in its adoption on the 
Rand. Sand filling is now being carried 
on in a large number of mines with suc- 
cessful results. 

Reinforced Concrete 

Reinforced concrete for construction 
works was largely used during the last 12 
or 18 months. The work which has been 
done includes ore bins at the Rand Cen- 
tral and Nourse mines; excavator sup- 
ports about 35 ft. high and 200 ft. long at 
the Crown mines, and similar supports at 
the Nourse mines; tube-mill platforms; 

pile blocks; and various buildings at a 
number of mines, including compounds, 
transformer houses, stores, change 
houses, and smelting houses. 

New Geolocical Map 

A new geological map of portions of 
the southern Transvaal and northern 
Free State was pubished by Mr. Bleloch, 
with a treatise which explains Mr. 
B'.eloch's theories of Rand geology and 
his deductions in regard to the possibility 
of finding extensions of the Rand series 
in the neighborhood of the reef series 
between the Transvaal and the Free 

Premier Diamond Mine 

The great diamond mine worked by 
the Premier (Transvaal) Diamond Min- 
ing Company, Ltd., has taken its place 
as one of the foremost of the mining 
undertakings of the Transvaal. With the 
exception of the year ended Oct. 31, 
1909, work has, year by year, been con- 
ducted on an ever-increasing scale, but 
the yield in carats per load, the value 
per carat, and the yield in shillings per 
load have all decreased just as steadily. 
As a set-off the cost per load has de- 
creased from 4s. 7d. in 1903 to Is. 1 1.4d. 
in 1909. It is not yet possible to give 
cost figures for 1910. At the annual 
meeting held in February, 1910, it was 
stated that it was expected to reach a 
washing record of 1,000,000 loads per 


By Hugh F. Marriott* 

Gold mining in Rhodesia is practically- 
confined to southern Rhodesia, the re- 
turns for which are compiled by the 
Rhodesia Chamber of Mines; there is 
only one small gold mine in northern 
Rhodesia which is productive at the pres- 
ent time. 

At the time of writing actual returns 
are available for only the first nine 
months of the year 1910, and the figures 
given for this year in the accompanying 
table are arrived at by adding to the nine 
months' yield a corresponding average for 
the remaining three months. It is more 
than probable that this estimate will be 
found to be in excess of results, as the 
yield for September was rather less than 
the average for the nine months. 

There were about 145 individual pro- 
ducers, of which over two-thirds worked 
with not more than 5 stamps each, or 
their equivalent. The output of gold for 
1910 will in all probability be rather less 
than that for 1909, although the yield per 
ton is Is. 8d. per ton higher. 

•Mining en£tfn«">r. 1 r^ondon Wall building, 

London. V.. (' . England. 



January 7, 1911. 

A few years ago the mining industry of 
southern Rhodesia was in an unsatisfac- 
tory state, properties generally speaking 
being over-capitalized and in some cases 
over-equipped. The result was that the 
companies working the mines frequently 



Value of 



Gold w on. 




Prior to Sept. 1. 







i.; 26 

July i. 1899 



208,8'! . 

39 ss 

JlllV 1. 1'' 

. 1901 

1 10,716 


i.-. :. i 

Year ended Mar. 

31, 1902 



:.l .32 

Year ended Mar. 

31. 1903 




ended Mar. 

31. 1904 

:. ic. 7 i: 


32 7! 

ended Mar. 

31. 1905 


1,113. oils 

28 25 

Year ended Mar. 

.31. 1906 


1..V.IJ., 11 

28 28 

April 1. 1906 to 

I).-. 31. 1906.. 


29 10 




27 0.". 

^ . . 1908 

- 9,230 




2,623,'! 85 

2M 00 

Year 1910 (last : 

mos. estimated 




table, giving their September production. 
The largest producer in 1909 was the 
Globe & Phoenix, which made a working 
profit of £177,281 from 74,492 tons 
treated, yielding £280,732. During 1910 a 
general reorganization of plant was un- 
dertaken, which necessitated a curtail- 
ment of milling during the first six months 
of the year and a total cessation during 
July, August and part of September. The 
results for the first half of 1910, notwith- 
standing the lower tonnage and high 
costs, were remarkable, and the follow- 
ing comparison shows the improvement 
in value in the last 18 months: 

the big amalgamation scheme carried int 
effect by the Rhodesian Exploration an 
Development Company, Ltd. This con' 
pany increased its capital from £450,OC 
to £2,000,000 and acquired the undertal 
ings of the Rhodesian Banket Compan; 
the Etna Development Company, thj 
Rhodesian-Abercorn-Shamva Trust Con 
pany, and the Gold Schists of Rhodesi. 
Ltd. The enlarged company now has a \ 
issued capital of £1,450,000 and its proj 
crty includes cash and loans against st 
curitv amounting to roughly £1,600,00( 
stocks and shares in various companu 
which had on Sept. 1, 1910, a market valu 

Year 1908 

Year 1909 

6 months to June 30, 




7."., 113 


5 ield E 



Per Ton. 


. 4d. 

. 7d. 






28s. 2d. 

39s. Id. 


r>6, 335 




47s. 2d. 

116s. 6d. 

•No details available. 

It will be observed that, notwithstand- 
ing the high grade of the ore extracted 
during the six months ended June 30, 
1910, the ore reserves at that date were 
calculated to have a value of 1 dwt. 
more than those of Dec. 31, 1909. 

Next in importance to the Globe & 


i .strict: 
Buck- Reel 

Gwel ' 

(dole- .v- Phoenix. 
Selukwe Columbia 


Hartl'v District: 

(iiant Mines 

Lorn'/ D W: 

Vmtal! District 



Mazoe District: 









Reduction Plant. 

5 .stamps. 

10 stamps. 
1 Chilean, 2 pans. 
1 Gates rolls. 

:;o stamps and 2 
tube mills. 

20 stamps and 2 


60 stamps. 
30 stamps. 

30 stamps. 

Yield, Sept. 1910. 






5,01 l 



Per Ton. 

137s. 6d. 

54s. 4d. 

lis. 7d. 

32s. lid. 

49s. 2d. 

15s. 5d. 
29s. 5d. 

36s. Kid. 

found they were unable to pay their way 
and ceased working. A large number of 
the properties were then let on tribute 
for a period of years, and the tributers 
have, as a rule, been successful in get- 
ting profits. During the last year or two 
many of the tributing leases expired and 
the proprietary companies were unwilling 
to extend the leases. The tributers. know- 
ing that their leases would not be re- 
newed, ceased to do any development and 
J out all their best ore. so that when 
the companies took over the properties 
they had little in the way of ore r« 
and naturally the output fell oh" coi 
ably. This probably accounts tor the 
diminished output for 1910, 

There are nine mines which produced 
gold at 1 ; month or 

n in the 

Phoenix as a producer is the Eldorado 
Banket Gold Mining Company. During 
the year ended March 31, 1910, this com- 
pany crushed 80,566 tons of ore and won 
gold of the value of £194,689, equal to 
£2 8s. 4d. per ton; costs amounted to 
£1 2s. 6d. per ton, leaving a working 
profit of 1103,863, or £1 5s. lOd. per ton. 
Profits since March 31 have been main- 
tained at about £8800 per month. This 
mine has a development of 200,000 tons, 
valued at 17.95 dwt. per ton. 

The Wanderer mine is of particular 
interest by reason of the tact that it re- 
duces it- ore by dry crushing and direct 

[mpori <\n i Amalgamai ion 

One of the prominent events of the 

year In Rhodesian mining matters was 

of £1,400,000; various unquoted share 
and interests; about 325,000 acres of Ian 
in a good situation and a total of ove 
3500 mining claims. It is to be observe 
that a Rhodesian mining claim extend 
indefinitely on the dip of the reef, so thi 
these 3500 claims are at least equivalet; 
to 35,000 claims in the Transvaal. Th 
directors state their intention to adop 
a bold policy of development, and wit, 
its great resources this company will n 
doubt become an enormous factor in th 
development of mining in Rhodesia. 

Reference was made in last year's st£ 
tistical number to the discovery in th 
Abercorn district of an auriferous cor 
glomerate. This orebody is of low gradt 
but of great width. A company calle 
the Shamva Mines, Ltd., has been forme 
under the control of the Consolidate 
Goldfields of South Africa and other; 
with an issued capital of £500,000, to ac 
quire 243 claims in this district. H. P 
Piper, consulting engineer to the Consoli 
dated Goldfields, estimated the ore i 
sight at 527,340 tons assaying 4.85 dwi 
He also estimated that a profit of 7s 
6d. per ton, would be made when treatin. 
20,000 tons monthly. 

The Tanganyika Concessions, Ltd 
states that during the year ended Jun 
30. 1910, smelting operations continue 
on its Kansanshi mine and that ther 
were at June 30, 1500 tons of smelte 
copper at the mine awaiting shipment. 

The Rhodesia Broken Hill Develop 
ment Company, Ltd., owns large tin- an 
lead-ore deposits in Northern RhodesU 
The company's engineers estimate tha 
it has 140,000 tons of ore in sight assay 
ing 26.08 per cent, lead and 22.27 pe 
cent, zinc, also 300,000 tons of ore assay 
ing 32 per cent. zinc. The great obstacl 
to this company's success was the diffi 
culty experienced in finding a satisffC 
tory process for the treatment of th 
ores. It is now believed that these diffi 
culties have been overcome by the Brad 
ley-Williams process. 

January 7, 1911. 




Quicksilver in the United States 

The production of quicksilver in 1910 
lowed a small increase, as appears in 
,e following statistics. 

Stiit.'. 1909. 

ilifoiniii It!. 21 7 

US 3,925 

Lher Slates 810 

Totals 20,052 21,5110 

The above figures are for the number 
f flasks, which now are of 75 lb. each. 

Quicksilver in California 
in 1910 

By Lewis H. Eddy* 

The production of quicksilver in Cali- 
crnia in 1910 exceeded that of 1909, and 
robably reached 17,000 flasks. San 
Senito county produced about 10,000 
asks; Santa Clara county about 4000. 
n Napa and Lake counties the furnaces 

new territory and developing the old as 
would have been expected, but this 
is due largely to the situation of 
the numerous serpentine formations 
in respect to transportation. The 
cinnabar deposits in California, like 
the chrome iron, are in most localities 
situated so far from transportation and 
fuel that small capital is not readily at- 
tracted, and large capital awaits the op- 
portunity of a considerable advantage. 
The production of 1910 came from the 
same counties that produced quicksilver 
in 1909, namely, Colusa, Lake, Napa, San 
Benito, San Luis Obispo, Santa Clara, 
Sonoma, and Trinity. In the last named 
county the Altoona Quicksilver Mining 
Company leased its property to a number 
of workmen who operated it for five or 
six months in the year, and sent out 
about 200 flasks. Sonoma county prob- 
ably produced the same as in 1910 or 

duction of quicksilver of this country up 
to the normal, even with the working-out 
of the older mines. 

(Per Flask of 75 Lb.) 




New York. 

San Fr 


New York. 

San Fr 







$45 . 50 

45 . 50 
44 . 50 
43 75 
43 . 75 

$45 . 30 

44 . 75 
43 . 44 
42 . 95 

45 . 90 

$43 . 30 
43 50 
40 . 95 

$52 . 20 
50 . 00 
47 . 00 
, 46 . 00 
46 . 00 

$50 . 90 
47 . 56 
45 . 88 
45 . 40 

47 50 



45 15 

44 25 

44 25 


43 . 88 
43 . 50 
43 40 





$46 30 

$45 . 45 

$43 . 45 




'ere closed down for lack of ore, but in 
II of the districts of the State producing 
nicksilver there was in 1910 a consider- 
ble endeavor to find new deposits, and 
Id workings were prospected in the hope 
f finding undeveloped orebodies, for the 
;ason that the demand for quicksilver 
xceeded the output. The prices for 1910 
veraged about S4 per flask in advance 
f 1909. This advance in price, resulting 
'otn the small output compared to the 
:quirements, stimulated not only the pro- 
ixtion but the prospecting all over the 
tate. The Nevada mines did not add 
irgely to the output of coast States. 
he purchases in 1910 of quicksilver 
'om all other producing sections 
nounted only to about 550 flasks. Near- 
' the whole production was sold in the 
Dmestic market, but little being export- 
i. The stock of quicksilver in the 
nited States is now low. Although that 
ict is generally known, there was not so 
"eat an effort put forth in prospecting 

*r> Ferry building, San Francisco, Cal. 

more. San Luis Obispo probably in- 
creased its output over the year 1909. 
While the New Almaden in Santa Clara 
county, the oldest producer of quicksilver 
in the State, has not kept up its produc- 
tion in the last few years, and the Guada- 
lupe in adjoining territory has not greatly 
increased its output, there is a strong 
probability that new bodies of cinnabar 
ore will be found in that neighborhood. 
On the Mackenzie ranch, across the gulch 
opposite to the New Almaden and the 
Guadalupe, considerable prospecting was 
done in 1910. This property presents the 
same contour and, so far as developed, a 
formation similar to that of the neighbor- 
ing quicksilver mines. The cinnabar de- 
posits in California are not confined to the 
Coast range district, as might be inferred 
by the names of the counties which are 
the chief producers, but extend into the 
western slope of the Sierra Nevada. 
Careful inspection of these /arious lo- 
calities leads to the belief that there are 
many deposits of cinnabar ore which if 
properly developed would keep the pro- 

The Quicksilver Industry in 

By William B. Phillips * 

During 1910 the Chisos Mining Com- 
pany continued in active operation. This 
is now the only producing company in 
Texas. Operations at the mines of the 
Marfa & Mariposa Mining Company 
were practically suspended, and nothing 
has been done by the Texas Almaden, 
the Big Bend or the Colquitt-Tigner com- 
panies for several years. 

The production of the Chisos Mining 
Company for 1910 may be taken at 300 
flasks per month, or 3600 flasks for the 
year. This property is on section 295, 
block G. 4, and the property comprises 
the entire section of 640 acres. It is in 
the bituminous-shale area and the main 
shaft has by this time penetrated the 
underlying Buda limestone, the present 
depth being about 650 ft. The company 
has an excellent 20-ton Scott furnace, 
a large and commodious store and a 
good camp. The bright, highly colored 
cinnabar that characterized the upper 
levels has given place to a black, bitu- 
minous ore that carries high mercury 
contents. The reports of trouble from 
Mexican marauders that were sent out 
late in the year were entirely baseless. 
There was no interruption of work from 
any cause. 

The Big Bend company, in section 216, 
block G. 4, Brewster county, about six 
miles east of the property of the Chisos 
company, is putting down some deep 
bore holes with a view to determining 
the underground conditions. This com- 
pany built a 50-ton Scott furnace several 
years ago to use an ore that carried less 
than 1 per cent, of metal, but the opera- 
tions were not successful. The Texas Al- 
maden, adjoining the Big Bend, put down 
a number of bore holes three years ago 
and found good ore in depth, but no oper- 
ations were in progress there during 
1910. No further prospecting was car- 
ried on in the Terlingua district. Last 
year the holders of property on and near 
Christmas mountain made an examina- 
tion, but nothing was done. 

The land commissioner of the State of 
Texas recently made a trip into that coun- 
try with a view to formulating some de- 
finite policy with respect to the public 
lands. He is said to be in favor of the 

♦Director, Bureau of Economic Zoology, 
University of Texas. Austin. Tex. 



January 7, 1911. 

saJe of the lands there with reservation 
of the mineral rights. Considering the 
fact that the country lacks but little of 
being a wilderness and that the lands are 
worth very little, if the mineral rights 
are reserved, it would appear that pros- 
pective purchasers would prefer to buy 
outright at a reasonable price than to take 
the land at any price without the minerals. 

It would be a case of "he sold me the 
box without the socks." 

All possible inducements should be 
given those interested in quicksilver min- 
ing to secure their attention to this dis- 
trict. It is now and is likely to be remote 
from rail; the conditions of living are 
onerous and the entire region is almost a 
desert. And yet the deposits there are 

of high grade, easily and cheaply mined 
especially in the bituminous-shale area 
west of Terlingua creek, and the district 
is today probably the best undeveloped 
quicksilver area in the United States. This 
I know, as I spent 18 months there and 
opened the Cliisos property. In spite of its 
many drawbacks it is the most promising 
quicksilver district in the country today. 

The Tungsten Industry in 1910 

A firm dealing in tungsten ore quotes 
tht following commercial rates for 1910: 
for a good grade of ore about ST per unit 
per ton. of 2000 lb., with a lower price 
for lower-grade ores containing deleteri- 
ous substances and a premium for excep- 
tionally high-grade ore. Tungsten metal 
price averaged about 85c. per lb. Ferro- 
t'.ngsten is quoted at about 83c. per lb., 
depending upon the size of the order. 

Tungsten in California in 

By Samuel H. Dolbear* 

As formerly, the chief operations for 
tungsten in California in 1910 were con- 
fined to the Atolia mines in the Rand 
mining district in San Bernardino county. 
The Atolia Mining Company (Atkins. 
Kroll & Co.. managers) owns the 
principal producing properties in the dis- 
trict. During 1910 this company in- 
creased its holdings by the purchase 
of the Weatherbee and Cora Dee 
mines, for which about SI 5.000 was 
paid. The latter properties are 
situated in the tungsten, belt, and are dif- 
ferent exposures of the same vein, which 
is about 3 ft. in width and was partially 
developed at the time of their purchase. 

The industry enjoyed a more prosper- 
ous year than in 1909. During the early 
part of 1910 a local schedule of S7 per 
unit of WO in 60 per cent, ores pre- 
vailed, increased in the latter part of 
April to -7.50 with strong interest mani- 
fested by purchasers. This price (S7.50i 
was maintained until September, when 
the price offered dropped to S7.25 with 
8 disposition among the small producers 
to hold their ores for a better schedule. 
An average price of -7 275 prevailed dur- 
ing the 12 months. These figur 

heelite ores carrying 00 per cent. 
of wo < r over. 

The production of the Atolia Mining 
Company was constant at ahout 40 tons 
of concentrates per month, an in • 

it 10 tons per month over the fig- 
It is probable these 

• M 

concentrates averaged about 67 per cent. 
WO:. At the average price of S7.275 
per unit, or S484.43 per ton, the value 
of the 1910 production would be S232,526. 
The mill of the Atolia Mining Company, 
consisting of Blake crushers, a 6- ft. Hunt- 
.ngton mill and Frue vanners, was kept 
in full operation during 1910; about 60 
men were on the payroll of the company. 
Two hundred and nine acres of tung- 
sten lands were patented in 1910 by this 
company, and about 40 acres by others. 

Small mining operations in the Stringer 
section of the Rand district produced a 
few tons of concentrates during 1910. 
Among these were the Baltic. Winnie and 
Sunshine mines. Placer operations for 
tu .^sten also attracted attention, and 
yielded a small amount of placer scheel- 
ite. The Wickard tungsten mine north of 
Atolia was operated intermittently and 
a few tons of ore were milled. At St. 
Elmo, south of Atolia, W. E. Deacon and 
associates commenced development oper- 

At Johannesburg the Stanford Mining 
and Reduction Company equipped its 
custom mill with a concentrating plant, 
and has treated most of the ores mined 
by the small producers. At Ivanpah, in 
San Bernardino county, five shipments of 
scheelite-wolframite ore were reported. 
The United States Tungsten Mining Com- 
pany increased its holdings by the pur- 
chase of five claims of the Williams 
property. At Amelie, Vontrigger and 
Barnwell, only small development was 
recorded, the properties at those points 
having been idle most of the year. 

Tungsten Mining in Colorado 
By R. D. George* 

The activity in the Boulder county, 
Oilo.. tungsten field was greater in 1910 
than at any other time since the panic 
of 1907, and the production exceeded that 
of any previous year in the history of 
Boulder CO'inty mining, though the aver- 
age price per unit was somewhat lower 
than that of 1907. 

♦Sl:il. geOlOgl I BOUlder, ''"In. 

The total shipments of concentrates 
and high-grade ore for 1910 amounted 
to 1540 tons. Of this total tonnage prob- 
ably 35 per cent., or 540 tons were of 
high-grade ore of an average tenor of 35 
per cent, tungstic acid, and about 1000 
tons were concentrates of an average 
tenor of 60 per cent, tungstic acid. The 
monthly market quotations taken in con- 
nection with the monthly production 
throughout the year were such as to give 
an average price of S7.75 per unit of 
tungstic acid. At this figure the value of 
.the Boulder county production for 1910 
was S6 12,000. The best previous year in 
tht history of Boulder County tungsten 
mining was 1907, in which 1146 tons of 
ore and concentrates were produced and 
sold at an average price of S8.33 per unit 
of tungstic acid, yielding S573,643. 

There was no important extension of 
the field and few mines were opened, but 
deeper development work showed that, on 
the average, the orebodies at least held 
their own, if indeed, they did not increase 
with depth. A number of operators state 
that their best orebodies have been found 
in their deepest workings. 

Tuncsten Milling 

Until recently the tungsten ores have 
been handled by mills primarily designed 
for gold and silver ores, but in the last 
year or two there was much remodeling 
of old and building of new mills with a 
special view to the handling of tungsten 
ores. The new Primos mill at Lakewood 
has a capacity of 50 tons per day and is 
equipped with stamps, dropping 90 times 
per minute, Wilfley tables, hydraulic 
classifiers, and Frue vanners. The tail- 
ings are reground and the fines are car- 
ried to an extensive canvas plant. The 
capacity of the Wolf Tongue mill at Ne- 
dcrland was increased and the equipment 
modified. The crushing is done by a 
jaw crusher, rolls and stamps; the con- 
centration by a Harz jig, Wilfley tables 
and Monell slimers and a small canvas 
plant. A part of the tailings from the 
Wilfley is reground in a Huntington mill. 

The Ardourell & Smith mill on Beaver 
creek is equipped with rolls, Wilfley tables 
and Monell slimers, and is now profitably 
working over the material of the old 
Wolf Tongue settling basin, but will also 

January 7, 191 1. 



tndle the ores of the Fayette Leasing 
jmpany operating on the Tungsten Min- 
g, Milling and Exploration Company's 
aims. The Tungsten Mines Company's 
w mill on Beaver creek, is equipped 
th rolls, Monell tables and slimers, and 

handling ore from the Mammr th, and 
hers of the company's mines. The Eu- 
ka mill, at Boulder, was active a part of 
1 1 on ores from the Rogers tract east 

Nederland. This mill is also equipped 
th Monell tables and slimers. The 
iphar mill, at Wall street, is equipped 
th Wilfley and Monell tables and slim- 
s and is handling ores from the Barker 
A large part of the production must 

credited to leasers working on the va- 
>us properties. The parent claim-hold- 
g companies themselves produced com- 
batively little ore, though development 
jrk was prosecuted with considerable 
»or. There were comparatively few im- 
irtant changes in the holding of prop- 
ty during 1910. The Rogers tract is 
11 under lease to Eugene Stevens, who 
is a number of sub-leasing companies 

work. It is reported that Thomas L. 
ood. of the Zophar Mining Company 
is leased the Barker tract. 

Tungsten in Washington 

Satisfactory developments of the new 
ngsten area in Stevens county, Wash., 
sre carried on during 1910. Three 
operties were under development; the 
ermania in Cedar canon, 35 miles north 
Springdale; Tungsten King, eight miles 
>rth of Deer Park; and Blue Grouse, a 
ile south of the Tungsten King. The 
strict shipped several tons of concen- 
ate during the year, and extensive pros- 
pering was carried on with the result of 
•eatly extending the tungsten-bearing 

Tungsten in Montana 

In Montana a small production of 
mgsten continued to be made during 
U0, chiefly from the Jardine district, 
/o miles north of Yellowstone Park, 
he ore is scheelite. Occasionally small 
idies of tungsten ore are found in the 
Hns of the Butte district, but no regu- 
r production is made. 

Tungsten in Nova Scotia 

The tungsten deposit in Nova Scotia, 
i the Moose River district, Halifax 
Dunty, discovered in 1908, was in op- 
ration in a small way during 1910. The 
ork was confined chiefly to develop- 
lents. The ore is scheelite and is found 
l interbeuded veins remote from the vi- 
inity of any igneous rock. 

Ammonia Production in 1910 
By W. N. McIlravy 

The principal features of the am- 
monia production of the United States in 
the year 1910 were a fair increase in 
volume and an accompanying increase in 
price. The total recovery of ammonia 
of all forms reckoned as sulphate of 
ammonia amounted to about 106,500 tons 
in the year 1909, and in 1910 an in- 
crease in production of 10,000 tons may 
be fairly estimated; therefore the total 
recovery may be placed at 116,000 tons 
for the year. As little increase took 
place in the coal-gas industry, in so far 
as the production of ammonia would be 
affected, and as the small production 
from other sources was about stationary, 
the increase must be attributed to the 
by-product coke ovens. This view is 
further supported by the condition of the 
by-product coke-oven industry, though 
this, -in common with the iron business 
on which it mainly depends, has been 
by no means pushed to the limit. While 
few of the plants were idle, many of 
them were operated at only 60 to 75 
per cent, of their total capacity for a 
part of the year; but, on the other hand, 
others, and among them those of large 
capacity, operated at full capacity with- 
out interruption. The only new ovens 
that went into operation during 1910 
were the 40-oven addition to the South 
Chicago plant, although the 50-oven 
plant at Indianapolis and the 50-oven 
addition to the Hamilton plant, both of 
which came in late in 1909, can hardly 
be considered as effective in ammonia 
production till 1910. 

The prospects for 1911 include a plant 
of 560 ovens at Gary, Indiana, 110 ovens 
at Sault Ste. Marie, 280 ovens at Ensley, 
Ala., and 60 ovens at Woodward, Ala. 
The two first-mentioned plants are sched- 
uled to come in during this winter. 

The United States imports of sulphate 
of ammonia for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1910, totaled 62,610 net tons, 
the figure for the preceding year being 
40,192 net tons and for 1908 34,274 net 
tons. The last fiscal year therefore 
brought an increase of 55 per cent, in 
imports. The consumption in the coun- 
try of ammonia in all forms may there- 
fore be reckoned as over 178,000 tons 
of sulphate and sulphate equivalent. 

The principal feature of the market 
for sulphate of ammonia during 1910 
was a steady rise, interrupted at times 
with small recessions, but always recov- 
ering and seeking still higher levels. The 
price of domestic at the beginning of 
1910 was $2.70 per 100 lb. but rising 
constantly. By March it reached $2.85, 
then receded to $2.80 or a little less. The 
price -was stationary until the end of 
August, when an upward tendency was 

again manifest, the end of September 
bringing $2.89 and of October $2.97. For 
the rest of the year the market was al- 
most bare of spot domestic, but the im- 
ported article ruled at $2.83 to $2.90. 
It is therefore clear that the market 
returned to practically the same level as 
prevailed before the removal of the dutv, 
the only difference being in the larger 
amounts produced, imported and con- 
sumed. The outlook for future business 
arising from the recovery plants building 
and projected in the country is unques- 
tionably good. The products of the sev- 
eral processes for recovering the nitro- 
gen of the air appeared in some quantity 
in European markets and to a smaller 
extent here, but neither the price nor the 
demand for the better known article 
seemed to have been affected thereby. 

Vanadium in 1910 

There was an active demand for vana- 
dium deposits during 1910, especially 
from French sources, but there is no 
record of any important new investments 
in the business in the United States or 
Mexico. The New Mexico deposits were 
developed successfully, according to re- 
port, but plans to erect mills did not 
materialize. The Cave Creek deposits 
in Arizona are being investigated and 
several Mexican deposits were slightly 
developed. The Colorado occurrences still 
seem to be the most promising source 
of supply in the United States. The Pe- 
ruvian deposits of exceptional richness 
are closely controlled, and conflicting re- 
ports of their possibilities are extant. 

Concerning the general vanadium situ- 
ation a company actively interested in the 
business writes: 

"Of course the statement that there is 
a production of vanadium to the extent 
of from $300,000 to $400,000 a month 
at Newmire is entirely wrong, and these 
statements are usually gotten up by peo- 
ple who have ore claims for sale. The 
production of vanadium ore at Newmire 
does not average $20,000 worth per 
month in the whole district; this in- 
cludes the prepared vanadic acid as well 
as crude ore running about 1 '!> per 
cent, shipped as it comes out of the 
ground. In a general way the vanadium 
market is over supplied, and the one or 
two large vanadium producers can easily 
take care of any demand that there may 
be. There are a lot of companies on 
paper issuing fine prospectuses which 
make it look as if there were a shortage 
or a larger demand than there really is. 
The consumption, of course, is growing 
with the extent of increased knowledge 
and different fields of consumption. 
Prices for ferro-vanadium are about $5 
per lb. of vanadium contained in the 
alloy. Prices for vanadic acid are about 
$2.50 per lb., according to purity." 



January 7, 1911. 


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January 7, 1911. 



Petroleum in the United States 

The accompanying table shows the re- 
used figures of production for crude 
petroleum in the United States in 1909, 
and the preliminary estimate of the yield 
for 1910. These figures show an in- 
prease of about 28,000,000 bbl., or about 
15 per cent, over 1909. The increased 
production of California is about 17,000,- 
000 bbl., or 27 per cent. In the Califor- 
nia field the Midway and Sunset districts 
show the largest increase, with Coalinga 
as third. Kern River's yield fell off 
slightly. The price obtained for Cali- 
fornia oil was slightly lower than that 
received in 1909, but the yield is so large 
that its value will surpass the gold pro- 
duction of the State. The Illinois field 
showed an increase of over 4,000,000 
bbl.; the Mid-continental field 7,000,000 
bbl. and the Appalachian field 1,000,000 

(In Baerei a oi 12 Gal.) 






Gulf [Texas 

K,un (Louisiana. . . . 


" v 0,000 





If, 826,196 

a 1,250,000 


a) i."., (mo 
(a) .■..nun 

a 50U 000 

} 14,866,525 


5,171 000 


20. OS'.t. 000 

(a) 15,000 

Mid-continental (6) 

Appalachian (c) . . . . 



182.05S, l.-,s 


(a) Estimated. 
(ft) Kansas and Oklahoma, 
(c) Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia 
and eastern Ohio. 

bbl. The Kentucky-Tennessee field 
showed a slight decrease, while the Lima 
field fell off 1,000,000 barrels. The Gulf 
field increased 2,285,190 barrels. 

In the Appalachian field no new wells 
of importance were reported for the year, 
and the increase is due largely to the big 
wells drilled in the latter part of 1909. 
The average price of oil in this field for 
1910 was $1.38 per barrel, as compared 
with $1.62 in 1909. 

Among the foreign developments dur- 
ing 1910 are the Maikop fields of Rus- 
sia, the deposits discovered on Sakhalin 
island, Siberia, and the work of the 
Burma Oil Company in Persia. These 
new sources of supply, while tending to 
lower prices of oil, will eventually re- 
sult in increased profit in other industries, 
due largely to cheaper fuel. 

Petroleum in California in 1901 

By M. L. Requa * 

The production of oil in California for relaxation of efforts to produce from 

1910 will approximate 75,000,000 bbl. pumping wells already drilled. Total 

Compared with the production of 58.000,- storage in the State at present approxi- 

000 in 1909, it shows an increase of mates 27,000,000 barrels. 
17,000.000 bbl. for the year. The cause 

for the rapid increase was two-fold: (1), Independent Producers' Agency Allied 
the incentive to more active drilling be- WITH Union 0,l Company 
cause of the high price of oil during 1909 Negotiations in 1909 between the Union 
and part of 1910 (the price of 62j4c. 0il Company and the Independent Pro- 
paid by the Associated to the independ- diicers' Agency resulted in an agreement 
ent producers stimulated extreme activity California oil production. 
throughout the San Joaquin valley and 1909. loio.a 

coast fields) ; (2), the bringing in of the Coa]inga i.Joe.eoo 18.038.4M 

flush production in Midway, notably the Kern River I4,.50s,292 14, 121,892 

, , ,.. , , . ,, „ .. Santa Maria. Lompoc 

Lake View gusher and the wells of the and Arroya Grande . . s.oso.iss 7,631,171 

American Oil FiplrU rnmnarisnn n f thp McKittrick 5,807,212 5,100,683 

American un neias. comparison ot tne F uiierton-Brea canon. 4.271,000 5,07.;. 77:1 

principal fields is given in the accom- Salt Lake District 3,821,233 3,223,192 

___ . . . , Midway 2,234,456 9,970,949 

paming table. Sunset 1,999,800 9,481,090 

Whittier 84S.S00 893,972 

Overproductionn and Lower Prices Los Angeles 529,965 477,51.5 

Newhall and Santa 
Because of the tremendous overproduc- Paula 516,77s 142,449 

.• _ , „„ , . .. T , ... ,. Summerland 66,300 67,000 

tion, largely due to the Lake View well Watsonviiie and sar- 
in Midway, the price of oil during 1910 Pu f n n t f e s y ; H;3x) toffl 
:ended downward until late in November '- — : — 

in/l rw „,t^- c -i u To,aI 58,192.723 74,327.150 

and December. Some oil was sold as 

„,.. r.~ :>n~ _* it n j i " Estimated. 

ow as 30c. at the well and one large con- 
Tact was taken by a Midway company v-hereby the Union Oil Company became 
it 35c. The close of the year, however, tlle selling agent for all independent oil. 
>aw a stiffening of prices, and while pro- This agreement became effective on the 
luction is still 40,000 bbl. daily beyond expiration of the agreement with the As- 
:onsumption, the asking price in the field sociated Oil Company in Jan., 1910. 
vas fairly steady at 50c. at the well. The Because of this agreement a new 8-ln. 
ast three months of the year showed P'P e I' ne was constructed by the Union 
i material decrease in production, due in Oil Company from Coalinga south to 
>art to decrease in flow of the Lake View Junction, where it meets a similar line 
ind other flush Midway producers and coming north from McKittrick, Midway 
n part to cessation of drilling and a ar| d K ern river. From Junction to Port 

~ ... . Harford on tide water there is as yet onlv 

'.Minim: engineer. 1023 Crocker buildinsr. , ,• l. j. •*. • . . , ■ ,. ' 

San Francisco) Call uuiiumg, a sing i e ] ine> but lt 1S expected this line 

will be doubled in the near future, giving 
two complete lines, one from Coalinga, 
the other from McKittrick, Midway and 
Kern river. Recent negotiations resulted 
in an agreement whereby the Associated 
Oil Company sells all of the unsold In- 
dependent production and turns over to 
the Union-Independents certain large 
railway contracts and other business con- 
trolled by them. It is believed this agree- 
ment will make for greater economies, as 
oil will now be supplied from the field 
nearest to the point of consumption. 

Oil Supplants Coal in Certain 

In 1910 there was a notable inva- 
sion of territory long dominated by 
coal. The Northern Pacific, Great North- 
ern and Canadian Pacific have all con- 
tracted for oil for their locomotives on 
the divisions reaching tidewater. The 
Canadian Pacific steamers on Puget 
sound have also been converted to oil 
burners. Practically all of the railways 
on the Pacific coast are now consuming 
oil for locomotive fuel. The Pacific Mail 
Steamship Company and the Pacific Coast 
Steamship Company are now about the 
only companies operating on coastwise 
trade that still cling to coal. 

The Panama canal work has consumed 
an increasing quantity of oil and tne 
market in Chile and other South and Cen- 
tral American ports continue to expand. 
Alaska is consuming more oil than at any 
time heretofore, and recent figures seem 
to indicate that the mining of Alaska 
coal must be deferred until the exhaus- 



January 7, 1911. 

tion of California oil, because of the in- 
ability of the coal to compete in price. 

Only One New Promising Field Dis- 
The only new development made in 
1910 that gives promise of a new field 
was in the Lost hills, situated about 45 
miles south of Coalinga and about 25 
miles north of McKittrick. This territory 
is as yet entirely too new to hazard any 
opinion as to its future. One well has 
been brought in by .Martin & Dudley at 
500 ft., and pumps a production variously 
reported from 200 to 500 bbl. Owing to 
the fact that there is no means of dis- 
posing of the oil, the well is only pumped 
occasionally and its true production is un- 
known. The oil is coming from a shale 
and not from an oil sand. This territory 
has been mapped by the U. S. Geological 
Survey as oil land, but the depth to the 
top of oil sand was placed at 3000 ft. 
Striking oil at 500 ft. caused considerable 
surprise and opened up several interest- 
ing geological possibilities. 

Gas Developments 
The development of a gasfield lying to 
the east of the Midway field in the Elk 
and Buena Vista hills caused the rumors 
that natural gas was to be piped to Los 
Angeles and throughout the San Joaquin 
valley to San Francisco, and possibly 
north through the Sacramento valley as 
far as Red Bluff. There seems no reason 
to doubt the existence of a tremendous 
gasfield in the locality mentioned and the 
utilization of the gas now going to waste 
seems to be a matter of but a short time. 
In the Lake View well the State claims 
the largest oil gusher ever struck in the 
United States. Brought in during March, 
1910, its production is estimated at ap- 
proximately 8.000.000 bbl. to date. In the 

Standard and Honolulu gassers, in Mid- 
way, claim is also made for gas wells 
among the largest ever struck. 

Agitation against the Southern Pa- 
cific Railroad 

Agitation concerning the oil lands 
owned by the Southern Pacific company 
reached an acute stage. Briefly it is 
claimed that the patents from the United 
States do not cover oil land and that 
such land must revert to the Government. 
The agitation, according to the views of 
leading attorneys, is without merit and 
it is unlikely the railroad will be dis- 
turbed in its ownership of lands that 
seem to have been honestly acquired and 
possession of which still rests in the 
railroad, notwithstanding efforts in past 
years to sell at $2.50 per acre. 

Withdrawal of Oil Lands 

The action of the Government in with- 
drawing certain lands for entry and the 
more recent passage by Congress of the 
so called Pickett bill has brought to a 
crisis the entire question of acquisition of 
Government lands for the purpose of oil 
exploitation. Heretofore existing laws 
have been entirely inadequate and un- 
satisfactory and there is no question but 
that new and rational laws that recognize 
conditions as they exist are not only de- 
sirable, but necessary. Locators, how- 
ever, who have no legal title and who 
have in no way complied with the laws 
are making most strenuous objection to 
the enforcement of the present law. 
Operators who were upon the land and 
drilling in good faith at the time the with- 
drawal order went into effect will prob- 
ably be unmolested, but those who were 
not actually drilling seem to be con- 
fronted with the possibility of being dis- 

The regulations under which land so 
withdrawn may be acquired or leased de- 
mand careful consideration. If some ofi 
the suggestions made are finally adopted, 
there will be no possibility of these lands 
ever being worked. The most the Govern- 
ment can reasonably, ask is a royalty on 
oil produced and possibly some limitation 
of production. Methods of drilling and 
details of operation should not be inter- 
fered with, nor attempts made at supervi-' 
sion beyond assuring honesty as to pro- 
duction statistics. Proposals on the part 
of the Government to regulate size and 
weight of casing and other similar de- 
tails, are not only absurd but entirely 
impractical. The entire success of the 
Government's action is now dependent on 
two contingencies: (1) The recognition 
of certain good faith claimants and the 
rejection of certain others who have not 
acted in good faith; (2) wise and sane 
regulations whereby withdrawn land may 
be acquired and operated with the ieast 
possible governmental supervision com- 
patible with the success of the proposed 

Decline in Production Looked for 

There is at present no indication of any 
great expansion of territory in 1911 ex- 
cept in the Lost hills, and it is quite pos- 
sible that production may materially de- 
cline. Midway is thought by some author- 
ities to have reached, its maximum and it 
is not probable that any of the older 
fields will afford any great surprises. The 
territory between Coalinga and Maricopa 
continues to be the most attractive and 
it is reasonable to expect that in 1911 
material additions to the known oil area 
of the State will be made in the district 
lying between these two towns. 

The Appalachian Oilfield in 1910 

By H. C . George* 

The Appalachian oilfield comprises the 
oil pools of New York, southeast Ohio, 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The pe- 
troleum secured from these pools is a 
high-grade product with a paraffin base. 
Most of the oil pools in this field have 
shown a steady decrease in production 
during the last five years, but there has 
been a slight increase in total production 
during the last two years, owing to the 
discovery of gome large wells in West 
Virginia in 1009. 

Although the new production secured 
during 1910 was less than the new pro- 
duction secured in 1000, the total produc- 
tion wa ( greater because of the great in- 
in old production furnished by the 

•Mr.-'K.i wi coDnin stiii'- Mining Tradi 

big wells drilled in West Virginia in 1909, 
which have been rather persistent. 

The total production of the Appalach- 
ian oilfield in 1910 was 26,089,900 bbl., as 
compared with 25,394,200 bbl. in 1909; 

24,240,000 bbl. in 1908; 25,500,000 bbl. 
in 1907, and 27,345,000 bbl. in 1906. The 
decline in the price of crude petroleum of 
the Pennsylvania grade, which began in 
March 1909, when the price paid was 

IN 1908, 1909 AND 1910. 

N'u.iibor of Well? 

Daily Production in 

Daily Production 
in Barrels ]>cr 
Well Drilled. 

Per Cent, of 
Dry Holes 




1 ,329 

1 ,3 1 1 


7.1 19 












Alleganj county, n ^ 

\\ i i \ n jlnla 

Bouthca .i I > I j 




l .7:'..-. 

1 ,88: 

1 19 





2 ■'< 1 9 


2 ki 1 - 






l ,8 

20 <i 
in 3 
12 3 

1 .8 


19 1 

I 1 

II 7 

1 .4 

2 J 
20 1 
11 5 

S 1 

ia i 


:<•_' 5 
39 ••{ 
33 6 

is e 

38 '. 
36 2 

1 1 7 

16 2 
23 7 
in 6 
36 fl 
62 -' 



6 895 



82 04" 

7 6 

9 1 

10 . r > 

2. r > 

2. r > 6 

; ■ 8 

January 7, 191 1. 



1.78 per barrel, continued until May 
310, when the price paid was SI. 30 per 
bl. This latter price continued until 
le end of the year. The average price 
i 1910 was $1.33 per bbl. as compared 
ith SI. 62 in 1909, $1.78 in 1908 and 
1.74 in 1907. 

The New York and Pennsylvania pools 
lowed a marked decline in the number 

of wells drilled and in the new produc- 
tion, and also a corresponding increase in 
the per cent, of dry holes. Nothing worthy 
of notice took place in these fields dur- 
ing 1910. There was less activity than at 
any time during the last five years. 

The operations in the West Virginia 
and southeastern Ohio pools in 1910 
were only slightly less in the number of 

wells drilled and in the new production 
than in 1909, owing to the stimulus pro- 
duced by the discoveries made in 1909. 

The Kentucky-Tennessee pool showed 
a marked decline in new production and 
wells drilled during 1910, and a higher 
percentage of dry holes. The production 
of the pool in 1910 was 1,050,000 bbl., as 
compared with 1,250,000 bbl. in 1909. 

3il and Gas in Mid-Continental Field 

By Erasmus Ha worth* 

The production of oil in 1910 by the 
id-continental field was the greatest 
nee its development began, the total ag- 
•egating 53,613,030 bbl., as shown by the 
xompanying table. As usual, the 
rairie Oil and Gas Company was the 
•eatest consumer of oil, it having pur- 
lased about three-fifths of the total pro- 
tction. The Texas company and the 
ulf Pipe Line Company were about 
[ual consumers, each taking between 
ven and eight million barrels. The in- 
ipendent refineries increased their pur- 
lase largely with a total consumption 
more than 6.000,000 bbl. The de- 
ease in storage amounted to 378,842 

ductive sands lying down near the Miss- 
issippian limestone. As the distance 
westward increases the depth likewise 
increases, so that south of Wann 
the wells are from 900 to 1000 ft. 
deep, and likewise obtain their main sup- 
ply from the Cherokee shales. Further 
west, around Dewey, oil has been ob- 
tained at about the same depth or else 
from sands which lie higher up geolog- 
ically, so that the term "shallow sand," 
while correct by tape-line measurement, 
may be misleading to the geologist. 

Outside of the Nowata-Lenapah field 
no new development of note has been 
made, but many wells have been brought 
in around the borders of the old fields, 











■pt ember 




Total Runs 





Daily Aver- 
age, Barrels. 










Development during 1910 was not ac- 
e, although a number of interesting 
w areas were discovered, the most im- 
rtant of which was the large area 
mding nearly east and west lying north 
Nowata, different parts of which are 
own by different names, such as the 
)wata field, the Lenapah field, the 
ann field, etc. This new development 
tually connected the shallow sand area 
Alluwe and Coody's Bluff, east of No- 
ita, with the oilfields lying to the 
st of Dewey, and is the only prominent 
ol thus far developed in the entire area 
lich has substantially an east and west 
nd over anything like so great a dis- 
lce. On the east the wells are from 
to 700 ft. deep, and obtain their oil 
>m the Cherokee shales, the most pro- 

•State i. r eolosrist. Lawrence. Kan. 

so that in the aggregate a large number 
of new producers has been obtained. Dry 
weather seriously interfered with devel- 
opment during the latter part of the year. 

Demand and Prices 

During January and February the de- 
mand was greater than the supply, so 
that the Prairie company reduced its 
stocks slightly. During March, April and 
May, the production outran the consump- 
tion. June witnessed a slight reduction 
of stocks, while during August and 
September, particularly September, the 
production gained on the consumption. 
By October the production was falling 
short, and a considerable reduction of 
stocks resulted, which condition was in- 
tensified in November and December. 
This extra demand also resulted in an in- 
crease of price, the market having ad- 
vanced 4c. by the first of December. 

There is a general feeling throughout the 
field that prices will rule higher and 
many think that as soon as rains supply 
the necessary water for development pur- 
poses, there will be a great revival in 
drilling. Early in December the Prairie 

1 M LD, DURING 1910. 


Prairie Oil and < ias Company 31,444,104 

Texas Oil Company 7,587,272 

Gulf Oil and Pipe Line Company... 7,956,654 

Independent refineries 6,375,000 

Fuel oil, crude 250.000 

Total 53,613,030 

Oil Company, for the first time in years, 
removed the bar on low-gravity oil, and 
is now paying the same for oil re- 
gardless of its quality, 42c. a barrel. 
Other companies, particularly the inde- 
pendent refineries, are manifesting quite 
i disposition to advance the price, some 
paying 2c. above the market, and a num- 
ber of them are asking producers for bids 
on a yearly contract. 

Pipe-line Developments 

During the first half of 1910 the Okla- 
homa Pipe Line Company completed an 
8-in. pipe line from the oilfields to Baton 
Rouge, a distance of about 500 miles. It 
has built to date a total of 28 storage 
tanks along the line, each with a capacity 
of 35,000 bbl which, with 175,000 bbl. 
necessary to fill the line, gives an added 
storage of a little over 1,000,000 bbl. 
This pipe line belongs to the Prairie Oil 
and Gas Company. The Gulf Oil and 
Pipe Line Company extended its line 
from the Glen pool northward into the 
Osage territory within about 31 miles of 
the Kansas line. It bought, the Mattson 
Oil Company property in order to in- 
crease its production. The Texas Oil 
Company completed a line to Tulsa, 
where it has a 5000-bbl. refinery and is 
now building northward into the Osage 
and Bartlesville districts to gather oil 
from the wells of the old Central Fuel 
Company, which property the Texas Oil 
Company has obtained. 

The Prairie Oil and Gas Company has 
greatly extended its gathering pipe lines, 
so that it covers practically the entire 



January 7, 1911. 

Likewise, the independent refineries at 
Caney, Independence and Coffeyville, five 
in number, all have their own pipe lines 
from the northern portion of the Okla- 
homa oilfields to their several refineries. 
The extra rush of consumers to secure 
production has resulted in a marked de- 
crease in the number of holdings, and a 
marked increase in the aggregate hold- 
ings of the few larger companies. Should 
such activities continue there another 
year production will be confined almost 
entirely to the strong companies. 


The independent refineries seem to 
have flourished during 1910. as indicated 
by their increased consumption, as shown 
in the accompanying tables of production. 
Of these there are a total of 25, sixteen 
of which are in Kansas and nine in Okla- 
homa. The majority of them now are 
working up the byproducts in quite a sat- 
isfactory way, producing in addition to 
naphtha, gasolene and kerosene, the usual 
grades of lubricating oils, vaseline and 
paraffin, and also a large amount of fuel 
oil. The Standard Asphalt and Rubber 
Company, of Independence, Kansas, buys 
a large quantity of the heavy oils and 
also has bought much residuum from 
other refineries. It makes a variety of 
asphalt which is used extensively in 
street paving and another product called 

rubber, used principally for insulation 
purposes by manufacturers of electrical 


Should future drilling operations fail 
to develop new gas fields, the time is not 
far distant when gas throughout the Mid- 
continental field will be more valuable 
than oil. The consumption by the large 
pipe-line companies and the many manu- 
facturing interests has been unusually 
great and gas pressure has decreased 
rapidly throughout the entire area. In 
the face of this readily observed condi- 
tion, new pipe lines have been built. One 
16-in. line has been completed from the 
Hogshooter district, south of Bartlesville, 
to Joplin. The Portland Gas and Pipe 
Line company has just completed a pipe 
line, from the same area in Oklahoma, to 
Iola, for the purpose of supplying gas to 
the various cement plants controlled by 
the Iola and the United Kansas Portland 
Cement Companies. 

No new remarkable discoveries of gas 
were made throughout the year. In 
many places, particularly in Kansas, 
drilling was moderately active around the 
borders of the old gas fields, and an 
amount of new gas was developed which, 
were the demand not so great, would 
have been quite satisfactory. But, with 
the demand as great as it is, the in- 

creased production did not equal the de- 
crease in capacity of old wells. As a re. 
suit, almost every large manufacturing 
establishment in the entire area has be- 
gun using oil for fuel, in part, and there 
is a general sentiment that the price of 
gas will advance until factories will be 
driven to oil entirely. Should the de- 
mand for oil become sufficiently great 
to force prices to a level with that paid 
for like grades of oil elsewhere, it would 
seem that the price of fuel oil Hkewisi 
would advance, compelling factories vi 
tually to go to a coal basis within th 
next few years. 

The Kansas Natural Gas Company re- 
mains by far the largest consumer of gas. 
All through last winter, and thus far this 
winter, complaints have been made, par- 
ticularly at Kansas City, that the supply 
of gas is inadequate, and the city author- 
ities of Kansas City are now threatening 
radical measures should the gas company 
not deliver more gas to the consumers. 
The best engineering authorities, how- 
ever, are of the opinion that no matter 
what the supply may be in the fields, the 
pipe lines connecting with the consumers 
on the north are inadequate to carry 
more gas than they are now delivering, 
and that no marked relief can be obtained 
without increasing the pipe-line capacity 
in this field. 

Petroleum in Illinois in 1910 

By Raymond S. Blatchley * 

Illinois again resumed continuous 
growth in oil production in 1910, after 
the relapse of 1909. The estimated pro- 
duction for the year is 35,000,000 bbl., 
as against 30.898,339 in 1909, and 33,- 
685,106 in 1908. The increase was due 
indirectly to general market conditions 
and the ability of various pipe lines to 
cope with the supply. The introduction 
of new pipe lines into the field late in 
1909 materially aided in the increased 
activity. The basis of estimating the 
production, since only 11 months' re- 
turns are available, was to assume the 
December runs of the Ohio Oil Com- 
pany equivalent to those of November — 
the tank-car shipments being about 
2,000,000 bbl.. and miscellaneous pipe- 
line runs o the Ohio Oil Com- 
pany being 4,680,000 bbl, The latter 
run<- were based upon a daily at 
of 12,000 bbl. for the first six months. 
I bbl. for the next three months, 
and 12.000 bbl. for the li nonths 
of the year. The total estimation, there- 
I bbl. The ac- 

i M 

companying table gives the pipe-line 
runs of the Ohio Oil Company by 
months, according to the Oil City Derrick. 
The pipe line runs are those of the 
Ohio Oil Company, the Tidewater Pipe 
Line Company, and the Indian Refining 
Company. The tank-car shipments are 
those of the Sun Oil Company, Corn- 
planter Refining Company, the Indian 


COMPANY, 1910. 

January 2.226,108 

iary 1,980,408 


Vpril 2,314,789 


•June 2,3 

July 2,638,253 

lugusl 2,572,859 

September -'.I 17,106 

I ictobei 2,3 

im i .... 2. 'J 15,676 

.ii in mm tanl .•■<■ purcha -< d 

Refining Company, the Missouri-Illinois 
Oil Company, Central Refining Company, 
W. F. Watson. Bridgeport, 111., and rail- 
road shipments from Sparta. 111. 

The prices of the two general grades 
of oil remained steady during the year. 
Oil of gravity over 30 ch-L'. B. commanded 

; i r bbl., and under 30 deg. B., 52c. 

per bbl. But little oil under 30 deg. B. 
is marketed in Illinois. 

Thf. Southeastern Illinois Oilfields 

The Clark county and adjoining shal- 
low oil areas are almost inactive. But 
little drilling was done during 1910. One 
profitable deep test was drilled by the 
Ohio Oil Company on the K. and N. E. 
Young farm, near Casey, III., to a depth 
of 2969 ft. Oil and gas of considerable 
sulphur content were found at 2750 ft. 
in what is seemingly the Trenton lime- 
stone. The combined daily output of the 
Clark, Cumberland and Edgar county 
wells was about 9000 barrels. 

Considerable drilling in Crawford 
county failed to prevent the decline of 
new production over 1909. The drilling 
was chiefly scattered over the entire pool 
during the greater part of the year. In 
the later months a concentration of de- 
velopment took place in the Bellair-l.ick- 
ing ana. where new productive sands 
between 1000 and 1100 ft. were found. 
Many good wells were completed. The 
average well in the county is far below 
the previous initial yield, indicating the 
inevitable decline. The yield reached 

January 7, 1911. 



tout 30,000 bbl. daily in 1910, as against 
10,000 in 1907. 

Highly profitable but expensive drilling 
(ok place in Lawrence county, where 
sven distinct sands produce oil in vary- 
|g quantity and grade. They lie be- 
f-een 750 and 1900 ft. and in order are, 
;e Bridgeport No. 1 and No. 2 sands, 
om 750 to 900 ft. deep; the Buchanan 

DURING 1910. 



tion, Bbl. 


Ave rase 


'bruary. . . . 





8, H9 




50 J 


54 i 

iier. . . 

ovember. . . 

60 J 

Total . . . 




ind, 1275 to 1400 ft.; the Kirk wood 
and, 1550 to 1650 ft.; the Tracy 
ind, 1700 to 1750 ft.; the McClosky sand, 
325 to 1860 ft., and the Green, Henry 
id Pepple sands from 1850 to 1910 ft. 
2ep, possessing a few wells each within 
arrow limits. The McClosky and Tracy 
ands are the richest developed in I 111 - 
ois. The former is found in the south- 
rn part of the deep field and the latter 
i the northern portion, in what is known 
5 the King-Applegate pool. The chief 
ctivities of the year were in the two 
bove mentioned sands. Most all of the 
ells from these sands produced, initial- 
r, between 500 and 2000 bbl. A short- 
ved impetus was given to the Lawrence 
ounty area early in the year, when a 
ew pool was tapped on the outskirts 
f Lawrenceville, two miles or more 
rom the active fields. Two wells of 100- 
bl. yield were drilled, but several sur- 




New Pro- 






idgarand Coles. . 








55, 135 










liseellaneous. . . . 






ounding dry wells discredited the area, 
'he average daily yield of the Lawrence 
:ounty area was between 45,000 and 
>5,000 bbl. Both "sour" and "sweet" oils 
vere produced, but each was handled 

Considerable wildcatting was done sev- 
:ral miles west and south of the present 
ields in Richland, Clay, Wayne, Gallatin 

and Wabash counties but without any 
showing of oil except in Gallatin county, 
where the amounts were small and insig- 
nificant. The area in Richland, Wayne 
and Clay counties lie on or near the axis 
of the Eastern Interior coal basin. 

Southern-Central and Western 

The best recent results from wildcat- 
ting took place in Marion county during 
1909-1910. The new Sandoval field of 
four wells in 1909 increased to 35 pio- 
ducing wells yielding over 3000 bbl. 
daily, 16 dry holes and 22 drilling wells 
on Dec. 1, 1910. The oil comes from 
a sand in the Chester formations of the 
Mississippian series of rocks, known as 
the Benoist sand, and which has been de- 
termined equivalent to the Kirkwood sand 
of Lawrence county. Its average depth 
is about 1550 ft. A second pool was 
opened up during 1910 near Centralia, 
several miles south of the Sandoval area. 
Four light producing wells and several 
dry holes have been drilled. The produc- 
tive sand is the same that is found near 
Sandoval. The two fields seem to lie 
along an irregular terrace upon the broad 
and gentle western flank of the Illinois 
basin. The general trend is to Duquoin, 
Illinois, on the south, and Brownstown 
and Pana to the north. Much drilling is 
contemplated along this area. 

oil and gas along the Sandoval-Duquoin 
terrace, especially in Washington and 
Perry counties. The accompanying 
tables compiled from the Oil City Derrick 
show the development in Illinois during 

On Jan. 1, 1910, it was estimated that 
16,497 wells had been drilled in Illinois. 
Of these 2379 were barren. In the first 
11 months of 1910, 1937 wells were 
drilled, with 430 of them barren, bring- 
ing the total up to 18,434 drilled and 
2809 barren. The resulting dry wells 
amounted to 15.2 per cent. 

The Lima Oilfield 
By H. C. George* 

The production of the oil pools of 
northwestern Ohio and eastern Indiana, 
known as the Lima oilfield, has declined 
steadily for several years. The total pro- 
duction in 1910 was 5,171,000 bbl. as 
compared with 6,192,000 bbl. in 1909; 
7,287,000 bbl. in 1908 and 8,030,000 bbl. 
in 1907. During 1910 there was a con- 
siderable increase in new production from 
Indiana, but the old wells have been 
abandoned in such numbers that the total 
production has shown a decline. The year 
1910 also showed a marked decrease in 

IN 1908, 1909 AND 1910. 

Number of 
Wells Drilled. 

Daily Production 
in Barrels. 

Daily Production in 
Parrels per 
Well Drilled. 

Per Cent, of 
Dry Holes. 

1908.1 1909. 





1908.1 1909. 



1909. 1910. 

Northwest Ohio.. 








7,771 6,344 
3,852 8,010 




22 . 1 



27 3 



1,250 1,221 



11,623 14,354 







A new gas area was tapped early in 
1910 near Greenville, Bond county. The 
sand was found between 950 and 1000 ft. 
and was correlated with the Benoist sand 
of Sandoval, and the Kirkwood sand of 
Lawrence county. The wells yielded 
from 1,250,000 to 2,000,000 cu.ft. of gas 
daily. A recent test was put down on the 
Brown farm, near Pocahontas, Bond 
county, that secured an initial production 
of about 25 bbl. at a depth of 1975 ft. 
The oil is, apparently, in the Niagara 
limestone. Much drilling is being done 
at present in an effort to develop both the 
gas area and the lower oil measures. 

Wildcat Work in Western Illinois 

Several light-pressure gas wells were 
drilled near Jacksonville, Morgan county, 
during the year. The yield came 'from a 
depth of about 300 ft., was odorless, and 
colorless, but burned with a hot, blue 
flame. Several barren wells were drilled 
in Jefferson, Washington, Perry, Monroe 
and Clinton counties. Much new drilling 
was started late in the year in search of 

the number of wells drilled and an in- 
crease in the percentage of dry holes. 

The average price paid for North Lima 
oil in 1910 was 83c. per bbl. as compared 
with 91c. per bbl. in 1909; S1.03 per bbl. 
in 1908 and 93j^c. per bbl. in 1907. South 
Lima oil has brought 5c. per bbl. less in 
each of these years. The accompanying 
table gives the new production in detail. 

Gold in Germany 

The Berlin correspondent of the Lon- 
don Economist reported the discovery of 
gold ore in the Eifel region, near the 
Belgian frontier. The deposit appears to 
be extensive, although exploration work 
is as yet too little advanced to speak in 
definite terms of the quality or amount 
of the ore. It is mentioned that on 
ing struck the reef at 8 ft. from the sur- 
face. The ore is described as of good 
paying quality, though exact analyses are 
as yet lacking. 

♦Director. Wisconsin Slate Mining Trade 
School, Plattevllle, Wis. 



January 7, 1911. 

The Coal and Coke Industry in 1910 

By Floyd W. Parsons 

The h:st three months of 1910 were the 
best mo-.ths of the year for coal opera- 
tors. November and December brought 
continued cold weather and stimulated 
the domestic trade. In spite of the busi- 
ness lethargy, which was more pro- 
nounced at the close of the year, the de- 
mand for steam coals was quite brisk. 
There was a marked difference in the 
conditions governing the coke industry at 
the close of 1910. when compared with 
the last months of 1909: in the former 
period, the steel business was good and 
coke prices had advanced to S3 a ton at 
the ovens. Coke prices at the end of 
1910 were in the neighborhood of S2 at 
the ovens, with the demand slack. 

In the latter part of 1909. the coking 
industry was greatly hampered by a lack 
of labor and a scarcity of water. Ship- 
ments were also handicapped by a short- 
age of railroad cars. In 1910, the year 
closed with labor conditions reversed; in 
November and December, there was a 
considerable exodus of laborers from the 
Pennsylvania coke regions, many of these 
people returning to European countries. 
Nothing whatever was heard, during the 
year, of any extended plans for a con- 
solidation of coke manufacturers, such as 
was contemplated in 1909. Coke manu- 
facturers are tending more and more to 
the better practice of saving by-products, 
which plan means the gradual abolish- 
ment of beehive ovens. 

The Year a Banner One 

Taking a broad view of the coal in- 
dustry throughout the United States in 
1910, the year must be regarded as the 
best in history. More coal was mined and 
more companies made money in 1910, 
than in any previous year. This was 
true notwithstanding the fact that the year 
was a decided disappointment in a busi- 
ness way. It is also true that a consider- 
able part of the general prosperity in coal 
mining that occurred in many districts. 
was due to the protracted strike in Illi- 
nois and the central western States. It 
.vident. therefore, that the gain of 
some was accomplished through a loss 
b\ others. 

The States showing good gains in 1910, 

were We-t Virginia. Indiana. Ohio, Ah- 
bama. Colorado New .Mexico and Utah. 

I Virginia came close to the 80,000,- 
000 ton mark, and ranked second as a 

'ucer. For the first time in their I 
Alabama produced 15 .000. 000 tons; 
Llld Colorado 
12.000 ooo ton- It al thai 

Pennsylvania showed a material incr< 
in output over that reported for 1000 

The Illinois Production 

It appears now that the output of coal 
in Illinois for 1910, will show a smaller 
falling off. if any, than generally antici- 
pated. The strike in Illinois, lasting five 
months, affected all districts except the 
fifth and ninth, which districts withdrew 
from the operators' association. As the 
Illinois Operators Association now stands, 
it controls only 63 per cent, of the State's 
production, while in 1904, it controlled the 
entire output. Assuming a normal pro- 
duction in Illinois to be 52,000,00 tons 
annually, the association controls an out- 
put of less than 33,000,000 tons. Since 
the mines in Illinois resumed, after losing 
in their controversy with the miners, the 
operators have been generally handi- 
capped by a shortage of cars and labor. 

Labor troubles occurred in many dis- 
tricts in 1910, but were of short duration 
except in Illinois, and the southwestern 
States, (Kansas, Arkansas, Missouri and 
Oklahoma). The Iowa miners were an 
strike for six weeks, but the demand for 
coal during the remainder of the year was 
so good that the year's production will 
show a material increase. In practically 
all of the coal-producing States, the min- 
ers received a wage increase of about 5.55 
per cent. Colorado was an exception, the 
rate of wages remaining the same. Only 
two counties in Colorado are organized, 
and the miners in these two counties 
(the northern lignite field) have been on 
strike the greater part of the year; the 
lignite mines are being operated now with 
nonunion labor. 

The Anthracite Production 

The anthracite production in 1910, 
showed an increase of about 3,000,000 
tons over 1909, and was slightly greater 
than the production reported for 1908. 
The anthracite industry is now estab- 
lished on such a substantial basis that 
the markets and general trade are no 
ionger subject to the violent fluctuations 
that occur in other lines of business. A 
slackening in the steel business is im- 
mediately reflected in coke demand and 
prices, while any depression in general 
manufacturing is soon attended by a 
slowing-up in the steam-coal trade. 

If the bituminous-coal business 
throughout the entire United States could 
be placed on a basis such as governs the 
hard-coal trade, the greatest step toward 
the conservation of our fuel resources 
would be accomplished. Unsatisfactory 
and inefficient methods oi mining bitu- 
minous coal have been due more to the 
killing Competition that has existed, than 
to any other single cause. When an oper- 

ator has difficulty in breaking even, fi- 
nancially, on his year's work, he is not 
going to exert himself, and add additional 
expense in the installation of precau- 
tionary measures about his mines. There- 
fore he gambles with fate, and offers 
a daily prayer that the next disaster will 
not strike at his door. Most operators 
have in their minds what they would like 
to do to increase efficiency and safety, 
but they lack the price. It is not ignorance, 
but necessity. If all our miners were as 
anxious to work in safe mines as most 
operators are to have safe mines, many 
practices, including solid-shooting, would 
be abolished, and general conditions bet- 

The Regulation of Prices 

At several recent conventions of coal 
men, discussions have ensued relative 
to the control of coal prices. There were 
those who advocated amending the Fed- 
eral anti-trust laws, so as to permit sell- 
ing arrangements, claiming that the re- 
sult would be beneficial because of fewer 
accidents and better fuel conservation. 
One other matter of legislation that must 
come eventually, is an employer's liability 
act. Various plans have been suggested, 
those based on the creation of a liability 
fund through the collection of a definite 
and proportionate tax from each coal op- 
erator, having greatest merit. There is 
also an important move under way, look- 
ing to the appointment of each State mine 
inspector, rather than the general election 
of such an official. 

Practically all of the important coal 
States are engaged in the revision and en- 
actment of new mine laws. State com- 
missions were appointed in Alabama, Il- 
linois. Colorado and Oklahoma, and these 
bodies have carefully examined existing 
conditions and laws, and have suggested 
many changes that wiil certainly make 
our mines safer. Notwithstanding the 
added expenses brought about, the op- 
erators have aided in the revision of ex- 
isting laws, and in all districts there ap- 
pears a marked willingness to comply 
with new rules in every particular. 

The Prevention of Mine Accidents 

The principal topic of discussion at the 
different gatherings of coal-mining men 
in 1910, was the cause and prevention 
of mine accidents. There were those who 
advocated high-velocity air currents as a 
cure for gas explosions, while an equal 
number favored slow currents, claiming 
that large volumes of air passing through 
a mine raised the dust and increased the 
likelihood of dust explosions. There is 
no doubt hut that some mines arc over 

January 7, 1911. 



ding their ventilation in sending more air 
I'derground than is necessary; however, 
i'is wrong to believe that a great vol- 
ne of air going down a shaft, or into 
£ entry, always reaches the men at the 
|ce. The ideal solution is brought about 
I having sound brattices, good over- 
tsts, properly regulated doors and a 
sstem carefully planned with numerous 
Jlits. When a mine provides 100 cu.ft. 
i air per minute for each man employed 
every remote face, the ventilation is 
ffficient in nine out of ten cases. Less 
jr than the law requires is dangerous, 
iid more air than is specified by law is 
inecessary and perhaps also adds to 
e dangers from dust. It is quality of 
mtilation that counts more than quan- 


There are those who are opposed to 
irinkling underground, claiming that it 
iuses fatalities through falls cf roof, 
lis subject has been well investigated 
• experienced engineers in America and 
arope; the results show sprinkling to 
i beneficial whether applied as a spray 
rough a nozzle, or when exhaust steam 
introduced into the intake air. Mr. 
aas, of the Consolidated Coal Com- 
my, has investigated the subject of 
impening dust at 40 of his mines, and 
ates his belief that the effect on the 

roof is not nearly as great as the oppo- 
nents of sprinkling claim. Mr. Haas fur- 
ther adds that by introducing moisture 
underground in the form of exhaust 
steam, he has effected an annual saving 
of many thousands of dollars, as com- 
pared with what sprinkling the same 
mines with sprays or hose would cost. 
After a careful reading of the results ob- 
tained in European countries, it does ap- 
pear that stone dust or powdered shale 
is the agent to use to prevent dust explo- 
sions. Coal dust with only 30 per cent, 
of shale mixed in, is difficult to explode, 
and with 50 per cent, stone dust, the coal 
is rendered harmless. Stone dust will 
not exaporate and is an inexpensive 
agent. It should not only be sprinkled on 
the roadway, but should be thrown on the. 
sides and roof to dislodge any coal dust 
accumulated there. 

Great Advances in Knowledge 

There has been a greater advance in 
the solution of coal-mine problems the 
past few years than ever before. Explo- 
sions still occur, it is true, but the bene- 
ficial effects of remedial measures are 
sure to be felt eventually. The adoption 
of permitted explosives in most mines 
was a step forward, and the next move 
must be the use of safety lights under- 

ground. In a decade, it is certain that 
many, if not all States will have abol- 
ished the naked light entirely. Com- 
pressed-air motors and mining machines 
are being placed in some of our newer 
operations, and hydraulic mining cart- 
ridges have successfully supplanted 
powder in a number of mines. With no 
flame of any description underground, 
with a well protected roof, and properly 
regulated haulage, some of our mining 
companies will have eliminated the great- 
est dangers now extant. 

The Federal Bureau of Mines 

The year 1911 should bring greater 
advancement in coal production and in 
the solution of mining problems than any 
previous 12 months. The Federal Bur- 
eau of Mines is now well organized, and 
the work is being carried forward by 
competent men according to an intelligent 
and popular plan. The rescue cars have 
proved a valuable adjunct to the work 
of the Mines Bureau, and the engineers 
and men in charge have demonstrated 
their worth at all of the recent mine 
disasters. Those employed in the new 
Bureau of Mines have the confidence of 
the coal-mining industry, and the maxi- 
mum efficiency of the department is there- 
by insured. 

rhe Bituminous Coal Trade in 1910 

By John H. Jones* 

The year 1910, notwithstanding the un- 
rtainty of mining conditions and the ap- 
rent unrest throughout the country, will 
ow a production of coal greater than 
ly year in the history of the country, 
iless it be 1907. When we stop to con- 
ier that 60 years ago this country pro- 
iced but 7,000,000 tons, and that in 
'10 it produced between 450,000,000 
id 500,000,000 tons, we cannot help 
inder at the great growth shown. In 
ite of the fact that many of our manu- 
cturing industries did not operate as 
lly as in 1909, the consumption of coal 
other lines — such as manufacturing 
is, producing electricity, coal used by 
e railroads and in the homes of the 
ople, etc. — showed a remarkable in- 
ease, so that the production of 1910 
is large. 

The business prospects for 1911 are 
ch that I feel confident that the produc- 
m will pass the half-billion mark. Dur- 
g January and February (pending the 
ttlement of the freight rate controversy 
' the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
3n) conditions will be rather quiet, but 
imediately upon the announcement of a 
vorable decision, I am confident the 

•President. Pittsburg - Buffalo Compam 
rtshurg. IVnn. 

railroads will go into the market and pur- 
chase their requirements and will not 
hesitate to arrange for extensions and 
betterments which are absolutely neces- 
sary, and which, in many cases, have 
been held back for years on account of 
the antagonistic attitude of the people 
toward the transportation lines. 

It will be noted that the 1910 lake ton- 
nage is the largest in the history of the 
country. The wonderful prosperity in the 
Northwest, brought about by gcod crops, 
and its great industrial activity, should 
cause another increase in 1911. 

The majority of the operators in this 
country are sparing no efforts to provide 




Ohio District. 

Wesl Virginia 





L70 1.09:; 

6.092.0 17 
9 287 272 

v 700.000 
S, 6X7.39.-) 


2 689.974 
2, 158,265 

1,07 1.296 


3, 002. Si:, 

1,279 876 
.'.7 13.732 

3,87 1,570 



1 903 . . . 

10.0S9.7 17 

1 904 . . . 


1 90. r > 

1 1,615,837 


1 1,591,910 









Pittsburg District Produced about 
50,000,000 Tons 

The production in the Pittsburg district 
in 1910 was about 50,000,000 tons, and 
1911 should surpass this. General min- 
ing conditions are favorable toward a 
good production in 1911, inasmuch as the 
miners' scale has been settled and does 
not terminate until April 1, 1912. 

Accompanying table shows la':e tonnage 
from all districts for the iast 10 years: 

every known safeguard for the health 
and safety of their employees. The best 
thoughts of the world's greatest mining 
experts are bearing on the problems con- 
fronting the mining industry. The Gov- 
ernment Testing Sation, in Pittsburg, has 
done great good, and I believe th n t with 
the progress that has been made, the 
United States will continue to lead the 
countries of the world in the low mortal- 
ity rate per million tons of coal mined. 



January 7, 1911. 

The following table will show that we 
now head the list (with great room for 
improvement I : 



Great Britain 1. 15 

Germany 6 :>."> 

.:n ».71 

a s i 6 

Conditions in coal mining as yet un- 
recognized and unknown, are rapidly be- 
ing discovered and overcome. For in- 
stance, modern sanitary requirements de- 
mand sufficient air to give every man in 
the mine enough to breathe and to carry 
off the foul air and gases, but an over- 
abundance, in case of a slight explosion 
at any point, is liable to render such ex- 
plosion serious on account of the dust 
it carries in suspension. 

A Tax on Employers of Labor 

On a number of occasions I have rec- 
ommended that a tax be placed on the 
pay rolls of employers of labor, to be de- 
posited in a special fund to be admin- 
istered by the Government upon a certain 
basis, so that in case of an accident caus- 
ing the loss of the head of a family, 
enough money would be paid to the 
widow, children and other dependents to 
take care of them and educate and rear 
the children properly. 

Great strides have been made in mining 
knowledge, but the personnel of the men 
in charge and the men employed is the 
great factor in the safe working of the 
mines. The fact that a man has been 
careless a hundred times and escaped in- 
jury breeds within him a contempt for the 
ever-present danger, and sometimes 

causes a reckless disregard not only for 
his own safety but l'or the safety of 
others. This is a factor most difficult 
to overcome. 

It is manifestly impossible to prevent 
ail accidents, but we must figure out the 
best methods of reducing them to a min- 
imum. Eighty-five per cent, of all acci- 
dents in the mines result from causes 
other than gas or dust explosions, or 
blown-out shots, and when it is taken into 
consideration that more than 50 per cent, 
of these could be prevented by ordinary 
care on the part of the injured person, it 
can readily be seen what effect a more 
rigid police regulation will have in the 
future coal production of this country. 

Our State mine inspectors are clothed 
with police power and have all risen by 
their ability from the ranks of the min- 
ers, and they have, by the careful study 
of mining conditions, fitted themselves 
for their present positions. They are 
constantly studying to improve conditions 
and methods, and if we will all cooper- 
ate (mine inspectors, miners and opera- 
tors) it will only be a short time until this 
country will be able to show a much low- 
er proportion of accidents to the number 
of men employed. 

The Result of Improper Mining 

In this country, a great deal of coal is 
lost on account of improper mining. In 
some districts from 30 per cent, to 50 
per cent, of the coal is lost, and no pre- 
tense whatever is made to recover it. The 
cheapest methods of mining are em- 
ployed so that the coal can be placed on 
the market at competitive prices. In 
many cases, the amount saved by such 
methods will more than overcome the 

coal lost in mining. A law for the cot 
servation of coal lands should be enacte* 
and some method of mining adopte 
which will compel the companies to mir 
their coal in a systematic manner; but • 
doing this it would be absolutely neces 
sary to enact laws which would enabl' 
the operators to pay the miners livin 
wages, and at the same time secure th 
prices for their coal necessary to enabl 
them to mine it in such a way that th 
coal now unmined would be conserved t 

In Germany, and many other countrie 
Lhe producing and selling of coal* i 
handled in such a way that the operate 
is always assured of a certain margin c 
profit, and in this way it is possible t 
conserve the coal for future generation: 
by the consumer paying a price (un 
der the supervision of the Government 
high enough to enable the operators t 
take out (as near as practicable) ever 
pound of coal. This method might not b 
popular in this country, but it certainl 
would be practicable. 

When the new mining laws are enact 
ed, the mine foremen and fire bosse 
(better known as State officials) shoul 
be given more rigid police power, so tha 
in case a miner or other employee insid' 
the mine should fail to carry out the in 
structions of the mine foreman so tha 
his own or other lives may be jeopardize! 
by his failure so to do, the mine foremai 
or other State official should have powe 
to arrest such employee, and his decisioi 
in the matter should be final, subject on!\ 
to reversal by the courts. It is just pos- 
sible this may be arbitrary, but such i 
law would help to minimize the numbei 
of accidents in our mines. 

The Pittsburg District in 1910 

By B. E. V. Luty * 

The year 1910 in the Pittsburg coal 
trade was better than 1909 and 1908 in 
tonnage and earnings, but fell short of 
1907 in both respects. We estimate the 
total tonnage of the largest local ship- 
per, the Pittsburg Coal Company, at 
1,000 tons, this being based upon 
official returns for the first nine months, 
making the following comparison: 




The Monongahela River Consolidated 
Coal and ( r the nine 

months ended A owed a produc- 

es of river coal and 
of rail coal, a total of 


[»< llll. 

1,161,134 tons of rail coal or a gain of 
1,061,306 tons in total coal, as compared 
with the same months a year earlier. 

The production of the various inde- 
pendent companies increased largely in 
nearly all cases from 1909 to 1910, and 
the coal mines connected with steel in- 
terests showed large increases. 

The biennial wage scale expired March 
31, 1910, and after a suspension of 
about 30 days, an agreement was reached 
except as to the gassy mines, the details 
for which were left to subsequent ex- 
periment and settlement. The general 
mining rate was advanced from 90 to 95c. 
with an advance of 5.55 per cent, on day 
the scale to expire March 31, 1912. 

( ■ i Prh ; More Satisfactory 

PrJci <:i the whole considerably 

more- satisfactory than ill 1908 and 1909. 

In 1909 the open-market prices averaged 
close to $1.05 for mine-run during the 
first nine months of the year, jumping to 
an average of about $1.15 in the closing 
three months. In 1910 the $1.15 average 
was practically maintained during the 
first three months. After the wage ad- 
vance prices jumped to $1. 20 Ca$\. 25, but 
in November, at the close of the lake 
shipping season dropped to about SI. 15, 
so that the spread between the wage rate 
and selling price was lower at the close 
of the year than at the opening, although 
the average spread was slightly higher 
in 1910 than in 1909. Many term con- 
tracts, like the large one between the 
United States Steel Corporation and the 
Pittsburg Coal Company, are on the 
basis of a differential above the prevail- 
ing mining rate. The coal companies 
made considerably more money In 

January 7, 1911. 



)10 than in 1908 or 1909, but 
e increased earnings were due in 
eater measure to an increased tonnage 
ther than to any betterment in the price 
itained for the coal. 

The Pittsburg Coal Company's earn- 
gs in nine months ended Sept. 30, were 
follows: 1907, 82,109,049; 1908, 
35,228; 1909, $231,600; 1910, $1,333,- 

The Mononogahela River Consolidated 
jal and Coke Company, for nine months 
idel July 31 showed gross earnings, 
i09, $1,562,052; 1910, $1,475,469; net 
rnings, 1909, $260,820; 1910, $112,- 

The event of 1910 in coal transporta- 
m was the closing, in January, of a 
-year traffic arrangement between the 
estern Maryland and the Pittsburg & 
ike Erie (New York Central), pursuant 

which work was started upon a 93- 
:le single-track connection between the 
ttsburg, McKeesport & Youghiogheny, 

the New York Central, at Connells- 
le, to the Western Maryland, at Cum- 
rland, to afford an outlet to seaboard 
r coal originating on the Pittsburg, Mc- 
:esport & Youghiogheny Railroad. 

ver Shipping Conditions Were Poor 

In 1907 there was water for shipment 

lower-river markets in every month; 

1908 there were no shipments in the 

cond half; in 1909 there were ship- 

:nts in October, and in 1910 there were 

shipments in the second half, except 

it in November, the Government cre- 

;d an artificial rise by letting down 

ms in succession, whereby about 110,- 

tons lying in the fifth and sixth pools 

:re moved to lower river points. The 

year closed with 5,000,000 bushels lying 
in the Pittsburg harbor waiting water and 
the river mines running slack. 


The year 1910 was one of bitter disap- 
pointment to the Connellsville coke in- 
dustry. The price of coke had been 
boomed in the closing months of 1909, in 
the belief that owing to constantly ex- 
panding blast-furnace operations there 
would not be enough coke to go around. 
Asking prices on standard grades of Con- 
nellsville furnace coke on contracts for 
1910 were pushed up to $3, and a small 
tonnage was sold in October and Novem- 
ber at close to this figure. As a rule 
the furnaces refused to contract at such 
prices. Some compromises were made 


Furnace. Foundry. 

January $2 . 60 $3 . 05 

February 2 . 25 2 75 

March 2.00 2.60 

April 1.80 2.40 

.May 1.70 2.25 

June 1.65 2.20 

July 1.65 2.15 

August 1 . 65 2 1 ."> 

September 1 . 60 2 . 15 

October 1.55 2 10 

November 1 . 45 2 .00 

December 1 . 50 2 . 00 

through ratio contracts, the monthly set- 
tlement price being a fraction of the mar- 
ket price of pig iron, while some fur- 
naces turned to other cokes. During the 
first few months of the year, the Con- 
nellsville operators waited for other fur- 
naces to come into the market, finally 
realizing that furnace wants fully as 
large as the most optimistic expectations, 
had been satisfied without any pressure 
at all being put upon the productive ca- 
pacity of the Connellsville region. 
Prices of prompt furnace and foundry 

coke, per short ton at the ovens, were 
substantially as shown above. 

During the 10 years preceding 1910, 
prices averaged approximately $2.25 for 
furnace and $2.50 for foundry. In all 
cases the best grades of foundry coke 
ccmmanded higher prices than those giv- 
en as the average for fairly good brands. 

Production in the Connellsville and 
Lower Connellsville regions, not includ- 
ing the "Upper Connellsville" (Latrobe) 
region, has been as follows, using the 
U. S. Geological Survey figures as far 
as available, with the Connellsville 
Courier's estimate for 1909 and our 
own estimate for 1910. 


Year. Short Tons. 

L905 15,236,387 

L906 17,245,975 

1907 19,400,327 

L908 11,133,173 

1909 17,785,832 

n»l() 20,000,000 

The 1910 production was divided as 
follows: First quarter, 6,000,000; sec- 
ond quarter, 5,200,000; third quarter, 
4,700,000; fourth quarter, 4,100,000; 
total for 1910, 20,000,000. 

In the second half of 1910, many con- 
tracts were made on a ratio basis, for 
periods of from six months to three 
years, beginning Jan. 1, 1911, and it is 
safe to say that on that date there was 
at least twice as much coke under con- 
tract for the ensuing six months on a 
ratio basis as at a flat price. The 
Bessemer basis was gradually abandoned 
and almost all the ratio contracts were 
referred to basic pig iron at valley fur- 
naces. The basis for ratio contracts with 
basic iron generally ranges from 7: 1 to 
8:1, and customarily there are upper 
and lower limits beyond which the price 
of coke cannot range. 

rhe Chicago Coal Market in 1910 

By E. Morrison 

The most important and significant fea- 
re of the year 1910 to Chicago's whole- 
le coal dealers was the strike that 
mpletely stopped the production of coal 

the Illinois mines from April 1 until 
i first week in September. These 
nes, normally, provide the city and its 
lolesale territory with 75 per cent, or 
jre of their fuel supply, and predic- 
ms were freely made, in the early 
iges of the strike, that the closing 

the mines would cause a wide sus- 
nsion of business. Yet nothing of the 
id occurred; though manufacturers 
d other consumers of large quantities 

coal were forced to pay higher prices, 
ty got the coal they needed, and to all 
pearances could continue to get it, in- 
finitely, from mines outside the State, 
ost of the substitute supply came from 

Indiana, where the mines were worked 
to their full capacity; the rest came from 
mines east of Indiana. After the middle 
of September, to the end of the year, 
normal conditions prevailed. 

At the opening of the year coal moved 
slowly because of weather that made rail- 
road operations difficult. In the north- 
west the switchmen's strike also delayed 
shipments. Lump sold at premiums of 
25^' 50c. in the first half of the month. 
A strong demand for screenings was one 
of the peculiarities of the first half of 
the year's business. In previous years 
screenings were considered a summer 
fuel; it became evident in 1910 that they 
are to be the favorite size of Illinois and 
Indiana steam-coal users. Screenings 
sold at $2^/2.50 in the middle of January 
and until October they remained as high 

as or higher than run-of-mine. The dif- 
ference was in part due, no doubt, to 
conditions of production that made fine 
coals scarce, but they are coming more 
and more into use with the increase in 
the number of furnaces designed to burn 
them economically and smokelessly. 

Consumers Anticipated a Strike 

Throughout February and March sales 
for steam and domestic purposes were 
large and supplies abundant. In March 
the demand for all kinds of western 
bituminous was large, owing to anticipa- 
tion by retailers and consumers of the 
strike that went into effect April 1. The 
laying in of supplies was so large that 
not until May were the Indiana mines 
drawn on generally for the Chicago mar- 
ket. In March and April little steam 



January 7, 1911. 

coal moved to consumers, and the domes- 
tic demand naturally fell off heavily. 
Early estimates that consumers had 
enough in storage piles for 30 to 60 days 
fell short of the truth; in many cases 
the supply was ample for 90 days. The 
mines used up their surplus in April 
and in May a coal market hardly existed, 
so small was the supply. 

The naturally light summer demand 
was chiefly for screenings and kept the 
price of this size high. Eastern coals 
were shipped into the Chicago market 
in large quantities and were bought 
largely, but were not popular enough to 
suit shippers and dealers who expected 
that a lack of supplies from Illinois 
would give them a large and profitable 
market. The eastern coals were too high 
priced to compete with Indiana coals. 
By the employment of many of the strik- 
ing Illinois miners, the Indiana operators 
were enabled to send large shipments to 
the Chicago market that sold at high 
prices, yet much lower than the prices 
of smokeless or Hocking coal. 

Because of the high prices of Indiana 
coal as compared with Illinois, consum- 
ers bought closely to their immediate 
needs and watched closely for signs of 
the end of the strike and the resumption 
of receipts from Illinois mines. Shortly 
before Sept. 1, it became evident that 
peace between operators and miners was 
in sight and buying fell off markedly. 
The Southern Illinois mines, opening first, 
sent their products in so as to lower 
prices gradually. By the middle of Sep- 
tember sales of Indiana and Eastern 
coals fell off notably and the receipts 
from Illinois were abundant. 

By the middle of October mild weather 
and large supplies made the market 
somewhat dull. Domestic coals began 
to strengthen early in November and 
there was much early buying for winter 
storage. In the latter half of November 
the coal-carrying roads established freight 
rates higher by 10c. a ton on Indiana 
and 7c. on Illinois coals, and these ad- 
vances were shifted -to wholesale and 
retail prices. 

The accompanying table shows the 
range of car prices of Illinois and Indiana 
coals, by months, throughout the year. 

Prices for Eastern Coals 
Smokeless, the most important of east- 
ern coals, varied in price considerably as 
a result of the scarcity of western bitu- 
minous. Early in the year it was at 
times high priced because of transpor- 
tation delays, lump selling as high at S4 
and run-of-mine up to $3.50, against 
normal prices of $3.65 and $3.30. In 
the late spring and early summer smoke- 
'.ld ordinarily at 10c/'/ 15c. less and 
in the autumn it rose again, September 
prices 3.80 on lump and $3.30 

on run-of-- ine. while after October 1 
'ump commonly brought 

15 until September, 

when it was advanced to $3.25 and 
brought $3.40 during the last three 
months of the year. Shipments of East- 
ern coals were more nearly in accordance 
with the demand during the last half of 
the year than during the first half, but 
at no time was there a recurrence of 

COALS IN 1910. 

Lump and 





Jan . . . 



Feb . . . 

2.00® 3.00 

1.75(a) 2.25 

1.60(a) 2.00 


2.20(a) 2.50 

2.00(o' 2.25 

2.00(a) 2.25 

April. . 

2. 25 (a 2.75 

2.20(o 2.50 

2.15® 2.60 

Mav.. . 

2.25(ii 2.50 

2.20® 2.50 

2. 15® 2.60 

June . . 

2.00® 2.60 

1.90 (a 2.40 

2.00(a> 2.50 

July. . . 

1.90® 2.10 

1.90(a) 2.10 

2. 00 (a 2.20 

Aug. . . 

2.00(<( 2.15 

1.90(a) 2.00 

1.90® 2.15 

Sep . . . 

2.50(a) 3.25 

2.25(a) 2.50 

2.20® 2.40 

Oct . . . 

2.10(a) 3.25 

1.90(a) 2.10 

1.40® 1.60 

Nov. . . 

2.10(a) 3.25 

1.90® 2.20 

1.40® 1.75 

Deo . . . 

2.20® 3.50 

2.00® 2.30 

1.50® 1.90 

the wave of price demoralization that 
followed excessive shipments in some 
preceding years. Anthracite sold at the 
same prices as in former years, the dis- 
tribution in the spring and summer 
months being light but uniformly dis- 
tributed. The scarcity of chestnut caused 
advancement of the price 25c. in Novem- 
ber, without checking noticeably the 
strong demand for this size, which was 
in short supply throughout the year. 

Alabama Coal Industry in 

By L. W. Friedman 

After the early part of the summer 
in 1910, there was an active production 
of coal not only in Alabama but other 
Southern States. The coal strike in the 
Middle West and Western States brought 
about a demand at Southern mining cen- 
ters that gave the trade an impetus that 
has been constant ever since. As a con- 
sequence, there is every belief that the 
banner production for twelve months has 
been made. Another factor in the activity 
that has prevailed throughout the mining 
sections in the Southern territory during 
the past year was the upbuilding of the 
coal trade at New Orleans and other 
southern ports, until today thousands of 
tons of coal are being rushed daily by 
rail and otherwise to these ports to sup- 
ply ships and other consumers of fuel, 
the Alabama, Tennessee and other South- 
ern product having been thoroughly 

Heretofore Alabama's record output 
for a year was made in 1907, when 
14,250,454 tons of coal were accounted 
for. The two following years saw a re- 
duction in the production, the slump in 
general conditions which started in dur- 
inu the latter part of 1907 being felt in 
this part of the country as well as else- 
where. Estimates made, bused on the 
production of 1907, by Chief State Mine 

Inspector James Hillhouse and others it 
a position to know, place the output fo 
the year 1910 at above 15,000,000 tons 

Car Shortage 

During the last two months of the yea: 
and longer, some interference with tht 
activity at collieries throughout Alabam; 
and in other States was felt by the rail 
road-car shortage. Had this not been i 
fact, it is believed the production wouk 
have gone up another quarter of ; 
million tons at least. 

But few months of the year 1910 sav 
a curtailed production at mines in Ala 
bama in the fullest sense of the word 
The labor situation was fairly gooc 
throughout the year, though at som< 
places there were efforts made to get h 
more labor. The coal production wit! 
convict labor was steady. 

Not only was there a better deman< 
with its consequences, a larger output 
but the prices for the product were bette 
during the closing months of the year. I 
is also a fact that the year finished ui 
with stronger conditions in this regan 
than ever before. 

The coke production during 1910 ii 
Alabama and other Southern States wil 
show an increase also when the officia 
figures are made public a few week: 
hence. The banner production of cokt 
in Alabama was also in 1906 whei 
3.217,068 tons were produced. The twi 
following years saw a reduction, 190! 
being given credit for 3,047,510 tons 
It is estimated that the production ii 
1910 went above 3,300,000. For severa 
months during 1910 the coke ovens wen 
in full operation and some coke wa; 
accumulated, but the accumulation wa: 
soon worked off. 

Coal Mining in Michigan ir 

By R. H. Fletcher* 

It appears from the data already ai 
hand, that the coal industry in Michigar 
in 1910, .showed no increased activity, ir 
development or production, over 1909 


ICAN for the year ended 

DEC. 1. 1910. 
Average number of mines in operation 

in 1910 I' 

Average number of employees lfTj 

Average number of hours worked per day. I 
Average number of days worked per month Ifl 
Average daily earnings of each employee.. $3.2. 

Aggregate sum paid in wases $1 

Total number gallons of oil used 23.9!»: 

Total number kegs of powder used. .. .42.42. 
Aggregate inns of picked coal mined. .67S.4.1 
Aggregate ions of machine coal nined. .4. r >7.7r> 

Aggregate cost of output $2.()S2.13 

Average cost per ton $1.8- 

The accompanying summary shows in de 
tail the state of the industry during tin 

January 7, 1911. 





Mining in Indiana in 1910 

Special Correspondence 

The mining conditions and the coal sit- 
ition in Indiana in general during the 
par 1910 were the most favorable and 
ttisfactory for a number of years. 

The market demands for the products 
f the Indiana mines were exceptionally 
Dod and the selling price for the entire 
;ar was satisfactory. During the con- 
act year beginning March 1, the mines 
ave been more nearly operated full time 
lan during any previous year for a dec- 
ie. These conditions were largely due 
i the suspension of mining in the 1111— 
sis districts because of a failure to agree 
i a wage scale and other demands, 
uring the suspension in Illinois, several 
lousand Illinois miners found employ- 
ent in the. Indiana mines, a most ac- 
;ptable acquisition to the mining force 
f the State. The average number of 
iners employed in the mines for the 
:ar was about 20,000, an increase of 
200 over the previous year. 

The aggregate of wages paid to miners 

and employees, with December report es- 
timated, was approximately $12,830,163, 
an increase of $1,430,112 over the 
amount paid in 1909. The yearly earn- 
ings of the men employed in the mines 
will average approximately $760, an in- 
crease of $159 over the average for 1909. 

Production for 1910. 

Indiana has become the fifth largest 
coal-producing State in the Union. The 
total production for the year with De- 
cember report estimated was 15,692,089 
tons, an increase in round numbers of 
2,000,000 tons. Of this, it is estimated 
that 14,400,100 tons was bituminous, and 
1,291,989 tons was block coal. The block 
coals in Indiana are regarded with much 
favor and have done much to make the 
State famous as a coal producer. There 
are 18 coal-producing counties in the 
State, Sullivan and Greene counties lead- 
ing in the order named and Orange coun- 
ty the smallest producer. 

The fatalities for the year thus far re- 
ported were 19, as against 50 for 1909. 
The permanent, the serious and the minor 
injuries will reach nearly 900, a decrease 
of 229 as compared with the previous 
year. There were but four strikes during 
the year, and these were of small conse- 
quence and of short duration. 

There were 12 new mines opened, and 
these are being operated successfully. 
Three mines were worked out and aban- 
doned, leaving a total of 126 operating 
mines in the State. 

The number of accidents to mine prop- 
erty was 8, two of which were fires in 
the interior of the mines. 

During the last year, the State mine 
inspector and his four deputies enforced 
impartially the laws relating to the min- 
ing industry and guarded the interests 
of both miner and operator in such a wav 
that the year closes with the coal mines 
in the State in better condition than ever 

olorado Coal Industry in 1910 

By James Dalrymple * 

Despite the fact that the coal industry 
' Colorado in 1910 was confronted by 
iveral serious obstacles, the production 
cceeded that of any preceding year, 
aching the 12,000,000-ton mark, an in- 
■ease of over a million tons over 1909. 
he lignite output showed a material de- 
base on account of the strike which 
as declared March 31, 1910, by the 
nion miners in Boulder and Weld coun- 
es, and which is still pending with no 
imediate prospect of a settlement. 
'hile many of the mines in the strike- 
Tected field worked with nonunion men, 
;t none worked full capacity; therefore, 
lese two counties, the heaviest producers 
F the lignite variety, lost over 500,000 

In Fremont, Huerfano and Las Animas 
mnties, a car shortage handicapped the 
itput in September and October, many 
ines working only half time, although 
lere was a market waiting for all their 
•oduct. In Las Animas county several 
jndred thousand tons of coal were fur- 
ier lost on account of the gas and dust 
cplosions in the three largest producing 
ines in the State, viz.: Primero, Stark- 
lie and Delagua; the commercial loss to 
:ese three properties was great, as well 
s the loss of life, 205 men being killed. 

*State coal-mine inspector. Denver. Colo. 

Routt county, which two years ago pro- 
duced only 5000 tons, in 1910 had an out- 
put of over 250,000 tons. The Moffat 
railroad, having reached Steamboat 
Springs, made it possible to develop some 
of the great coal resources of that coun- 
try and a number of mines were opened 

ORADO IN 1910. 

Number of mines in operation 177 

Number of new mines opened up . . . 10 

Total tons of lignite coal produced. . 1,639,455 
Total tons of semi-bituminous coal 

produced 975,047 

Total tons of bituminous coal pro- 
duced 9,334,359 

Total tons of anthracite coal pro- 
duced 70,586 

Tons of unclassified coal produced, 

estimated 70,000 

Total tonnage 12,089, 1 17 

Total tonnage in 1909 10, 7:in. 159 

Total tons of coke produced 1,190,901 

Total tons of coke produced in 1909 1,091,882 
Number of employees in and about 

the mines 14,768 

Number of employees at the coke 

ovens 1 ,090 

Total number of coke ovens 3,164 

up on a large scale. There, too, a local 
strike prevailed, but was adjusted in the 
forepart of December. The product of 
this field is of a good bituminous quailty. 
Another serious drawback to the oper- 
ators was the shortage of miners in all 
the coal camps of Colorado, especially in 
the southern field where none of the 
mines were able to work full capacity 
because of the lack of men. The mine 
disasters drove hundreds of men from 

these coal camps. The men employed in 
the coal mines of this section are natives 
from Italy, Austria, Japan and Korea, and 
are not practical miners; most of them 
have never been in a coal mine before. 
Outside of Boulder and Weld counties 
the mines are operated with nonunion 

Price of Coal Was Satisfactory 

The price of coal went up, the bitumin- 
ous and semi-bituminous was raised from 
$6.00 per ton to $6.25 and the lignite from 
$5.00 to $5.25; there was a market for 
every ton mined. There was no increase 
in the scale of wages and that is the cause 
of contention of the strike. The union 
men demanded an increase of 5.55c. for 
day work and dead work; 3c. per ton for 
machine-mined coal and 4c. per ton for 
pick-mined coal. 

The recent mine catastrophes called at- 
tention to the inadequacy of the present 
coal-mining law, which was enacted in 
1883 and amended in 1887 when coal 
mining in this State was in its infancy. 
These three mine explosions in less than 
a year aroused a great deal of public sen- 
timent and a general demand for a better 
mining law prompted the governor of 
Colorado, John F. Shafroth, to appoint a 
mining commission consisting of Victor 


C. Alderson, president of the School of Coal Mining ill Montana 862; Park ' 101 » 268 '. Fergus, 303,649 

Mines at Golden; Doctor Elkely. Profes- p. . iQin Yellowstone, 378,087; Cascade, 929,595^ 

sor of chemistry at the State University, Uuring i.y i\) Carbon, 1,197,430. and this represents' 

Boulder; Professor George, State geolo- the yield of 52 different properties. Sever 

gist, and the State inspector of coal By J. B. McDermott* properties were abandoned during the 

mines as a fourth member. This commis- two years covered by the report, anc 

sion made a thorough investigation into The rep(m on CQal production for the eleven new ones opened up. 

the causes of these explosions, examined Stafe of Montana from Oct 31 1908 to Tne re P ort included the accompanying 

mines in all sections of the State, and Nov , , 9ia showed that ' the ' output ' in table, showing the causes of accidents. 

drafted a law which, if enacted by the {hat dme amounted t0 5,5^925 tons of in and around the mines for this V ear 

incoming General Assembly, will cope CQal For the calendar year from Jan. 1, together with the outcome. It follows, 

with all the requirements of coal mining 191Q ^ tQ j an ^ ]g] ^ Mf McDermott, fatalities in coal minks of mon 

in this State. State mine inspector, estimates that the TANA IN 1!)1 °- 

When considering all the adverse con- production is 3,000,000 tons, thus indi- Falllng roof _ .^S ^T 

ditions that the coal operators had to con- ca ting a healthy increase this year as Falling coal and "timber! ! '.'.'. 8 2 

tend with, the increased production indi- compared with its predecessor. For a Ew&ll™ **!*. ?*™V//.\ '.'.'. *7 o 

cates that the commercial prosperity of biennial period, this is by far the greatest obffisVmn^a\)\^n' shaft:!: l o I 

Colorado in 1910 was great. Further- in tne history of the State, the increase Cage striking %ottom too hai-d 1 

more, the promptness and readiness with being 37 per cent _ over the pre ceding Machinal °° "f!*?.".'.'. '.'.'.'.'. 2 o 

which the operators aided the Mining two vears Railway cars...... 1 o 

r . . lwu J" 15, Y\;i;;<>n reach breaking 1 

Commission in its labor of investigating j ne report stated that while the de- other causes 2 o 

the conditions of the coal mines for the ve i pment and equipment in and around Total 54 To 

purpose of drafting a law which is sure the coal propert ies have kept pace with The rep ort gave the following summary 

to increase the cost of mining, showed tne increased production, the accident f 1910 conditions- Total number ol 

that new legislation would have no de- list grows no less . During 1907 . 85 for m achine operators and helpers employed 

pressing effect on their activity. The ac- every 160%356 tons produC ed, one life 212; loaders employed, 447; pick miners 

companying table shows in detail the was lost and for eacn 38^547 tons pro . employed( , 947 . inside daymen, 755' 

results of the year's activity in coal mm- duced tnere was a serious acc ident. In outside daymen, 756; making the tota; 

ing: 1909-10, there was a life lost for every number employed in and about mines, 

190,066 tons produced and a serious ac- 41^ an d their average tonnage a day. 

. . . TT . 1 • 101 a cident occurred for each 52,990 tons of per man employed, 3.3. In 1909, there 

Coal Mining in Utah in IvlU rnnl mined C1 QOO ,. .'. .. . \ ..„ 

=> coai minea. were 51,822 lb. of dynamite and 1,447,- 
Continuing, the report stated that the 270 lb. of black blasting powder used, and 

By I E Pettit* last tw0 years were fairly free from labor in 1910 ' 53 < 359 lb - of dynamite and 1,954,- 

troubles and disputes, although there 537 i Dg f powder. 

were some local differences in Lewistown, 

The statistics relating to the Utah coal Roundup and Gear Creek, but no general P 1 ' T 

industry in 1910, are approximately as strike or suspension. V^oal in 1 ennessee 

follows: Coal production for 1910, 

1 „,™., , Operators Granted Wage Advance Ry R A Shift ftt* 

2.526.093 short tons, or an increase over DY K - A - shii-leit 

1909 of 204.384 tons; coke, 1910, 146,- After referring to the meeting of the 

064 tons; decrease since 1909, 34,065 Coal Operators' association and the Coal mining in Tennessee in 1910 was 

tons; explosives used, 672,605 lb.; men United Mine Workers in Billings in f ar f rom satisfactory. The development 

employed, 3422, or an increase over 1909 September last, wherein a working agree- f tne Southwestern Virginia field, its 

of 439; average days worked, 284; av- ment embracing a substantial wage ad- thick seams of coal and large production 

erage amount of coal produced per man, vance and a semi-monthly payday sys- have materially effected the coal industry 

738 tons; hydrocarbons (Gilsonite), 27,- tern for the ensuing two years was agreed j n Tennessee. We are paying 50c. for 

547 tons,or increase of 6640 tons. upon, the report said that in anticipation mining coal all over Tennessee, as the 

of a suspension, there was a consider- minimum, though in some mines we are 
Accidents able storage of coal, and as a conse- paying $1 per ton for mining, all on a 
The accidents in connection with Utah ^nce work has not been so brisk since, run-of-mine basis. The average price in 
coal mines were: Fatal, 15; serious, 22; a,th ° Ugh b " SinesS on the who l? 1S / airly the Southwestern Virginia field for min- 
nonserious. 32. Three fatal and four f 00 * at the pre f ent t ' me - The , fuUire '^ is 21 '-> c - ^ ton. This enables the 
serious occurred outside of mines; re- !°°* S more Promising for the coal mines mines of southwestern Virginia to corn- 
suit, four widows and 13 fatherless in Mont a n a w >th the building of the two pete in the markets that the Tennessee 
children: Cause of fatal accidents: Run new trunk hnes-the Milwaukee, and the mines should have by right and have had 
over by cars 5- falls of rock 4- falls Billin R s & Northern; the rapid increase for years. The advantage in freight rate 
of coal. 4; failing on pump gears, 1; pre- in P P ul ^ion and the general develop- is offset by the reduction in the cost of 

... , . _ . ment of the State. New mines are being mining. 

mature blast, 1; total. 15; amount of , .. , , . , TI , , . . . „ 

opened, older ones remodeled and ap- However, the coal business in Tennes- 

lost. 168.406 proved machinery installed. In 1909, see picked up considerably in the last two 

for each man injured. 36.610 tons. there were 3862 men employe d in the months of 1910 and domestic coal sold 

During the months of August and Sep- coa i m j nes of the State w!tn a production for from S3.50 to $4 per ton in the yards. 

tembei a shortage of car-; was exper- f 2.541.679 tons and in 1910, 4117 men Steam coal sold on an average of SI. 10 

ienced. but on the whole we have had a with a yield of 2,970.246 tons. This is in open markets. For domestic coal, the 

succc - with but few comnlainis a gradual annual increase from 1251 men price at the mines varies from $2 to $2.50 

and no labor troubles, some of the coal- and 517,477 tons in 1890 per ton. 

mining companies givine the miners a 5 The production by counties in 1910, The car shortage became very notice- 

•icc in w.-i: was as follows: Custer. 3350; Valley, able during the last two months of 1910. 

W18; Chouteau, 22,086; Gallatin, 29,- We were fortunate in not having any m 

•CI mine Inspector, Helena, Mont. •Chlof mini- ins 'tor, Nashville. Tenn. 

January 7, 191 1. 



frsions in the mines and my depart- 
ent is doing everything possible to re- 
ce these troubles to a minimum. 

oal and Coke Production in 
the United States 

The following tables have been corn- 
ed largely from data communicated by 
; several State mine inspectors, esti- 
ites having been made only where no 
ch statistics were available, but in all 
ses upon the basis of good information: 






'alifornia and 












i'\\ Mexico . . 
orth Dakota 


klahoma . . . 


ennsylvania . 
ennessee .... 




Short Tons. 

irgmia ... 
Washington. . 

r yoming. . . . 
laska and 
Nevada. . . 

Dtal bitumin- 



6W Mexico . . . 
•nnsylvania.. . 

stal anthracite 

rand total. . . . 




(a) 49,163,710 





4,52 1,112 


















Short Tons. 






































) For the fiscal year ending June 30. 











23,098, is 3 








6? 000 

fda and North 











' -iia 


30 000 



146 06 t 



r stales (b) . . . 


40 000 






'achn«l'HrAr OU,T ?" t ^ of „ r - ,v - T,rnd " ct rokp for 
i ( Jn « ' Ma . ryland - Minnesota, New York, 
igan, Wisconsin. 

North Dakota Lignite Coals 

By J. W. Bliss* 

During 1910 the coal industry of North 
Dakota made a steady growth. The coal 
production for 1909 was 372,570 tons, 
while for 1910 it was nearly 390,000. 
New mines were developed and some of 
the old mines added new and more ef- 
ficient machinery. More than 100 mines 
were in operation, besides which there 
were numbers of small coal banks where 
those living adjacent mined coal for their 
personal use. About 1000 men were em- 
ployed during the busy season, and 400 
during the idle months. There was one 
death caused by a fall of roof and two 
serious injuries due to a delayed shot. 

Most of the mines are developed on a 
double-entry system and in a few instan- 
ces the stub-entry system is used. In 
one case a sort of longwall retreat was 
attempted but proved unsatisfactory. 
The rooms are driven from 12 to 24 ft. 
wide and the pillars vary from 8 to 16 ft., 
depending on the character of the floor 
and of the overburden. 

Where a sufficient amount of coal is 
left for a roof, after the room has been 
worked out, it is shot down and is the 
cheapest coal produced. In case of the 
recovery of the roof coal no attempt is 
made to rob the pillars. 

There are some North Dakota mines 
working in 3-ft. beds of coal, but due to 
the high prices that timbering materials 
command, unless the roof clay is firm 
it is not practical to undermine in 
beds that are not thick enough to 
leave a coal roof. There are several 
coal beds from 12 to 19 ft. thick in 
which a small amount of timbering is 
sufficient and most of the timbers can be 
drawn and used again. 

The future economic use of lignite will 
tc a great extent depend on improved 
processes of briquetting and on the fur- 
ther development of the producer-gas 
engine. Tests in the government testing 
stations have clearly demonstrated its 
high efficiency when briquetted and when 
used in the production of gas. The State 
legislature of 1909 made an appropria- 
tion for the purpose of establishing an 
experiment station at Hebron, which is 
now in working order. 

Coal and Coke in British 
Columbia in 1910 

The comparatively large net increase 
in coal production in British Columbia in 
1910 was the result of a general en- 
largement of operations at the 10 col- 
lieries that have passed the preliminaty 
stages of production. This is evident 
from the following approximate figures: 

♦Assistant State engineer, Bismarck, X. D. 

Vancouver Island collieries (5) in 1910 
produced 1,600.000 tons; in 1909, 1,373,- 
000 tons; Nicola Valley colliery, in 1910, 
141,000 tons; in 1909, 62,000 tons; 
Crow's Nest Pass collieries (4), in 1910, 
1,026,000 tons; in 1909, 558,000 tons. 
One new colliery, in Similkameen district, 
commenced producing and added to the 
total. There was, however, less coal 
made into coke, which accounts in small 
part for the increase in coal sold as such. 
The gross production of coal during 1910 
was 3,119,000 long tons, as compared 
with 2,400,000 tons in 1909. 

The opening of several new fields, or 
extensions of fields already producing, 
ic in progress. These are, respectively, 
the upper Elk river and the Flathead 
fields, about Princeton and Granite 
creek, in the Similkameen; in Nicola val- 
ley; in the Skeena district on Graham 
island, of the Queen Charlotte group, on 
Vancouver island, and prospecting for 
coal is being carried on along the new 
route of the Canadian Northern railway, 
and in northern Cariboo. 

The Holman Drill 

The following communication has been 
received from Henry Hellman, manager of 
Holman Brothers of New York, who are 
introducing the Holman Drill in America: 
"May I supplement a statement in the 
Journal of Dec. 31, 1910? The Holman 
drill was not tied for the first place in 
the recent Transvaal stope-drill competi- 
tion. In the announcements made by the 
Chamber of Mines, the contest was 
started to be decided on the basis of econ- 
omy. The true economic unit in machine 
drilling is the cost per foot, including 
all factors, such as air, interest and de- 
preciation on power plant, pipe lines, re- 
pairs, stores, drill steels, etc. The final 
figures showed the Holman 2^-in. drill 
to have a cost of 9.77d. per ft. Its near- 
est competitor registered a footage cost 
in excess of this figure as will be found 
by reference to the statement issued by 
Max Francke, who officially represented 
the Chamber of Mines. For certain rea- 
sons, best known to the committee of the 
Chamber of Mines, it was decided to 
lump the first and second prizes and 
divide them equally between the drills 
winning the first and second places. Hol- 
man Brothers accepted, without protest. 
the $12,000 prize; whereas, in accordance 
with the conditions surrounding the com- 
petition, they were actually entitled to 
the prize of $19,000, winning the first 
place. These statements are matters of 
record and will be found in the official 
announcements of the Transvaal Chamber 
of Mines, relating to the contest. 

"It will be of interest to you to know 
that the English drill securing second 
place was 20 per cent, larger than the 
Holman drill, which won first place." 



January 7, 191] 


The Minin<5 Index 

This index is a convenient reference to the 
current literature of mining and metallurgy 
published in all of the important periodicals 
of the world. We will furnish a copy of any 
article i if in print), in the original language, 
for the price quoted. Where no price is 
quoted, the cost is unknown. Inasmuch as 
the papers must he ordered from the pub- 
lishers, there will be some delay for foreign 
papers. Remittance must be sent with order. 
Coupons are furnished ai the following prices : 
20c. each, six for si. :;:; for $5, and 100 for 
S15. When remittances are made in even 
dollars, we will return the excess over an 
order in coupons, if so requested. 


Large Concrete Coal Breaker and Washery 
Building. (Eng Rec., Dec. 3, 1910; 2% 
pp., Illus.) 20c. 

14. 074 BRIQUETTING -Verbesserung der 
Kohlen- und Pecherw&rmung und -Miscnung 
in Brikettfabriken. (Bergbau, Oct. 27, 1910; 
I'., pp. i 20c 

14. "7.-, CALORIMETER — Experiments on 
a Bomb Calorimeter. E. A. Alfcut. (Engin- 
eering, Dec. 2, 1910; 1 : _> pp., illus.) 40c. 

14,076 — CANADA— The Production of Coal 
and Coke in Canada during 1909. J. Me- 
1-eish. (Canada Dept. of Mines, 1909; 32 

14.H77 — CHINA Native Coal and Iron 
Working in the Province of Shansi, China. 
(Engineering, Dec. 2, 1910; 1 p.) 40c. 

14,078— COAL CUTTING— The Tse of 
('( al-Cutting Machinery. R. II. Rowland. 
(Eng. and 'Min. Journ., Nov. 26, 1910; 3 
pp., illus.i 20c. 

14,079 — COKE — Coal Tar and Fractional 
Distillation. R. W. Hilgenstock. (Progres- 
Age, Dec. 1, 1910; l p., illus. i 20c. 

1 i,080 — COKE Retort Coke Ovens in Mex- 
B. B. Wilson. (Mines and Minerals, 
Dec, 1910 : 4 pp., illus.i 40c. 

14,081— COKE— The Semet-Solvay By-Pro- 

oke Oven. W. W. Davis. (Iron Tr. 

Rev., Dec. 22, 1910; 8 pp., illus.i Abstract 

of paper before Engrs.' Soc. of I'enn., Oct., 

1910. 20c 

14,082 — COKE 1'elier die neuere Entwick- 

lung der Kokerei nacb Bauart der Oefen und 

Ausbildung des mechanlschen Betriebes. F. 

(Stahl a. Eisen, Aug. 31, Sept. 14. 

21; and Oct 19; 46% pp., illus.i $1.40. 

14. "V, — COKE — Teller Koksofensteinzoi- 
Btornngen und deren Drsachen. T. Schreiber. 
i stahl a. Eisen, Oct. 26, 1910; 4'.. pp., 
illus. 40c. 

14.o^i DUST Some French Experiments 
: Dust. II. I'.iiggs. (Eng. and Min. 
Journ.. Dec 24, 1910; 4 :; , pp.) 20c 

14. 085 1M ST The British Coal-Dusl Ex- 
periments. Editorial. (Engineering, Dec. 9, 

Tin; 2 pp.) 40C 

H.os.; -DUST The Explosibility of Coal 
Dust I Engineer, Dec 9 and 16, 1910 ; 4 '._> 

pp.. illus. i 60< . 

trie System for Direct-Current Colliery 
W. B Shaw. (Electrician, Dec. '•', 
1910; -J : ■■ pp. i 40c. 

i I ovv -EXPLOSION The Starkville, Colo., 
Explosion, i Mine- and Minerals, Dec, 1910; 

;... Illus.) 40c 

i ) "v, FIREDAMP Methods of Detect- 
ing l"ii' damp in Mines. II ii. Cunynghame. 
(Iron arid Coal Tr. Rev., Nov. 26, 1910; - ;■ 
of paper before Royal Soc of 
23, 1910. in.' 
14,090 FIRST Ail- in Colliery District. 
T. I.. Llewellyn. (Coll. Guardian, Dec. 2, 
1910 : -J pp . Illus. i in,- 

1 t 091 GREAT BRITAIN Coal Mining 
i Britain I Eng and Min. 
1910; 1 p. i 20c 
HOURS «H" LABOR Handicaps of 
I I Eng. and Min Journ., 

pp i Review - results of the 
Hour A'-i in Greal Britain, 20c. 
;■'■ Hydraullque. I. Ci 
< Hull - Soc. M rind. Mineral" Nov., 1910: HI 
PP., i 

I LIGNI1 1: A Method for Increas- 
ing Ho- Calorific Washington Mg- 
i "ii < Mel and Cbem. Eng., 
' pp , |0c 
ii'.'.-, LIGNITE North Dakota Lignite 
■ Fuel for Power-Plan! Boilers. i» T. 
I II (Bull. 2, Bureau 
1910 : Bfl pp . Ill 
14,006 LIGNITE Th< ' 

A Classified Biblio- 
graphy of the Current 
Literature of Mining 
and Metallurgy 

Steam Coa'.. J. Nicolaus. (West. Chem. and 
Met, Nov.. 1910; 3 pp.) 80c. 

14,097— REPAIR WORK in Colliery Prac- 
tice. J. A. Sealer. ( Eng. and Min. Journ., 
I>ec. 10, 1910; 2 pp., illus.i line. 

14.098— SAMPLING— The Tse of Specific 
Gravity Tests in the Sampling of Coal. J. W. 
Root. (West. Chem. and Met.. Nov., 1910; 
2 pp.) 80c. 

14,099— SHAFT SINKING— Extension of a 
Colliery Working Shaft without Stopping Min- 
ing Operations. M. S. Ilachita. (Eng. and 
Min. Journ., Dec. 10, 1910; 2 pp., illus.) 20c 

14.1U0 SULPHUR IN FUEL — Ueber den 
Schwefel in den Brennstoffen. R. Schiifer. 
(Preuss. Zeit. f. B., II. u. S., Vol. 58, Pari 
4. 14% ]»•> (1) State in which sulphur is 
found in raw fuel. (2) Sulphur in coke and 
its by-products. (3) Removal of sulphur 
from fuel. 

14,101— WASHING — I>io Kohlenwasche auf 
der Schachtanlage Bergmannsgliick der Kgl. 
Berginspektion 3 in Buer i. W. M. Hirsch. 
(Gliickauf, Oct. 20. 1910; 4 1 , pp., illus.i 40c 

14,102— WASHING— The Principles and 
Practice of Coal Washing. H. Louis. (Iron 
and Coal Tr. Rev., Dec. 2, 1910; 1% pp.) 

14,103— WESTPHALIA— Das Faltungsprob- 

lem des westfalischen Steinkohlengebirges. 
(Gliickauf, Oct. 22, 1910; 2 pp.) 40c. 


14.1(14— AFRICA— The Copper Fields of 
tin Southern Congo. <Min. Wld., Dec. 17. 
1910; 3 pp.) 20c. 

14,105 — ALASKA — Chitina Valley Copper 
Deposits. E. Jacobs. (Mines and Minerals, 
Dec, 1910; 3 ' , pp., illus.i iOc 

14,106 — ARIZONA — Annual Report of 
Shannon Copper Company. (Eng. and Min. 
Journ., Dec. 3, 1910; 1 p., illus.i 20c. 

14.107 —ARIZONA — The Clifton-Morenci 
District of Arizona — I. W. D. Tovote. (Min. 
and Sci. Press, Dee. 10, 1910; 3 pp., illus.i 

culations of a Copper Blast Furnace Charge. 
J. A. Barr. (Min. and Sci. Press. Nov. I'd, 
1910; 1 K, ,i,,.i 20c 

14.109 — BULLION — Moisture in Copper 
Bullion. D. M. Liddell. (Eng. and Min. 
Journ., Dee. 3. 1910; i p.) 20c. 

14.110 CONVERTER — Evolution of the 
American Copper Converter, ('has. c. Chris- 
tensen. (Min. Wld., Dec ::. 1910; 2 1 -. pp., 

illus.i 20c 

14.111 CONVERTING The Treatment of 
Overblown Charges in copper Converters. 
A. R. McKenzle. (Eng. and Min. Journ., Dec. 

10, 191(1 ; % p. i 20C 

11.112 Idaho NoteB on Geologv of Snow 

Storm Mine, Idaho. G. Huston. (Eng. and 
Min. .Ion rn., Dec. 3, 1910; 1 p. i 20c 

11. it: LEACHING Applied to Copper Ore. 
W. I,. Austin. (Mines and Methods, Nov., 

1910; •''. pp.) Third article reviewing results 

accomplished, with particular reference to the 
use oi ferric chloride. 20c 

Il.lll LEACHING The Greenawalt Elec- 
trolytic Rn. ess. Wm. E. Greenawalt. (Eng. 
and Min. .lourn., Nov. 26, 1910; 4 pp., illus.i 

14,115 Mil. 1. INC 
t'lah Copper Mill. C 
Min. .lourn.. Dec 24, 

Revised Flow Sheet of 

T, Rice. ( Eng. and 

1910; 1-', pp.. illus.) 

of W 

Berg- und Htlttenwesen in den Kupferbezlrken 
am Oberen See and bel Bingham (Norda- 
meriks) Ebellng. (Preuss. Zell i\ I'... n u s 
Vol. 58, Pari i. 2.x c, pp lllui I 

14.117 PROSPECTING Disseminated Cop- 

I DepOSltS. C. It. Keves. f|> 

Min Journ . Dec, 26, 1910: I ''■ pp I 20c 

14,118— I'YRITIC SMELTING in Leadvil 
C. II. Doolittle, and R. P. Jarvis. (Bi 
A. I. M. E., Dec, 1910; 14 pp.) 40c. 

14,119 — RFFINERY — An Australian El 
trolvlic Copper Refinery- R- F. Casey, , 
(Kng. and Min. Journ., Dec. 3, 1910; 3% p 
illus.) Describes works of the Electro! 
Refining and Smelting Company, of Austral 
at Tort Kenthla. 20c. 

14420 — SLAGS — Role of Alumina in C( 
per Blast-Furnace Slags. L. Garrett Smi 
(Eng. and Min. Journ., Dec. 24, 1910; 1 
pp.) 20c 

Buddie as a Concentrator of Copper Slim 
Claude T. Rice. (Eng. and Min. Journ., D 
3, 1910; 1-:; pp., illus.) 20c. 

14,122 — SMELTERY — The Internatioi 
Smeltery at Tooele, Utah. (Eng. and M 
Journ., Dec. 26, 1910; 2 pp., illus.) Abstri 
of paper before Utah Soc. of Engrs., by C. 
Repath and A. G. MacGregor. 20c. 

14,123 — SMELTING— A Small Modern O 
pei -Smelting Plant. C. C. Christensen. (M 
Wld., Nov. 26, 1910; 1 M> PP-) 20c. 

14.124 — STAIN — Secondary Enrichment 
the Copper Deposits of Huelva, Spain. A. 
Finlayson. (Bull. 75, I. M. M., Dec. 14, 191 
13 pp.) Discussion of paper previously 

— The Work of the Tennessee Copper Co 
pany. K. II. Morgan. (Min. and Sci. Pre 
Nov. 19, 1910; 2% pp.) 20c. 

14.120 — WESTPHALIA — Bemerkung 
iiber das Kupfererzvorkommen zu Sfadtbei 
in Westfalen. (Zeit. f. prakt. Geol., 0c 
1910; 4% pp., illus.) 40c. 


14.127 — AFRICA — Visiting the Gold Coa 
West Africa. F. F. Sharpless. (Min. a 
Sci. Press, Dec. 17, 1910; 3Vi PP-, illus.) -J. 

14. 12S— BRITISH COLTMBIA — Portia 
Canal Mining District. British Columb 
X. W. Emmens. (Min. Wld., Nov. 20. 191 
4 pp., illus.) Continuation of article p 
viously indexed. 20c. 

14,1 29 — BRITISH COLUMBIA — Portia 
Canal Mining Division. Wm. Fleet R. .lints. 
(Bull. 2, B. C. Bureau of Mines, 1910; 
pp., illus.) 

14.130— BRITISH COLUMBIA— The Stai 
ard Mine. Slocan District, British Columb 
E. Jacobs. (Can. Min. Journ., Dec. 15,191 
2 pp., illus.) 20c. 

14.131 —CALIFORNIA — Origin of G( 
"Pockets" in Northern California. O. 
Hershey. (Min. and Sci. Press, Dec. 3,191 
1% pp.) 20c. 

14.132 — CALIFORNIA — The Eagle-Sha 
mut Mini' and Mill. L. C. Uren. ( Paci 
Miner, Nov., 1910; 6V 2 pp., illus.) 20c. 

14,133 — COBALT — The Progress of Coba 
J. T. Mandy. (Min. Journ., Dec. 10 and 1 
1910 ; 5 pp., illus.) 60c. 

14.134- COLOMBIA— Alluvial Gold Dep( 
its and Mining in Colombia. 1'. A. All 
(Eng. and Min. Journ., Dec. 3, 1910; 1 
pp. I 20c. 

14.135— COLORADO— Mining in the Si 
Juan II. W. II. Storms. (Min. ami S 
Press. Dec. 3. 1910; 3% PP-. illus.) 20c 

14.130— CRUSHING — The Problem of Fi 
Grinding in Tube Mills. H. W. Hardin? 
(Eng. and Min. Journ., Nov. 20, 1910; 1 
pp., illus.) 20c. 

1 4. 1 37 — CRUS1 1 1 NG — Tube-Mill Tow 
II. E. West. (Eng. and Min. Journ., Dec. £ 
1910; 1.; p.) 20c 

14.138— CYAN I DING- Estimation of Pu 
from Its Specific Gravity. F. B. Ilvd. 
(PrOC Colo. Sci. Soc, Oct." 1, 1910; 7 V.. pp 

14.139 CYANIDING in the Philipphn 
C. M. Eye. (Far Eastern Rev., Oct., 191' 
2 pp., illus.) 40c. 

14.140 — CYANIDING —Reducing Mini 
Cosls and Increasing Profits at Cripple Cret 
P. Argall. (Eng. and Min. Journ., Dec. 2 
loin : l c, pp., lioc. 

14.111 CYANIDING — Some Observatto 
on ibc Treatment of Pvrltic Concentrates' 
Cyanidatlon. /.. P.. Hartley. (Pacific Mlm 
Nov., 1910; 'j p.) L'Oc. 

14,1 12 - CYANIDING— The Classlflcatl. 
of Tailing Pulp Prior to Cyanlding. E. 1 
Johnson (J. .urn. Chem., Met. and Mill. Soc. 
So. Africa. Oct., 1910; 0", pp., illus.) OOC 

11. 143 CYANIDING Was,) No. 2 Cyan! 
Mill. Black Hills, s. D. Jesse Simmoi 
(Min. Wld., Dec. 24, 1910; 2>/t PI'.. HI"" 





4,144 — DREDGING on the Seward Penin- 
i K. II. Helverson. (Pacific Miner, Nov., 
: IV* PP-. illus.) 20c. 
4 14.-, — DREDGING — Production of Ural 
ian Dredges for 1909. W. II. Shock- 
(Min. and Sci. Tress. Dec. 10, 1910; 2 : ' 4 
) 20c. 

4446 — HYDRAULIC MINING — Gravel 
vation in Siskiyou County. California. 
S. Halev. (Min. and Sci. Press. Nov. 20, 
0; 1% PP) 20c. 

4.T10NS at Cobalt. J. Tyssowski. (Eng. 
i Min. Journ., Dec. 24. 1910; 5% pp., 

4,14s — MEXICO — Minas Pedrazzini Oper- 

ear Arizpe, Sonora. E. L. Dufourcq. 

ig. and Min. Journ., Dec. 3, 1910; 2 pp.) 

4,140 — MEXICO — The Antigua Mines of 
il de Sivirijoa. Sinaloa. E. A. II. lays. 
ag. and Min. Journ.. Dec. 10, 1910; 1 -:• 
. illus. I - 

4 150— MILLING PLANT of the Amal- 
aated Nevada. W. C. Higgins. (Salt Lake 
Not. 30, 1910; 2pp., illus.) 20c. 
14 151 — NEVADA — Recent Developments at 
Nevada. W. W. Eisk. i Eng. and 
i. Journ., Dec. 24. 1910; :i 4 P- 1 20c. 
4,152 — NEVADA — Report of Montana- 
lopah Mining Company, i Eng. and Min. 
irn.. Dec. 10, 1910; 1 p.) 20c. 
4,153 — NICARAGUA — Mining in Nicar- 
ie. T. L. Carter. (Bull. A. I. M. E.. Dec, 

. PP) 
4,154— NICARAGUA — The Gold Mining 
lustrv in Nicaragua. T. L. Carter. (Eng. 
1 Min. Journ., Dec. 17. 1910; 2 r - 4 PP-. 

4.155— PLACER GOLD— Origin of the 
cer Gold of Guiana. Lee Eraser. i Min. 
I Sci. Press. Nov. 26, 1910; 2 pp.) 20c. 
4,156 — PLACER GROUND — Calculating 
ue in Placer Ground. O. II. Packer. < Min. 
Press, Dec. 17. 1910: 1% pp.. illus.) 

4,157— PLACER MINING— Nome Placer 
line. T. M. Gibson. (Min. and Sci. Press, 
■. 17. 1910 : 1% pp. i 20c. 
4.i:^ PLACER MINING — Riffles for a 
lrock Sluice. D. H. Stovall. (Min. Wld., 

1910; H P-, illus. i 20c. 
4,159 — QUEENSLAND — Notes on the 
unt Morgan Ore Deposits, (jueensland. 
B. Wilson. (Bull. 7.".. I. M. M.. gee. 14. 
- - 2 PP-» Discussion of paper previously 

4,160 — SAND FILLING on the Witwaters- 

d. E. Pam. i.Touin. Cnem.. Met. and 

of So. Africa : Oct.. 101O : 5 pp., 

liscussion of paper previously in- 


4,161 SIBERIA — Kolchan Placer of the 

'lfields. Ltd. Reports by Purington 

I Ilutchins. (Ens. and Min. Journ., Dec. 

1910: 1% pp.) - 
14,162 — SOUTH DAKOTA — The Black Hills 
South Dakota — VI. Wm. H. Storms. (Min. 
Press. Not. 19, 1910: 3 pp., illus.) 


4.10?,— ALLOYS — Some Alloys for Per- 
oent Magnets. C F. Burgess and James 
on. (Met. and Chem. Eng., Dec. 1910; 

pp. i 40c. 
4.164 — BLAST FURNACE — Hoehofen 
lart Burger?. (Stahl u. Eisen. Oct. 10. 

- pp., illus. i 40c. 
>er die Ursacben der Brennstoffersparniss 
I der Mehrerzeugung beim Hochofen- 
•ieb durch die Verwendung erhitizten und 
rockneten Windes. F. Wiist. (Stahl u. 
en, Oct. 5, 1910; 6% pp.. illus.) On the 
. the saving in fuel and the increased 
duction of blast furnaces through the ap- 
arion of heated and dried air. Abstract 
a paper read at the Dtisseldorf Interna- 
lal Con^r. ss. 1010. 40c. 

4.1(50— c ANA D A— The Production of Iron 

Steel in Canada during 1009. J. Mc- 

*h. (Canada Dept. of Mines. 1910 : 32 

cede de Determination rapide du Carbone 
al dans les Fers. les Aciers et Certains 
ro-Alliages. H. DeNolly. (Bull. Snc. de 
d. Minerale. Nov.. 1010: 7% pp.. illus.) 

4,168— CAST iron — Mikrographische 

ersuchungen Ton Gusseisen im graph- 
enen Zustande. O. Krohnke. (Meta- 
ne. Nov. 8. i9in : 5 pp., 2 pi.) 40c. 

4.169— CAST IRON— Wie erkliirt sich der 
nuss der Snanehriketts auf das Gusseisen? 
Leb^r. (Stahl u. Eisen. Oct. 12 1910- 
pp. ( 40c. 

^V 1 /V r ^ :MT ^ TRY OF IRON— Die Fort- 
ntte der Eisenhuttenchemie in den letzten 

fiinf Jahren. *). Simmerbach. (Chem. Ztg., 
Nos. 138 to 14G, L910; 14 pp.) 

14.171 -CORROSION — Electrolysis as a 
Means of Preventing the Corrosion of Iron 
and Steel. G. Darker and J. McNamara. 
(Journ. Soc of Chem. Ind.. Nov. 30, 1910; 
2 ; 4 PP-) 

14.172— CORROSION — Notes on the Cor- 
rosiOD of Iron and Steel and Its Prevention. 
G. W. Thompson. (Chem. Engr., Dec. 1904; 
4'.. pp.) Paper before Am. Inst, of Chem. 
Engrs. 40c 

14,173— ELECTRIC FURNACE— Der Blek- 

trische Ofen in der Eisen- and Stahlin- 
dustrie. V. Enjjelhardt (Zeit. d. Vereines 

deutscher Ing.. Nov. 10. 1910; 8% pp., illus.) 
14.174 — FOUNDRY— Typical Modern Foun- 
dry Layouts — I and II. (Iron Tr. Rev.. Nov. 
24" and Dec. 1, 1910; pp., illus. i 40c. 

14.17.'.- HEMATITES of Alabama. The. J. 
S. Frasty. iMfrs.' Re,.. Dec l. 1919; ■'! 
pp.. illus. i 20c 

14,176 — MANGANESE STEEL. E. E. John- 
son. (Journ. Assn. of Eng. Soc, Nov., 1010; 
8% PP) -40c 

14.177 — MANGANESE STEEL. J. F. 
Springer. (Cassier's Mag., Dec, 1910; 18 
pp., illus. i 40c. 

14.178 — MINNESOTA — Iron Mining in 
Minnesota. E. K. Soper. (Min. and Sci. 
Press. Dec. 10, 1910; 2 :l 4 pp., illus.) 20c. 

14,179 — MOLDING — Gegenwartiger Stand 
der FormmaBchlnenarbeit and des Form- 
maschinenbaues. C. Irresberger. < Stahl u. 
Eisen, Oct. 12. 1910; 16 pp., Illus.) Paper 
before thirteenth convention of German foun- 
dry men. 40c. 

gegenwiirtige Stand des Ilerdfrischverfahrens. 
IL Groeck. (Zeir. des Vereines deutscher 
Ing.. Nov. 12. 1910; 7% pp., illus.) 

European Iron-Ore Carrying Steamer. (Iron 
Tr. Rev.. Nov. 24, 1910; 3% PP- illus.) 20c 

14.1 si' — SLAG — Beitriige zur Konstitution 
der Thomasschlacke. H. Blome. ( Metal- 
lurgie. Not. 8 and Nov. 22. 1010: 15 pp., 1 
pl.i 40c. 

14.183 — STEEL WORKS — Die Riesenwerke 
der Indiana Steel Company, in Gary. (Stahl 
U. Eisen. Oct. 19, 1910: 4% pp.. illus. i Con- 
tinuation of a paper published in Stahl u. 
Eisen, Feb. 17. 1000. 40. 

14.1 s4 — TROOSTITE — The Constitution of 
Troostite and the Tempering of Steel. A. 
MeCanee. (Instn. of Mech. Engrs., Dec 16, 
1910; 17 pp.. illus., 3 pi. I 

14.18.-,— WASHING ORE— Georgia Brown 
Iron-Ore Washeries. E. F. McCrossin. (Mines 
and Minerals. Dec, 1010: 1% pp.. illus.) 40c 


14.1 SR — CALCIUM — Efficiency in the Elec- 
trolytic Production of Metallic Calcium. F. C. 
Frarv. H. R. Bicknell and C. A. Tronson. 
(Journ. Ind. and Eng. Chem.. Dec, 1910; 
2% pp.) 60c 

14.187 — CHROMIUM — The Distribution and 
Utilization of Chromium Ores. (Bull. Im- 
perial Inst.. Vol. VIII, No. 3, 1010; 8 pp.) 

Note on a Recent Method for Separating 
Tantalum and Columbium : IL W. Foote and 
R. W. Langlev. i Am. Journ. of Sci., Dec, 
1910: 2 pp. i 40c 

On an Indirect Method for Determining Co- 
lumbium and Tantalum. II. W. Foote and 
R. W. Langlev. (Am. Journ. of Sci.. Dec, 
1910: 7% pp.) 40c. 

14.100 — LEAD — New Lead Smeltery for 
Webb CitT. Mo. Otto Ruhl. (Min. Wld., Dec 
3, 1910; 21,4 PP-, illus.) 20c 

14.101— LEAD— The Smelting of Lead-An- 
timony Ores. A. W. Ilahn. (Met. and Chem. 
Eng., Dec. 1910; % p.) 40c 

14.102— LEAD POISONING and Sublimed 
White Lead. J. I. Blair. (Eng. and Min. 
Journ., Not. 26. 1010: % p.) 20c 

14.103 — MANGANESE — Manganerz gewin- 
nung in Brasilien. (Oest. Zeit. f. B. u. H., 
Oct 8, 1910; 1% PP) 

14.194— QUICKSILVER— The Cinnabar De- 
posits of Terlinsnia. Texas. W. D. Hornaday. 
(Min. Wld.. Dec. 17. 1010: 3 pp.. illus.) 20c 

14.105 — TIN in Northern Nigeria. (Min. 
Journ.. Nov. 10. 1010; 2 pp.. illus.) 40c 

14.106 — TTN in Texas. C. A. Dinsmore. 
(El Paso Min. Journ.. Dec. 1910: 1% pp., 
illus. i 20c 

14.107 — TIN — Notes on the Occurrence and 
Concentration of Tin Ores. C. F. Thomas. 
(Journ. Chem.. Met. and Min. Soc. of So. 
Africa: Oct.. 1010: 4% pp.) 60c. 

14.108 — TIN DREDGING at Oreenbushes. 
Western Australia. (Min. Journ.. Not. 26, 
1910: 1 p.) 40c 

14.199 — TIM MINING and Milling in the 
Bolivian Andes, (ice,. \v. Dean. (Eng. and 
Min. Journ., Nov. 26, 1910; 1 "•, pp.. illus.) 

14.200— TIN MINING in the American. 
(Pull. Pan-American Union, Dec., 1910; 11 
pp., illus.) 40c. 

14.201 — TITANIUM — Studien iiber die 
Analyse titanhaltiger Edrper. K. Borne- 
mann and II. Schirmeister. (Metallurgie, 
Nov. 22, 1910 : 5% pp.) 40a 

14,202 — VANADIUM Notes on the Chem- 
istry and Metallurgy of Vanadium. \\ . F. 
Bleecker. (Met. and Chem. Eng., Dec., 1910; 
5 pp.) 40c 

14,203 — ZINC — The Chemical Anal-, 
speller. A. M. Falrlie. (Metal Ind.. Dee. 
loio : % p. i Conclusion of article previously 
indexed. 20c. 

14.2d4 ZINC Leber den Einnuss von 
Wasserdampf, bezw. Eohlenwasserstoffen auf 
die Rostung der Zinklilende. F. Thomas. 
(Metallurgie, Oct 22. 1909.) Continuation of 
article previously indexed. 40c. 

14.205 — ZINC — Versuche iiber Gewinnung 
von Zink im nussigen Zustande direkt aus 
Blende. F. Thomas. (Metallurgie, Nov. 22, 
1910; 5 pi>., 1 pi.) 40c. 

14.206- ZINC LIST. p. Speier. (Mia. 
Journ., Nov. 26, 1910; 1% pp.) 40c. 

14.2(i7— ZINC MINES of the Ilualapai Dis- 
trict. Arizona. N. P. Gregory. (Min. Wld., 
Dec. 24, 1910 : 1 % pp. 1 20c. 

14,208— ZINC-ORE DRESSING in Colo- 
rado — III. II. 0. Parmelee. (Met. and Chem. 
Eng., Dec. 1910; 2% pp.. illus.) 40c 


14.200— BORATES— The Origin and Com- 
mercial \ alue of Borates. Gordon Surr 
(Miu. Wld.. Lee 17. 1910; 2 pp.) Joe. 

14.210- P.ORAX INDUSTRY, Tie-. F. M. 
Dupont. (Journ. Ind. and Eng. (hem., Dec, 
1910; 3% pp.. illus.) 60c. 

14.211— CEMENT— The Machinery of the 
American Cement Mill. (Cement Age, Dec, 
1910; 15% p.. illus. 1 Descriptions of various 
types of grinding, pulverizing, diving, con- 
veying machinery, etc. 20c. 

14.212— CEMENT— The New Crescent Tort- 
land Cement Miil. at Crescentdale, Penn 
(Eng. Rec, Dec. 3. 1910; 2'. ; pp., illus.) 20c. 

14,213— GRAPHITE and Its Manufacture. 
J. J. Jenkins. (Power, Dec. 6. 1910; 2 1 , 
pp., illus. 1 20c. 

14.214 — GYPSUM as a Fi reproofing Mater- 
ial. (Eng. Rec, Dec 3, 1910; 1 p. 1 20c 

14.215— RUBY. The. M. R. Ward. (Mines 
and Minerals. Dec. 1910; 1 '•, pp., illus.) 
Composition, color and characteristics of 
rubies, methods of mining and manufacture 
of artificial rubies. 20c 


14.210 — AMERICAS — Petroleum in the 
Americas. R. IL Millward. (Bull. Pan- 
American Union. Nov.. 1910 ; 22 pp.. illus.) 

14.217- JAPAN — The Xishivama Oilfield of 
Japan. (Petrol. Rev., Dec. 17, 1910; 2 pp.) 


Petroleum. F. I. Wilbur. (Min. Wld., Dec. 
3. 1910; 2 pp. 1 20c 

14.210— PARAFFIN WAX. Its Separation 
and Refining. A. Gniselin. (Petrol. Rew, 
Dec. 3. 1010: 2% pp. 1 40c. 


Coefficients de Dilatation des Petroles bruts 

de Roumanie et de leurs Derives. T. I'etroni. 

(ReTue Generate, Nov. 8. 1910; 4% pp. 1 40c. 

14.221 — RUSSIA — The Taman Peninsula 

Oilfields. Northern Caucasus. E. Dellautpick. 
(Min. Journ.. Dec. 17. 1910; 1 p. 1 40c 

14.222 — SCOTLAND — Description of the 
Broxburn Oil Company's Mines to the Dun- 
net Shale Seam. Wm. Clark. (Trans. Min. 
Inst, of Scotland. Vol. XXXIII, Part I. 1910; 
8 pp.. illus. 1 

14.223 — SCOTLAND — Description of the 
Broxburn Works of the Broxburn Oil Com- 
pany. Ltd. Wm. Love. (Trans. Min. Insr. of 
Scotland. Vol. XXXIII, Part I. 1910; 5 pp.) 

14.224— WELL DRILLING— -Oil-Weil Drill- 
ing in California. W. R. Jewell. (Min. and 
Sci. Press. Dec. 10. 1010: 2 pp.) 20c 


14.225 FAULTING— A Study in Faulting 
Exemplified at Rinsrham. C. A. Porter. (Mines 
and Methods. Nov.. 1010; 1 V, pp.. Illus.) 

14.226— GERMANY — Vorkommen and Ent- 
stehunsr der Kaolinerden des osthiirinsisehen 
Runtsansteinbcehens. F. Weiss. (Zeit. f. 
prakt. Geol.. Oct.. 1010: 14 pp.. illus.) 10c. 

14.227— MONTANA— Geolo-y and Ore De- 
posits of Clinton District. J. P. Rowe. i Min. 
Wld., Dec 10, 1910; 3 pp., illus. 1 20c 



January 7, 191 1. 

14,228 ORE DEPOSITS -Crushing of 

Rock* in Connection with Ore Deposits. A. 

Lakes. < Min. Sci.. Pec 22, 1910; l 1 - pp., 
ilhis. ■ 20c. 

14.22o SWITZERLAND — Der Erdschlipg 
bei Battel am Rossberg. L. Wehrli. (Zeit 
i. prakt. GeoL, Oct., 1910; 7 pp., Ulns.) 10c. 

in Limestone Regions. C. T. Rice. (Eng. and 
Min. Jonrn., Dec 10, 1910; -- pp.) 20c. 


14.-j::i ACCIDENTS Compensation for 
Industrial Accidents. D. Ross. [Min. and 
!'.. ss, Dec. 3, 1910 : 2- ; , pp.) 20c. 

14.232 ACCIDENTS Mine Accident Pre- 
vention. J. .1. Rutiedge. (Mines and Min- 
erals. Pec. 1910; _\ pp.) Paper before Ala 

- A&Sn. 2"C 

14.233 ACCIDENTS Safeguarding against 
A Idents. T. D. West. (Iron Tr. Rev., Nov. 
•_'4. 1910; :p, pp., lllus.) 20c. 

14,234 — AIR LIFT Some Purely Theor- 
etical Relations Connected with the Problem 
of the Air Lift. J. N. LeConte. (Pacific 
Miner. Nov., 1910; 2 pp.) 20c. 

14.2.::. ALASKA— Water-Power Possibil- 
ities in Southeastern Alaska. J. C. Hoyt. 
(Eng. News, Nov. •_•!. 1910; 2% pp., illus. i 

14.236 AMORTIZATION— De l'Allure dc 

I'Amortissement Industrlel. M. Bellom. 

chnique Modem.'. Nov.. 1910; 4 : '-, pp.) 

14. CHINA The Experiences of a 
Mining Man in Unknown China. P. W. 
Thomas. (Pacific Miner. Nov.. 1910; •'• _■ 
pp.. illns. i 20c. 

SION TABLES, l' Richards. (Power, Dec. 
6, 1910; 2 pp. i 20c. 

14.239 DAM A Cellular Reinforced Con- 
crete Pain. Geo -l. Bancroft. (Proc, Colo. 
Sri. Soc., Oct., 1910 : 16 pp., illns.) 

14. 24" DRAINAGE TUNNEL -The Crip- 
ple <"reik Drainage Tunnel, Colorado. A. W. 
Warwick. (Min. Wld., Nov. 20. 1910; 2' ; , 
pp.. illns. i 20c. 

14.241 DRILL BOLES— -Eine neue Yer- 
wendung des Bisenbetonbaus zum Auskleiden 
von BohrlSchern. M. Foerster. (Preuss. 
Zeit. f. B., II. u. s.. Vol. 58, Part 4. :: ' i pp., 
Illns. > 

14.242 DRIVING Fast Driving at the 
Coldtirld Consolidated Mines. C. T. Rice. 
(Eng. and Min. Journ., Pee. 24, 1910; 1 p.) 

14. 243 EXPLOSIVES Pie Sprengstoffe 
in der Bergm&nnischen Praxis. A. Rzhulka. 
JB u. II. Rundschau, Nov. 5 and 20, PHO; 

14.244 EXPLOSIVES Safe Transporta- 

B. W. Pnnn. (Eng. and 
Min. Journ., Dec. IT. 1910; % p.) 20c 

14.245 FIRE PROTECTION at the Plants 
of the Amalgamated Asbestos Corporation. 

Min. Journ., 1 »ec. 1, 1910 : i p i 20c. 
14 240 FRANCE Pie Eisen- mid Metall- 
hfittenindustrie Frankreichs im Jahre 1908. 
(Glflckauf, Oct. 22. 1910 : :: pp. I 10c. 

14.247 JAPAN Mineral Resources of the 

\ s Brown. ( Eng. Mag., 

1910 is .,1. . illns.. |lle. 

14.248 MEXICO General Conditions in 

i" Van Wagenen. (Min. Mag., 
1910; 7 pp., illns. i p., 

14.249 MEXICO South of the Rio Grande 
RIv< W. M. Brodie. 'Min. Wld.. 

10, 1910 : '■•■'■■ pp., lllus. i 20c. 

14.250 mini: SAMPLING and Mine Val- 
uation 3 - African Min Journ., 


14.251 MINI: SUPPLIES Bandltnc Mine 

l Min.- and Minerals, 

1910; "i. in,, illns. i Advantages and 

handllne. dlsburse- 

i.t before Coal Min. 

1910 10c 


P \ Cow. (Eng. 

snd 17, 1910; '_' "• pp., 



W. 1 and Methods, Nov. 

nnd relating 

flfered by prominent 

mlnlrr- 10 

MININi "''- Protect 


Min loom . 

Worth Hot- 

i ■ 1910; 

• dei 

g 1010; ' 


(So. Af- 
1-, pp.) 

1909. (Preuss. Zeit. f. P., n. u. S., Vol; 58, 
1 art i. 12 pp.) An exhaustive resume of the 
Prussia mining Industry in all its branches 
during 1909. Government publication. 

14.258 -RETAINING WALLS Recenl Re- 
talning-Wall Practice, City of Pittsburg, c. M. 
Reppert. (Proc. Knurs. Soc. W. Penn., Oct., 
1910; 50 pp., lllus.) 40c. 

14.259 RETAINING WALLS The Design 
of Retaining Walls. Ed. Godfrey. (Engin- 
eering-Contracting, Pec. 21, 1910; •'! pp., 
illns. i 20c. 

14.260 RUSSIA Bergbau and Iliitten- 
wesen Russlands im Jahre 1907. (Gliickauf, 
Oct. 29, 1910 : 6% pp.) 10c. 

14.261 SAND-FILLING : Some 
improvements, w. II. Bovendon. 
rican Min. Journ., Nov. 12, 1910; 

14.262 saxony— The Mineral Industry 
of Saxony in 1909. (Min. Journ.. Pec. 10, 
1910; 1' pp. i 40c. 

14,263— SBAFT SINKING— New Shaft- 
Sinking Record at Corhin. Montana. Frank 
.1. Tuck. (Min. and Sci. Press. Sept. 24, 
1910; :: , p.' 20c. 

14.264 SHAFT SINKING— Versuche nnd 
Studien iiber das Gefrierverfahren. w. wai- 
brecker. (Gliickauf, Oct. 22, 29, and Nov. 
6, 1910; 17', pp. i 

14,265— TUNNEL — Utah Metals Company 
Tunnel. Leroy A. Palmer. (Mines and Min- 
erals. Pec. 1910; 1'j pp., lllus.) 20c 

14.266— TUNNEL DRIVING Record in 
Northern Colorado, p. <;. Coy. i Min. Sci., 
Dec. 22. 1910; 4 pp., illus.) 20c. 

14,267- -WESTERN ALSTRALIA— Mining 
in Western Australia. A. Montgomery. (Min. 
Mag.. Pec. 1910; .""> pp., illns. i 40c. 


14,268 — CLASSIFICATION — The Pevelop- 
ment of Hindered Settling Apparatus. R. II. 

Richards. (West. Cheni. and Met., Nov., 
1910 : 26% pp., illns. i 80c. 

signing a Thousand-Ton Concentrating Plant. 
C. C. Christensen. (Min. and s.i. Press, Dec. 
17. 1910; 2'i i.]).. illns.i 20c. 

14.270 • CRUSHING — Grading Analyses 
and their Application. (Bull. 75, I. M. M., 
Pec 14, 1910; P.) pp.) Author's reply to dis- 

14.271— CRLSIIINO— Notes on Chilian 
Mills in Russia. II. c. Bayldon. (Pull. 7.".. 
I. M. M., Dec. 14. 1010; 21 pp.. illus.) 

14.272 CRUSHING — Progress in Ore 
Crushing. G. A. Robertson. (So. African Min. 
Journ., Nov. 10. 1010; H', pp.) 40c. 

14.27:: DISTRIBUTER- The Kidney Pulp 
Distributer. C. T. Rice. (Ens. and Min. 
Journ.. Nov. 20. 1010: 1 p.. illus.) 20c. 

—Application of Electrostatic Separation to 
Ore Dressing. F. S. MacGregor. (Journ. Ind. 
an. I Eng. Chem., Dec, 1910; 1 pp., illus.) 
Paper before Am. Electrochem. Soc, Oct., 
1910. 80c. 

14.275 GRAPHIC METHODS for Concen- 
tration, w. J. Sharwood. (Min. Mag., Dec, 
10PL 1', pp., illus. i 60c. 

1 1.270 SEPARATOR Sand and Slime 
Separation at the Arianena Mill. E. F. Ay- 
ton. (Pacific Miner. Nov., 1010; 1':. pp., 
HlUS.) 20c. 


14,277— ALLOYS— On Magnetic Alloys 
Formed from Nonmagnetic Materials. Ale'x- 
ander P. Koss. (Metal Ind., Oct., 1910; i 
pp.. illus. i Paper before Institute of Metals. 

Some Calculations Pertaining to the Reac- 
tions Occurring in a Blast Furnace. W. P. 
Brown. (Met. and Chem. Eng., Pec, 1010; 

pp i 10c. 
11.270 BRASS FOUNDRY Fluxes as Ap- 
plied io the Brass Foundry. Erwin S. Sperry. 
(Am. Brass Founders' Assn.. 1910; 9 pp.) 

i 1.280 cas'i [NGS The Production of 
Castings of Nonferrous Alloys to Withstand 
BIgh Pressures. II. C. II. Carpenter and 
•' \ Edwards. (Tnstn. of Mecb. Engrs., Dec. 

io. 1910; 37% pp., illus.. I pi.) 

tigue des M.'ImUX et les nOUVPHPH Molhodos 

C Fremont. (Genie civil. Oct. 22. 

aiol Nov. 20. 1910 : •'. pp.. illus. ) 60c. 

14.282 BEAT-TREATMENT Quelquea 

Obsi i Thermlnues 

d< Produlti Melallurglques. L. Gulllet. 

(Technique Moderne, Nov., and Dec, 1910; 

Mil TING Electric Lower Re- 
onlred io Meit Metals. .1 w Richards. (Am. 
i 'ounders' Vss'n, 1910; o pp.) 

mii TING on Burning Melting 

II \ I' in i \l.<h Wl.l \..\ 

"■. 1910 ; p . Illu 

14,285 — METALLOGRAPHY— Pas Svst- 
Nickel-Schwefel. K. Borneniann. (Met 
lurgle, Nov. 8, 1910; 7 pp., 2 pi.) 40c. 

14.2X0— SMELTERY FUMES— Prahtka 
mer zum Auffangen von Flngstaub P R.isir 
(Chem. Ztg., Oct. s, 1910; % p.. ilhis ) t 
author gives a description of the wl 
chambers al the Boston & Montana Wor 
at Greal Falls, as published in Amerfo 
papers, and states wherein thev differ frc 
those he introduced at Friedriclishutte Unn 

Silesia. K1 

14,287— SMELTERY GASES—A Proce 
for Saving Wastes in Smeltery Gases. G< 

1 , l -,o , ' s V' y - ,I,:n "- and Min - Journ., Pec 
1910; 4 pp.) 20c. 

o? f 4 iM SS r SMELTING— An Improvement 
Hot-Blast ( opper and Lead Smelting, c 
Mace. (Met. and chem. Eng., Pec, 191 
1 '■_• pp., illus.) 4(»c 


14,289— ELECTRICAL PLANT -Inspect!. 
» nd i, U, J ,a - 11 ', ot Electrical Plant Undergronu 
R. R. Smith. (Iron and Coal Tr. Rev 1 ,, 

- f \,-° : l\ K m \~ ,llus -) 1>a Per before 'Ass 
oi Mm. Elec. Engrs. 

14 290— EXCAVATOR— The Drag-Line F 
toVA'" 1 '; ''• p /„ H utchins. (Mill. Mag., No 
1010: 4 pp., illus.) 40c. 

14,291— GAS POWER in High Altitud, 
(Eng. and Mm. Jonrn., Pec 24 1010- 
pp.. illus.) Describes installation' of gas ni 
ducers at Chocaya, Boliva. 20c 

14,292— GAS PRODUCER— Notes on 
Ileayy-Putv Gas Producer. N. Latta. (.Tout 
A. S. M. E., Pec. 1910; pp., iU„s.) 

.14 293— HAULAGE GEARS for Mint 
(Engineering, Nov. 18, 1910; 2 pp., illus 

14,294 — BOISTING — Electrically Drh 
Winding and Haulage Gears, in the Shu 
Mines of .1. Ross & Co., Linlithgow N 
(Engineer, Pec. 0, 1010: 1% pp.) 

r, 14,295— HOISTING ENGINES— Electrical 
Driven Winding Engines. .1. p. n, Isr h< 
Mourn. I ransvaal Inst, of Mech. Engrs No 
1010: 10% pp., illus.) 60c. 

Hydroelectric Energy Displaces Coal. A 
Adams. (Elec. Wld.. Pec. 1. 1010; 13' Dr 
20e. Kt 

^, 14 r >07 ,r- il LO . roiIOT IVES — Undergrom 
Llectiic Gathering Locomotives. F r Pei 
ins. (Min. Wld., Nov. 26, 1910; 2 pp.. illus 

n 14 , ,2n /? _ MIXK CAR— Side-Dump Mine Cf 
9aJ>' I V/ ,p ' "''""' and Min - Journ.. Dc*. l 
1910 : % p., illus.) 20c. 

14,299— MINE CARS— Die auf den Zech. 
des rheimsch-westfalischen Industriobezir 
gebrauchlichen Vorrichtungen zur Verbin 
ung der Forderwagen. Oskar Shulz (Cliit 
auf, Oct. 22, 1910; m; pp., iiius.) 40c. 

14,300— ORE CAR— The Clark Qulc 
Pumping Steel Ore Car. J. R. Martin. (Ed 
News. Pec 1. 1910; 1 pp.. illus.) 20c 

14301— POWER STATION of the Empi 
District Electric Company in Missouri M 
Rump. (Elec Wld.. Pec 1. 101o : 4 V, p) 
illus.) Steam turbine plant equipped for" St. 
ing coal under water and operating in pa 
allel with hydroelectric and gas-engine Rt 

14,302 POWER STATION -The Randfo 
fern Gold Mines Power Station. T. P E. Bui 
(Engineering, Nov. 25. 1910: 2", pp.. illus 

14.O-0:', -PUMPS The Design of Centrlf 
Sal [>umps. .1. A. Seager. (Lug. ami Mi 
Journ., Pec 17. 1010: 2 pp.. illus.) 20c. 

ford Mills Skip Changing Device. E J 
Weston. (Eng. and Min. journ., Dec. 1 
1910; '.. p.. ilhis. i 

, 14,305 SKIP DUMPS— Tvpes of Sk 
Pumps in New Vork Iron Mines. G. 

Stoltz. (Eng. and Min. Journ. , Pec. 1 
1910; 1 ''', pp.. illus.) 20c 

1 -l.:!oo SKIP LOADING Whitford-Mll 
Skiii-Loading Device. E. M. Weston (En 
and Min. Journ.. Pec. 10. 1010: -.. p Hilts 


1 1.307 BASIC SLAGS Dotennlnntlon ■ 
Soluble Phosphoric Vcid In Basic Slags. W. 
Whitebonse. (Am. Fertilizer. Pec :; 
1 :, i pp.) 21 

14,rU18 FPMES r.aboratorv Hood Co 
fdrticlion. ('. R. McCabe. (Chem. Engi D( 
loio: ::", pp., lllus.) 10c. 

1 I.3O0 ORE SAMPLING The Element 
Chance In rhe Sampling of ores. L. 
Wright. (Min Mag., Nov.. 1010 ; pp i d 

14. mn SAMPLING Contribution Io 
Philosophy of Shipment Sampling 
Mandv (Can, Min. Journ.. Pec i 10U 
pp lllui i 20c. 

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Advertising copy should reach New 
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Entered at New York Post Office as 
mail matter of the second class. 

Cable Address, Engminjour, N. Y. 

During 1910 ice printed and circulated 
■ s of The Engineering and 


Our circulation for December, 1910, teas 

January 7 13,< 

January 14 9,500 

Sou* sent free regularly, no bad; numbers. 
■ t circulation. 

Contents page 

itorials : 

alumet & Hecla Consolidation... lOo 

5S Situation 100 

The Bingham Report of the Geological 

Survey ln,; 

We Forget 106 

•pper Statistics for December... 107 

re Loss 107 

ndence and Discussion : 
The Bingham Report of the Inked 
logical Survey. .. .Reduc- 
ing Mining Costs and Increasing Pro- 
fits. ... Briquettiiur Fine Iron Ores 
.... Circular Ste< 1 Bins. . . .Char- 
coal in the Copper Blast Furnace. . . 109 
tails <if Practical Mining: 

Drilling at Mineville. New 
York .... Storage of High Explo- 
... Preventing Live Wire Acci- 
dents. ... *Shaft Sinking at the Pion- 
!ine. . . . *The Azimuth Method 
in Mine Surveying. .. .'Shovel for 
ete \York....*A Method of 
Raisin- Inverted Motors .... Types 
of Skip Humps. . . .'Miners' Cottages 
....•Flux for Cupel Bottoms.... 

Frozen Dynamite Ill 

Vearly Prices of the Metals.... 115 

ward Balbach, .Tr 116 

aerican Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany 116 

lumet & Ileela Consolidation 117 

developments of the Goldfield Mines. 

Claud* T. Iiiec 119 
nnessee Fhosphate in 1910. 

J',1, a Ruhm, Jr. 123 
pper in California in 1910. 

/.< wis II. Eddy 124 
e Tonopah District in lino. 

Herbert Haas 125 
e Pyrites Industry in 1910. 

Julin Tyssowski 127 
nin^ in Guerrero in 1910. 

William Kiven 128 
■strict. Guerrero .... Boris Gorow 12s 

tilizer Industry 12v 

e Growth of the Southeast Missouri 

: District //. .1. Wheeler 129 

e Coal Trade in Ohio during Hil'V 

' Harrison 131 
al Mining in Alabama. .James Hillhouse 131 
al Mining in New Mexico in 1910. 

Jo /:. Sheridan 132 
al Production in Iowa in 1910. 

James II. Lees 133 
cidents Due to Careless Fse of Kx- 

ves 133 

parture in Settling Petty Coal Strikes 134 
ne Disaster Attributed to Foreign 

i.ruen 135 

Obituary and Societies 136 

Correspondence 1.17 

Ding News 130 

irk.'ts 14.-, 

mthly Prices of Chemicals, Rare Earths. 

Minerals, etc 152 


JANUARY 14, 1 91 1. 

The Calumet & Hecla 

The proposed absorption by the Cal- 
umet & Hecla of the several copper-min- 
ing companies in which it is already in- 
terested as part owner, is one of the most 
legitimate consolidations advanced in 
many a day. This is not a scheme that 
is tainted by the least suspicion of stock- 
jobbery or the capitalization of pro- 
moters' visions. It has been devised by 
the Calumet & Hecla management upon 
the sole ground of increased efficiency 
and the conservation of property. The 
conditions that permit the introduction 
of economies and make it advisable to 
strive for them are lucidly explained in 
the statement to the stockholders. Brief- 
ly these may be summarized as the abil- 
ity to avoid much costly development 
work, unnecessary duplication of plant 
and unnecessary administrative expense, 
which are involved by separate owner- 
ship, while moreover it will be possible 
for the consolidated company to select its 
ore for extraction with a better adjust- 
ment to market conditions than could be 
done by a group of small companies. 

These are thoroughly established reasons 
in favor of the unified operation of a 
group of mines in the same district. Tht 
benefit of such a plan has been wonder- 
fully exemplified by the methods of the 
United States Steel Corporation in its 
iron mines in Minnesota, and within the 
last year by Anaconda, at Butte, whose 
operative consolidation was carried 
through upon the same grounds as now 
proposed by the Calumet & Hecla. 

In this last case there is no attempt to 
disguise the situation of the Calumet & 
Hecla itself. Its ore is becoming im- 
poverished and the ore of its conglomer- 
ate lode will not last for a great many 
years more. When this ore is exhausted 
a great deal of the enormously costly 
plant will become mere junk unless its 
usefulness be extended by the pro- 
vision of an additional supply of ore. 
Thus its stockholders have much to gain, 

while the stockholders in the minor com- 
panies will benefit not only from such 
economies as are referred to above, but 
also will be put in the way of getting 
dividends immediately. 

We are not going to discuss the fair- 
ness of the valuations placed upon the 
several stocks that it is proposed to ex- 
change. No one can do that intelligently 
without being in full possession of the 
data and devoting much time to its con- 
sideration. This has, of course, been 
done by the Calumet & Hecla manage- 
ment, and inasmuch as its integrity and 
intelligence are both unquestionable, we 
may assume that it has deliberately de- 
cided upon terms that are fair and equit- 
able. The management had, moreover, 
the wisdom to call in a distinguished con- 
sulting engineer to advise upon this sub- 

Nevertheless, some vigorous opposition 
to the terms, if not to the plan itself, 
has been expressed. This seems to come 
from some stockholders who purchased 
their shares at higher prices and dislike 
to see their names removed from the 
stock-exchange list, and thereby lose the 
chance of selling out during some future 
boom. In other words they do not relish 
the conversion of gambling counters into 
real investment shares whereof the value 
will be more nearly commensurate with 
that of the portion of the mine th th;y 
represent. Of the Calumet & Hecla 
group, barring the main company, 
Osceola is the only one now pay- 
ing dividends, and Allouez and Ahmeek 
the only ones that promise to become 
dividend payers in the near future. To 
those stockholders who have gone into 
these enterprises upon a sound invest- 
ment basis, we should say that the op- 
portunity to convert them into shares 
immediately paying dividends, ought to 
be welcome. 

To the wiseacres who see in the Calu- 
met & Hecla consolidation a step toward 
the general consolidation of the copper 
industry, that has been talked about dur- 
ing the last two years, we can say with- 



January 14, 1911. 

out qualification that it means nothing 
of the sort. It means nothing more, in- 
deed, than what the Calumet & Hecla 
people have frankly stated. 

The Business Situation 

The total volume of business in 1910 
was undoubtedly a little less than in 
1909, but the wheels of commerce and in- 
dustry are still turning well and are like- 
ly to continue so to do. The misgivings 
about the future emanate chiefly from 
those producers who, having enormously 
increased their capacity find themselves 
now unable to keep it all in operation. 

Every great financial and industrial 
crisis has been produced by the locking 
up 3f capital in fixed investments and 
the overuse of credit to support an arti- 
ficial situation. The events leading to 
the panic of 1907 were no exception to 
this rule. The subsequent history has 
also been similar in each case. First 
there is a period of prostration; then a 
premature upward movement, when the 
financial community persuades itself that 
the previous collapse, however disastrous 
and painful, really was of no serious 
meaning, this being what we experienced 
in 1909; then there is a secondary reac- 
tion; and finally the rebuilding upon a 
solid basis. The mining industry, which 
is a basic industry, has had this recent 
history along with the other industries. 
In Europe the crisis of 1907 was far 
less serious than in America and since 
then its trade had trended more steadily 
upward. We ended 1909 in a flush 
of rosy anticipation; we begin 1911 with 
gloomy forebodings. We may be as 
wrong now as we were then. The recov- 
ery from every crisis has been slow. 
After that of 1873 liquidation continued 
for six years; after that of 1893 about 
four years. The panic of 1907 is now 
more than three years behind us. It is 
possible that the rebuilding of our com- 
mercial structure on a sound foundation 
will beein in the near future. 

During 1910 we heard less about the 
hieh prices for commodities being due 
to the increasing production of gold. 
Ever since the crisis of 1N07 the world's 
yield of gold has kept on increasing, HMO 
having continued the record, while prices 
have been fluctuating. Notwithstanding 
the augmentation of cold supply there 
were fears of financial stringency, hap- 

pily avoided just because financiers pre- 
pared so carefully to prevent it. The cost 
of living has continued to run high, on 
the whole, but commodity prices are 
broadly explained by demand and supply, 
and the results of the last census of the 
United States, showing the remarkable 
tendency toward concentration of popula- 
tion in the cities, throw light upon this 

The Bingham Report of the 
Geological Survey 

We have often criticized the U. S. 
Geological Survey, upon grounds that 
have seemed good to us, with respect to 
seme of its policies and shortcomings, 
but we have never minimized its serv- 
ices to the mining industry and least of 
all have we questioned its integrity. 
Throughout its whole history its honor 
has been unstained and it has been an 
organization of which all citizens have 
rightly been prooud. It is a pity there- 
fore that Mines and Methods should have 
seen fit to charge it with subservience to 
private interests, amounting to dishonesty, 
and we have nothing but contempt for 
such an unjustifiable accusation. It was 
quite unnecessary for the Director to 
trouble himself to make the specific and 
conclusive reply, whereof we publish a 
copy elsewhere. 

The record of the Bingham report is 
not one for the Survey to be proud of, 
but this is because it is a record of dila- 
toriness and ineffective management, not 
of any intention to delay. The same thing 
has happened to many others of its re- 
ports, and even at the present time its 
reports on Park City and Butte are hang- 
ing fire. This is one of the things for 
which we used to criticize the Survey and 
the justice of those criticisms is recog- 
nized. The fault was primarily with the 
geologists, who frequently failed to ap- 
preciate the importance of prompt publi- 
cation. As scientists of whom careful 
consideration and minute study are de- 
manded they cannot be driven like clerks, 
or even like engineers in practice. Some- 
times they have perhaps delayed in order 
to obtain late information before com- 
mitting themselves finally. Moreover, 
they may sometimes have found an ex- 
cuse in the mismanagement of a superior 
in detailing them to a new study before 
the old one was done. After the delivery 
of the report in manuscript there is the 

long time inevitably involved in putting 
it through the press. Such a history ap- 
pears in the record of the Bingham re- 

In late years the Survey has greatly 
improved its practice in this particular, it 
having been made a rule that geologists 
shall complete their field work on one in- 
vestigation before beginning another; and 
attention has been given to the mechani- 
cal part of the publication with the result 
that recent reports have gone through the 
Government Printing Office in much less 
time than formerly. The idiosyncrasies 
and procrastination of individual geolo- 
gists will, however, always remain a fac- 
tor incapable of much control in the way 
of expedition. 

With respect to the Bingham report, in- 
asmuch as Doctor Smith has so fully ex- 
posed the groundless aspersions upon it, 
we do not think it necessary to add par- 
ticulars in its defense. Not even were 
the affairs of the Utah Consolidated Min- 
ing Company as represented by Mines 
and Methods. Its unwarranted attack 
upon the Geological Survey deserves the 
most emphatic condemnation. The mining 
industry of the United States rests se- 
cure in its faith in the honor of the Geo- 
logical Survey and knows that it never 
has subserved itself to private interests, 
but has worked loyally and truly for the 
whole people and in so doing has 
achieved a record of which it is proud, 
and of which we are all proud. 

Lest We Forget 

This is a season of balance-sheet ad- 
justments, reports of yearly tonnages, 
and of costs per ton; of congratulations 
if the costs are down and tonnages up; 
of strict searching for causes if the 
opposite be true. There is, however, 
another balance to be cast, which is 
sometimes neglected. In the mining in- 
dustry, low costs per ton are not always 
indicative of the highest regard for the 
shareholder's pocket. Material may be 
mined which should be left in the stopes. 
or milled, when it should be sent to the 
dump. In short, the superintendent plays 
to the gallery instead of working for the 
company that employs him. 

Still further, there are certain con- 
siderations which should weigh even 
against greatest immediate profit. Is it 
just to use projecting set screws instead 
of the countersunk, because chanpinp 

January 14, 1911. 



culd cost a few cents per screw, and the 
xident company pays for workingmen's 
igers? Should elevator wells stand un- 
larded because the factory inspector 
liled to see them? Or has anything 
hatever been done to better social or 
orking conditions in or around the 

And if not, is it not well to remember 
this season that everyone owes some 
(ligations to the world at large? 

creased by 70,000 metric tons. This, of 
course, is the essence of the statistics of 
1910 and it can hardly be interpreted as 
otherwise than favorable. 

The Fire Loss 

The Copper Statistics for 

The report of the Copper Producers' 
;sociation for December was the most 
tonishing of its series. Everyone was 
:pecting a decrease in production, a 
aintenance of deliveries at about the 
me rate as in November and a decrease 

about ten million pounds in the stock. 

the last particular expectations were 
actically realized, but the manner of it 
is but little short of preposterous, or 
us it would have been characterized at 
iy time previous to the publication of 
£ figures. Production increased, and so 
rtunately did deliveries also; but of the 
liveries, the domestic were only 43,- 
0,000 lb. while the foreign were 88,- 
0,000! There is not much use in dis- 
ssing such figures. We must await 
e lapse of time for their meaning to 
come clear. 

The futility of attempting to draw far- 
aching conclusions from the monthly 
Uistics is amply illustrated by the com- 
ste summary for the year that we pre- 
nted last week. There are to be found 
itistics which would be confusing, if 
t quite misleading, if individually con- 
iered. Thus, the production of the 
riited States decreased, owing to the 
rtailment in the second semester, but 
at of Mexico, Canada and Cuba in- 
eased, which when combined with 
rger imports from other foreign coun- 
ts gave our refiners about as large a 
pply of crude material as they had in 
'09. However, some of this copper was 
etal that formerly went elsewhere, 
herefore an increase in the American 
finery production does not necessarily 
iply an increase in the world's supply. 

fact, the world's production of copper 

1910 seems to have increased only 
-out 10,000 tons, or but little more than 
per cent., while the visible supply de- 

In testifying before the New York 
legislative graft committee, Dec. 23, 
Franklin W. Wentworth, of Boston, secre- 
tary of the National Fire Protection As- 
sociation, made the following extremely 
lucid and highly instructive remarks: 

"We have not really begun to face 
the questions that are yet to confront 
us as the direct result of our careless- 
ness of the fire hazard. The growing 
tendency toward State interference in 
the business of fire insurance is nothing 
more or less than a protest against the 
frightful improvishment of the nation 
by fire. The people feel that the fire 
tax is too high. It is too high. Every- 
body knows that it is too high. But how 
can the fire tax be lessened, except by 
attacking the cause of it? 

"The fire waste touches the pocket of 
every man, woman and child in the na- 
tion; it strikes as surely but as quietly 
as indirect taxation; it merges with the 
cost of everything we eat and drink 
and wear. The profligate burning every 
year of $250,000,000 worth of the work 
of men's hands means the inevitable im- 
poverishment of the nation. What if we 
were to lose that sum annually out of 
the national Treasury, or in wheat, or 
corn, or cotton ? 

"A loss of $250,000,000 a year means 
$500 a minute for every hour of the 
twenty-four. This fearful loss, spread 
over the entire business world of America, 
is beginning to manifest its impoverish- 
ing blight. The people feel it without 
yet being awake to its cause. Their 
awakening is retarded by the prevalence 
of the foolish notion that the insurance 
companies pay this colossal tax. But 
how could they, and remain solvent? 
They are mere collectors and distributors 
of that portion of this tax which is repre- 
sented by their policies." 

The above strictures of Mr. Wentworth 
apply as strongly to the mining and 
metallurgical industry as to nearly all 
others. Although no special statistical 
study of this particular subject has ever 
been made, so far as we are aware, it 
is well known that the annual fire loss 
attains a huge figure. Mining and metal- 

lurgical buildings are commonly of flimsy 
and hazardous construction, dangerous 
operations are frequently conducted in 
them, means for extinguishing incipient 
fires are not often provided, and conse- 
quently the insurance of property of this 
kind is regarded by underwriters as a 
risk requiring a high rate of premium. 
For that reason buildings and plant em- 
ployed in the mining and metallurgk'.l 
industry are frequently allowed to go un- 
insured; in other words, the owner takes 
all the chances of loss by fire. 

The odds against success in taking 
such chances were impressed upon our 
mind during a recent perusal of the 
chronology of mining that we publish 
monthly in the Journal, summarizing 
the more important events. In the main- 
tenance of this record the matter of 
fire loss has received no special attention 
and doubtless many reports of destruc- 
tion by fire failed to be entered for the 
reason of insufficient importance in the 
view respecting this general chronicle. 
The frequency of such reports as did ob- 
tain record, however, led us to make 
an enumeration of them. This showed 
that in 1910 up to Dec. 1 there had 
been reported 1 1 fires involving a loss 
of $937,000, and eight fires for which 
the amount of loss was not stated. This 
enumeration omitted all losses arising 
from the forest fires in the Northwest 
and all losses directly due to colliery ex- 

According to Mr. Wentworth, statistics 
show that the actual loss in fire under- 
writing during the last decennial period 
has been nearly 4 per cent, of the prop- 
erty insured. Whether that figure would 
be representative of the loss to the min- 
ing industry cannot, perhaps, be pro- 
nounced, but there is no doubt that the 
loss actually suffered comes to a dis- 
gracefully large total, and might be 
largely avoided by better forms of con- 
struction and the exercise of more care 
all around. 

The choice of James A. Farrell as 
president of the United States Steel Cor- 
poration in place of William E. Corey is 
noteworthy for two reasons. Mr. Farrell 
has been head of the export branch of 
the corporation, and is a selling and 
financial man, not a practical steel maker, 
as the two presidents who preceded him 
were. And his election perhaps empha- 
sizes the passing of the Carnegie element. 



January 14, 1911. 

By the Way 

The No. 2 Colliery of the Kingston 
Coal Company, Kingston, Penn., during 
the year 1910, mined and shipped 1,020,- 
405 tons, this being the first instance in 
the history of the anthracite region for 
one breaker to prepare for shipment over 
one million tons. The total shipment of 
the Kingston Coal Company for 1910 
was 2,131.672 tons. 

An engineer in the field writes: We 
have all heard of the "Eastern manager" 
who sent to the supply house to get 
his foreman a gouge to shoot to. But 
what do you know about this: The 
"Eastern manager" of certain lead mines 
that are working fluorite veins carrying 
a small per cent, of galena, but more of- 
ten pure fluorite, recently sent in an order 
to a wholesale grocery house for six 
barrels of fluorspar to be used in one 
of their plants. This is a fact and seems 
to me too good to keep. 

That the printer's devil is not always 
exorcised by the proofreader is shown by 
a recent break in the Journal's own 
columns: U. S. Patent 978,211 on metal 
refining is given as "the art of extracting 
meals electrolytically." A correspondent 
inquires whether the process is to be used 
by the ultimate consumer, or whether the 
predatory corporation will use it on him, 
and says if it is the latter, that it is 
the crowning outrage, in view of the 
present difficulty of acquiring the raw 
material. Another boost to the cost of 
high living! 

We note in an exchange the statement, 
authority not given, that "it has been 
demonstrated that if the velocity of the 
gas (escaping from a furnace) be re- 
duced to about 3 ft. per second, there 
will be practically complete settling (of 
dust) in less than 500 ft. in about eight 
minutes." We do not think this can really 
have been demonstrated, because 3 ft. 
per second is 180 ft. per minute and in 
eight minutes the travel would be 1440 
ft. However, a reduction of velocity to 
3 ft. per second is certainly very good 
for the settling of dust. 

We had an opportunity recently to ex- 
amine an estimate for a dwelling house 
that was to cost about $15,000. One 
item in this estimate was "metal work, 
all copper, $350." There was a note 
stating that this item would be only $200 
if galvanized iron were used. The man 
who is to build this house decided for 
copper, the extra cost being insignificant 
and in fact no extra cost at all if the 
matter of subsequent replacement, in- 
evitable in the t I jalvanlzed iron, 

taken into consideration. Tlii 
merely an example of how a relatively 
r copper stimulates its use. 
If the price of copper had been 20c. per 

lb. instead of 12';>c, the decision would 
very likely have been different. 

First, there is a steel producers' dinner, 
and then a copper producers' din- 
ner; then another steel producers' 
dinner, and another copper produc- 
ers' dinner; presently a steel pro- 
ducers' dinner again, and a copper pro- 
ducers' dinner again. Everybody agrees 
that the steel business is the greatest 
business in the world, or that the copper 
industry is the greatest industry of all, 
that harmony is the best policy, that it 
is the function of consumers to consume, 
and profits ought never to be less. But 
the consumers are never asked, nor do 
they hold, dinners of their own. Thus 
says the Evening Post . However, we 
do not think that the consumers of cop- 
per have had anything whereof to com- 
plain in the copper market of the last 
two years. 

Several "paper-mining" ventures re- 
ceived severe rents in their flamboyant 
posters of easily amassable wealth when 
the Federal authorities raided the office 
of the Inter-Trust Security Company in 
Boston, on Jan. 6, for alleged fraudulent 
use of the mails. According to de- 
spatches the company was headed 
by Victor M. Weil and controlled 
the Rawhide-Boston Mining Company, 
Nevada-Boston Mining Company, 
United States Gold Mining Company, 
Victor M. Weil Exploration Company, 
Howell Little Mining Company and 
Standard Amalgamated Exploration 
Corporation. Ever visit or hear of any 
of these great mines? Those who had 
beautifully engraved certificates of stock 
in the above corporations will probably 
be able to effect a considerable saving in 
wall-paper bills next spring. 

The Calumet & Hecla consolidation 
plan has aroused considerable opposition 
among minority stockholders of the com- 
panies to be absorbed, expressed as fol- 
lows: "Purchasers of Isle Royale and 
Lasalle at high prices are exceedingly 
bitter over the ratio of exchange and see 
no chance for ever getting their money 
back if they are obliged to take the new 
Calumet stock. For instance, those who 
bought Lasalle all the way down from 
$19 now find that in the exchange for 
Calumet they will get only two shares of 
the new stock for each 100 shares of 
Lasalle. Allowing that the new Calumet 
stock will sell at around $230 a share, 
they fail to see any benefit coming their 
way. Even if Lasalle never becomes a 
producer on a larj;e scale these stock- 
holders feel that the stock will appreciate 
in price when a good copper-share boom 
comes, whereas Calumet will have to 
double or treble for them to get out 
whole. The same argument prevails in 
Royale, which sold at $28 
in HMO." This is the philosophy of cop- 
per-stock speculation in a nutshell. It 
is not so much the actual worth of a 

stock that counts as the chance for sell 
ing high on a boom. But yet someont 
must hold the bag. 

The Post Office Department believe; 
that it has found in an old statute au 
thority that will permit it to establish ; 
parcels-post system in the United States 
The statute states that the departmen 
is the only one that has the right to carp 
"letters" or "packets." If the word 
"packet" and "parcel" are synonymous, i 
parcels post may perhaps be establishei 
without waiting for legislation. Th 
question has been referred to the Inter 
state Commerce Commission for settle 
ment. We read the foregoing in a usual 
ly reliable exchange. The parcels-pos' 
question is one of interest and impori 
ance to mining men, many of whom liv 
in places where they are greatly d< 
pendent upon the express companie 
Some of our readers have urged us 1 
exert our influence in favor of a parce 
post. We shall have pleasure in doin 
what we can. We have no doubt th; 
a great majority of the people want 
parcels post. Some years ago a membt 
of Congress was asked, "What is tr 
reason that we cannot have a parce 
post?" He said, "The reason is Thorn; 
C. Piatt and the United States Expre; 
Company." This is a striking illumin; 
tion of the principle of "Government o 
by and for the people" as now in vogu 

Reverting to the vernacular, you ha\ 
to hand it to Porcupine. It has ju 
burst forth as a full-fledged goldfiel 
having annexed a "lady miner" whom tl 
daily press has recently featured with 
"society" photograph and one of "loc 
color," beside a dog team. The honor 
however, are not exclusively Porcupine' 
and must be divided with Columbia ar 
possibly with Cobalt, which is said 
have been the scene of Mrs. F. B. Flov 
er's first experience and after which, a 
cording to the New York Evening Ma, 
she entered the School of Mines 
Columbia and, of course, "passed here 
animations while men in the cla: 
flunked." Mrs. Flower is stated to ha' 
six claims in Porcupine, one being nam< 
Columbia, after her alma mater, and a: 
other Goldenrod, the discoverer havii 
golden hair; just what she thinks abo 
the camp she has put into verse to ! 
sung to a popular melody. Incidentall 
it is mentioned that Mrs. Flower w; 
formerly a New York music teacher, wi 
a studio in Carnegie hall, having studii 
abroad six years with Moszkowsl 
Scharwenka and other masters, and ha 
ing subsequently bought a New Yo 
apartment house with her earnings, 
health, however, compelled her to sei 
an open-air life, hence her joining tl 
rushes to Cobalt and Porcupine. Mi 
Flower evidently has an efficient pre 
agent, second to none, not even Pore 
pine's own, or Caruso's or Ma 

anuary 14, 1911. 



Correspond ence and Disnissior^ 

r he Bingham Report of the 

United States Geological 


In its issue of December, 1910, Mines 
c d Methods, of Salt Lake City, charged 
£ U. S. Geological Survey with delay 
i the publication of its Bingham report 
i order to serve private interests. In 
tply thereto the following self-explana- 
iry letter has been written by the di- 
rctor of the Geological Survey. Further 
iference to this matter will be found in 
:r editorial pages, 
iitor. Mines and Methods, 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Sir: — My attention has been called 

an article in the December number of 
ines and Methods on the Utah Consoli- 
.ted mine, which, among other false and 
rbled statements, charges (pp. 76 and 
) that the Bingham report of the U. S. 
^ological Survey, after completion by 

2 authors, was suppressed by "others 
gher up the line from whom orders 
lanate," and its publication "held in 
eyance for about four years" in the 
erest of some unnamed influential in- 
,-iduals connected with the mines of 
it district. 

The administrative act alleged in your 
irnal would have been that of my pre- 
cessor, but all the facts in the case 

3 matters of official record, and, as the 
:sent head of the Geological Survey, I 
l as well qualified to present those 
:ts and deny the charge as Doctor Wal- 
:t himself. Indeed, during the period 
which reference is made. I was a Sur- 
f geologist, closely associated with 
:h of the geologists concerned in the 
igham work, and especially interested 

its progress, from the fact that only 
ew years before I had completed a re- 
rt on the Tintic district in the same 
ite, so that I am personally cognizant 
all the circumstances attending the 
:paration and publication of the Bing- 
■n report. 

POSELY Delayed 
I now address you as the editor of 
nes and Methods with the purpose of 
king an unqualified denial of the 
irge that there was any suppression of 
report on the Bingham mining district 
the purpose of delaying its pub- 
ition. an anyone's interest. The geo- 
ic field work in the Bingham district 
s begun in July, 1900. and the printed 
ort issued Aug. 11, 1905. 
n the case of the Bingham report, the 
ef causes of delay were briefly ex- 
ined by S. F. Emmons, who had 
irge of the work, in his introduction 


, Sug5ge,st- 


and Experi- 


of Readers 

(Professional Paper No. 38, pp. 19 
and 20). That statement could have been 
verified by anyone who really desired to 
obtain the facts, by reference to the 
records on file in this office, or to state- 
ments in the administrative reports of the 
director for the years involved. 

It is not worth while to attempt to cor- 
rect the errors in the article in Mines and 
Methods as respects the statements re- 
lating to the geology of the Bingham dis- 
trict, as these are readily apparent to 
mining men familiar with the region, or 
the erroneous references to statements in 
the Survey report, as those can be tested 
by comparison with the printed report. 
The character of these errors may be in- 
ferred from the alleged quotation from 
the addendum in the Survey report 
whereby it is claimed Mr. Boutwell tries 
to justify and support his "humiliating 
apology" for the delay, which quota- 
tion of half a dozen lines is a pure 
fabrication by the writer of the Mines and 
Methods article and is not to be found 
anywhere in the printed report. 

The Chronological History of the 

To meet the published charge of 
"higher officials" holding Mr. Boutwell's 
report "in abeyance for about four years," 
a summary of the official records is 
herewith presented: 

( 1 ) Record of field work, July 17 to De- 
cember, 1900: Field work by Mr. Bout- 
well; July 17 to Aug. 11 and Sept. 20 to 
26, 1900, field work by Mr. Emmons; Aug. 
9 to Sept. 6, 1900, field work by Mr. 
Keith; Sept. 2 to Sept. 8, 1900, field work 
by Mr. Girty; July 1 to July 21, 1901, 
field work by Mr. Boutwell; Mr. Boutwell 
spent four days in Bingham district in 
1902 and one day in 1904. 

(2) Record of Mr. Boutwell's occupa- 
tion after completion of field work in 
Bingham, 1901: July, 1901, to March 2, 

1902, assisted Mr. Lindgren in field work 
on auriferous gravels of California, and 
on copper deposits of Morenci, Ariz.; 
March 10 to July 1, 1902, office work on 
Bingham report; July 1 to December J 902, 
field work at Park City, Utah; January. 

1903, to July, 1903. office work. Bingham 
report; July, 1903, to February. 1904. field 
work, Park City, Utah; March, 1904, on 

oil prospects in Utah; April and May, 
1904, office work, Bingham report; June, 
1904, revision of